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# I nternational J ournal of Scientific and I nnovative Mathematical Research (I J SI MR)

## Volume I , I ssue I, August- 2013, PP 66-80

www.arcjournals.org

ARC Page | 66

Hyers-Ulam Stability of Wilsons Functional Equation on
Hypergroups

D.Zeglami

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of
Sciences, Ibn Tofail University BP. :14000,
KENITRA, MOROCCO
zeglamidriss@yahoo.fr

A.Roukbi

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of
Sciences, Ibn Tofail University BP. :14000,
KENITRA, MOROCCO
rroukbi2000@gmail.com

S.Kabbaj

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of
Sciences, Ibn Tofail University BP. :14000,
KENITRA, MOROCCO
samkabbaj@yahoo.fr
Th.M.Rassias

Department of Mathematics, National
Technical University of Athens, Zofrafou
Campus, 15780 ATHENS,GREECE
trassias@math.ntua.gr

Received: 04-07-2013 Revised: 23-07-2013 Accepted: 24-07-2013

Abstract: Our main goal is to study the continuous and bounded solution of the functional equations
, , ), ( ) ( 2 , , X y x y g x f f f
y x y x
e = - + -

o o o o where ) , ( - X is a hypergroup.
In addition, the Hyers-Ulam stability problem for this functional equation on hypergroups is considered.
Keywords: Hypergroup, Wilsons functional equation, dalemberts equation, Representation, Hyers-
Ulam stability.

1. INTRODUCTION
By a Wilsons functional equation on a hypergroup ) , ( - X we will here understand the functional
equation
, , ), ( ) ( 2 , , X y x y g x f f f
y x y x
e = - + -

o o o o (1.1)
Where C X g f : , are two unknown functions to be determined and y

in ) , ( - X .
Special cases of Wilsons functional equation on a hypergroup ) , ( - X are dAlemberts
functional equation
, , ), ( ) ( 2 , , X y x y f x f f f
y x y x
e = - + -

o o o o ( 1.2)
and Jensens functional equation
. , ), ( 2 , , X y x x f f f
y x y x
e = - + -

o o o o (1.3)
A number of results have been obtained for the equation (1.4) and the corresponding Wilsons
functional equation (1.5) on groups
Hyers-Ulam Stability of Wilsons Functional Equation on Hypergroups
International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Mathematical Research (IJSIMR) Page | 67

, , ), ( ) ( 2 )) ( ( ) ( G y x y g x g y x g xy g e = + o (1.4)
, , ), ( ) ( 2 )) ( ( ) ( G y x y g x f y x f xy f e = + o (1.5)
Where g f , are complex valued functions on a group G and G G : o be an involution of G ,
i.e., ) ( ) ( ) ( x y xy o o o = and x x = )) ( (o o for all G y x e , . In 2008, Th. Davison  proved the
following result:
Let G be a topological group and C G f : a continuous function with 1 ) ( = e f satisfying
, , ), ( ) ( 2 )) ( ( ) ( G y x y g x f y x f xy f e = + o for all y x, inG . Then there is a continuous
(group) homomorphism ) ( :
2
C SL G h such that . )), ( (
2
1
) ( G x x h tr x f e =
In  H. Stetkr gave solutions of (1.4) introducing the theory of representations. Precisely, he
proved that the non-zero continuous solutions f of (1.4) are the functions of the form
t
_
2
1
= f
where t ranges over the 2-dimensional continuous representations of G for which
) ( ) (
2
C SL x e t for all G x e . For more information on the equation (1.4) and (1.5) the
interested reader should refer to [2, 5, 6, 10, 16-20].
The study of functional equations on hypergroups started with some recent results. Szkelyhidy
[22, 23] and Orosz and Szkelyhidi  describe moment functions, additive functions and
multiplicative functions in special cases of hypergroups. In , sine and cosine functional
equations are considered and solved on arbitrary polynomial hypergroups in a single variable and
the method of solution is based on spectral synthesis. Recently the authors  study the abelian
solutions of the dAlemberts functional equation (1.2) and in , inspired by the works of
Davison  and Stetkr , they proved the following structure theorem. Note that C X g :
is abelian if
y z x z y x
g o o o o o o - - = - - , for all . , , X z y x e
Theorem 1. (a) The non-zero continuous solutions of (1.2) on a hypergroup ) , ( - X are the
functions of the form
, )), ( (
2
1
) ( X x x tr x g e = t
Where t ranges over the 2-dimensional continuous representations of G for which
)) ( ( ) ( x adj x t t =

## for all G x e and

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

o o
|
| o
o
) ( ) ( :
2 2
b) t tro g
2
1
= is non-abelian if and only if t is irreducible
A solution of Wilsons functional equation (1.1) is a pair ( ) ) ( ) ( ) , X C X C g f
b b
e satisfying
(1.1). We say that the function f in the solution ) , ( g f is a Wilson function associated to g .
The purpose of the present paper is to study the functional equation (1.1) on hypergroups.
Precisely, we determine the continuous and bounded solutions of (1.1) in the case where f is
abelian function. In the case where g is non-abelian fixed solution of (1.2) we determine the
space ) (g W of bounded and continuous function f satisfying Wilsons functional equation (1.1).
A.Roukbi et al.
International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Mathematical Research (IJSIMR) Page | 68

In  Szkelyhidy, deals with the stability of exponential (i.e. multiplicative) functions on
hypergroups. Precisely, he proved the following result ([22, Theorem 7.1]), which is known as a
superstability:
Let X be a hypergroup and let C X g f : , be continuous functions with the property that the
function
) ( ) ( ) ( y g x f fd y
X
y x
-
}
o o
is bounded for all y in X . Then either f is bounded, or g is exponential (i.e. multiplicative
function).
In last section of the present paper, we shall extend the investigation given by L. Szkelyhidi ([22,
Theorem 7.1]) to functional equations (1.1) and (1.2) in the case where ) , ( - X is any topological
hypergroup and g f , are continuous functions on X .
The contents of the present paper are as follows.
In the second section, we give some preliminaries on hypergroups and we prove some lemmas
which will be used in the proof of our results.
In the third section, we describe the set of bounded and continuous solutions of the functional
equations (1.1) on hypergroups.
In the fourth section, HyersUlam stability problem for the functional equation (1.1) on
hypergroups is considered. On the stability problem, the interested reader should refer to [1-3, 7,
8, 13, 15, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26].
2. PRELEMINARY RESULTS
Our notations and definitions are described in this section. We will without further mentioning
keep it during the rest of the paper.
2.1 Hypergroups
We start with some notations: For a locally compact Hausdorff space X , let ) (X M denote the
complex space of all bounded Borel measures on X , if ) (X M e , ) ( Supp is the support of
. The unit point mass concentrated at x is indicated by
x
o . Let ) (X K be the complex algebra
of all continuous complex-valued functions on X with compact support and ) (X C (resp.
) (X C
b
the complex algebra of all continuous (resp. continuous and bounded) complex-valued
functions on X . Now, recall some basic notions and used notation from the hypergroup theory.
Definition 1. If ) (X M is a Banach algebra with a associative multiplication - (called a
convolution), then ) , ( - X is a hypergroup if the following axioms are satisfied
X1. If and v are probability measures, then so is v - .
X2. The mapping v v - ) , ( is continuous from ) ( ) ( X M X M into ) (X M where
) (X M is endowed with the weak topology with respect to ) (X K .
X3. There is an element X ee such that o o = - = -
e e
for all ) (X M e .
X4. There is a homeomorphic mapping x x

of X into itself such that x x = ) (

and
) (
y x
Supp e o o - e if and only if x y

= .
X5. For all v v v

- = - e ) ( ), ( , X M where

is defined by
Hyers-Ulam Stability of Wilsons Functional Equation on Hypergroups
International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Mathematical Research (IJSIMR) Page | 69

). ( , ) ( ) ( , , X C f t d t f f f
b
X
e = =
}

X6. The mapping ) ( ) , (
y x
Supp y x o o - is continuous from X X into the space of compact
Subsets of X with the topology described in [9, Sect. 2.5].

The definitive set of axioms was given first by Jewett in his encyclopedic article . A
hypergroup ) , ( - X is called commutative if its convolution is commutative.
We review some notations: Let ), (X C f
b
e for all X x e and ) (X M e , we put
) ( ) ( ), ( , x f x f x f f
x

= = o
, ) ( , ,
}
=
X
x
x d f f o
If ) ( , X M e v we define the convolution measure v - by
). ( ) ( , , y d x d f f
X
y x
v o o v
}
- = -
f is said to be even or invariant, (resp. odd), if f f =

, (resp. f f =

).
Definition 2. () Let ) , ( - X be a hypergroup and C X : _ be a function, we say that
i) _ is a multiplicative function of ) , ( - X if it has the property
. , ), ( ) ( , X y x all for y x
y x
e = - _ _ _ o o
ii) _ is a hermitian function if ) ( ) ( x x _ _ =

for all X x e .
iii) _ is a hypergroup character of ) , ( - X if it is bounded, continuous, multiplicative and
hermitian function.
Definition 3. [9, Sect. 11.3] Let H be a Hilbert space, ) (H B the Banach -algebra of all
bounded linear operators on H , and let I be the identity operator.
We say that t is a representation of X on H if the following four conditions are satisfied:
i) The mapping ) ( t is a -homomorphism from ) (X M into ) (H B .
ii) If ) (X M e then t s ) ( .
iii) I
e
= ) (o t .
iv) If H b a e , then the mapping b a, ) ( t is bounded and continuous, and
) ( , ) ( , ) ( , ) ( X M t d b a t b a
X
e =
}
t t .
Let L and R denote respectively the left and right representation of X on ) (X C
b
i.e.
f x f y L
x y
, ) ( ) ( o o - =

and f x f y R
y x
, ) ( ) ( o o - = for all X y x e , and ) (X C f
b
e Note
that ) (a L and ) (b R commute for all X b a e , as is well known and also easy to check.
2.2 Auxiliary Results
Definition 4. Let C X f : be a continuous and bounded function on X
(i) f is said to satisfy Kannappan's type condition if
f f , , v = = v - - = - - for all ). ( , , X M e = v (2.1)
(ii) We say that f is abelian if it satisfies (2.1).
Definition 5. Let ) , ( - X be a hypergroup.
(i) A d'Alembert function on X is a continuous and bounded non-zero solution C X g : of
dAlemberts functional equation (1.2).
(ii) A solution of Wilson functional equation is a pair ) , ( g f of functions in ) (X C
b
) satisfying
, , ), ( ) ( 2 , , X y x y g x f f f
y x y x
e = - + -

o o o o
A.Roukbi et al.
International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Mathematical Research (IJSIMR) Page | 70

We say that the function f in the solution ) , ( g f is a Wilson function corresponding to g .

In the next lemma certain assumptions are equivalent.
Lemma 1. Let ) , ( - X be a hypergroup and ) ( , X C g f
b
e then the following assertions are
equivalent
i) ), ( ) ( 2 , , y g x f f f
y x y x
= - + -

o o o o for all X y x e , .
ii) ), ( , , 2 , , y g f f f v v v = - + -

for all ). ( , X M e v
Proof. i) ii) Suppose that ), ( ) ( 2 , y g x f f
y x y x
= - + -

o o o o for all , , X y x e then

), ( , , 2
) ( ) ( , 2
) ( ) ( ) , (
) ( , ) ( ) ( , ,
y g f
y d x d f f
y d x d f
y d f y d x d f f
y
X X
x
y x
X X
y x
X X X X
y x y x
v
v o o
o o o o
v o o v o o v v
=
=
- + - =
- + - = - + -
} }
} }
} } } }

The other implication is trivial.
Lemma 2. Let ) , ( - X be a hypergroup and ) ( , X C g f
b
e a solution of the functional equation
, , ), ( ) ( 2 , , X y x y g x f f f
y x y x
e = - + -

o o o o
such that 0 = f Then 1 ) ( = e g and g satisfies the d'Alembert's long functional equation
. , ), ( ) ( 4 , , , , X y x y g x g g g g g
x y y x x y y x
e = - + - + - + - o o o o o o o o

(2.2)
Proof. Choose X ae such that 0 ) ( = a f , we get from the equation (1.1) that
) ( 2
,
) (
a f
f
x g
x a x a

o o o o - + -
= ,
which implies that 1 ) ( = e g . Using Lemma 1 we obtain
) , , , , )( ( 2 g g g g a f
x y y x x y y x
o o o o o o o o - + - + - + -

= g g g g
y x a x y a x y a y x a
, , , ,

o o o o o o o o o o o o - - + - - + - - + - -
g g g g
y x a x y a x y a y x a
, , , , o o o o o o o o o o o o - - + - - + - - + - - +

={ } { } g g g g
x y a x y a y x a y x a
, , , ,

o o o o o o o o o o o o - - + - - + - - + - -

{ } { } g g g g
x y a x y a y x a y x a
, , , ,

o o o o o o o o o o o o - - + - - + - - + - - +
= { } { } ) ( , , 2 ) ( , , 2 x g f f y g f f
y a y a x a x a

o o o o o o o o - + - + - + -
= ). ( ) ( ) ( 8 ) ( ) ( ) ( 4 ) ( ) ( ) ( 4 y g x g a f x g y g a f y g x g a f = +
As 0 ) ( = a f we get
. , ) ( ) ( 4 , , , , X y x all for y g x g g g g g
x y y x x y y x
e = - + - + - + - o o o o o o o o

Hence g is a solution of the equation (2.2).
Note that if ) , ( g f is a solution of (1.1) such that f is abelian then g is an abelian d'Alembert
function.
Hyers-Ulam Stability of Wilsons Functional Equation on Hypergroups
International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Mathematical Research (IJSIMR) Page | 71

Remark 1. Let the pair ) , ( g f be a solution of the functional equation (1.1) in ) , ( - X such
that 0 = f . If f is abelian then so is g .
Let f be a complex valued function on X . We denote by
e
f and
o
f respectively the even and
the odd part of f i. e.
2
f f
f
e

+
= and
2
f f
f
o

## = in the following lemma we give some

properties of solutions of the functional equation (1.1).

Lemma 3. Let ) ( ) ( ) , ( X C X C g f
b b
e be a solution of the equation (1.1) such that 0 = f .
Then
i) g e f f
e
) ( = . In particular, we conclude that f is odd if and only if . 0 ) ( = e f
ii) If f is odd then
g f g f f f , , 2 , , 2 , , v v v v + = - + - for all ). ( , X M e v
iii) If g is a d'Alembert function then
e
f and
o
f are Wilson functions associated to g .
Proof. By posing
e
o = in (1.1) we find that g e f f
e
) ( = . This is the case i). For the case ii)
exchanging and v in (1.1) and adding the result to (1.1). The result, thus, comes from the fact
that f is odd. Finally, if we assume that g is a d'Alembert function, by using the expression
g e f
f f
f
e
) (
2
=
+
=

we have
e
f is a Wilson function. Similarly, by the equality
g e f f
f f
f
o
) (
2
=

=

,
we find immediately that
o
f is also a Wilson function associated to g .
Now, we study the bounded and continuous solutions of (1.1) by examining separately the abelian
case and the non-abelian case.
3. WILSONS FUNCTIONAL EQUATION (1.1)
3.1 The abelian case for the equation (1.1).
In this section, we determine all solutions ) ( ) ( ) , ( X C X C g f
b b
e of the equation (1.1) such
that f is abelian. These solutions will be expressed in terms of multiplicative functions _ on X
and solutions of the functional equation
. , ), ( ) ( ) ( ) ( , X y x y f x y x f f
y x
e + = - _ _ o o
Proposition 1. Let ) ( ) ( ) , ( X C X C g f
b b
e such that g is abelian and f is central, i.e.
. , , , X y x all for f f
x y y x
e - = - o o o o If ) , ( g f is a solution of the equation (1.1) then:
i) There is a multiplicative function _ on X such that
2
_ _

+
= g .
ii) If _ _

= then there exist two complex constants o and | such that
2 2
_ _
|
_ _
o

+
+

= f .
iii) If _ _

= then there exists a complex constant such that l f + = _ where l is a
solution of the functional equation
A.Roukbi et al.
International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Mathematical Research (IJSIMR) Page | 72

, , ), ( ) ( ) ( ) ( , X y x y l x y x l l
y x
e + = - _ _ o o
satisfying l l =

.
Proof. i) By Lemma 2, g is a solution of the d'Alembert's long functional equation (2.2). Since
g is abelian, then it is central hence it is a solution of equation (1.2). Using [14, Corollary 1] we
obtain i).
ii) We decompose f into its even and odd parts
o e
f f f + = . The functions
e
f and
o
f are
Wilson's functions (Lemma 3). Since f is central then so are
e
f and
o
f . So it suffices to prove
the proposition for
e
f and
o
f separately.
Lemma 3 tells us that the even part
e
f is proportional to
2
_ _

+
= g Which proves the
proposition for
e
f On the other hand
o
f is a central Wilson function associated to g . By
Lemma 3 we have
. , ), ( ) ( ) ( ) ( , X y x y f x g y g x f f
o o o y x
e + = -o o
i.e. the pair ) , ( g f
o
is a solution of the sine addition formula [25, Corollary 26.1]. The case
0 =
o
f is trivial. If 0 =
o
f , by examining the different possibilities (i)-(iv) listed in [25,
Corollary 26.1] we get.
If _ _

= ,then there exist complex constants o and | such that
2 2
_ _
|
_ _
o

+
+

= f ,
and if _ _

= , then there exists a complex constant such that l f + = _ where l is a solution
of the functional equation
. , ), ( ) ( ) ( ) ( , X y x y l x y x l l
y x
e + = - _ _ o o
Satisfying l l =

.
Conversely, by easy calculations, we can verify that the functions presented in Proposition 1 are
solutions of the equation (1.1).
Theorem 2. Let { } 0 ) ( , e X C g f
b
such that f is abelian. If ) , ( g f is a solution of the
equation (1.1) then:
i) There is a multiplicative function _ on X such that
2
_ _

+
= g .
ii) If _ _

= then there exist two complex constants o and | such that
2 2
_ _
|
_ _
o

+
+

= f .
Hyers-Ulam Stability of Wilsons Functional Equation on Hypergroups
International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Mathematical Research (IJSIMR) Page | 73

iii) If _ _

= then there exists a complex constant such that l f + = _ where l is a
solution of the functional equation
, , ), ( ) ( ) ( ) ( , X y x y l x y x l l
y x
e + = - _ _ o o
satisfying l l =

.
Proof. Let ) , ( g f be a solution of the equation (1.1). Since f is abelian then it is a central
function. Let X ae such that 0 ) ( = a f . By using the equation (1.1) we obtain the equality
) ( 2
,
) (
a f
f
x g
x a x a

o o o o - + -
= , (3.1)
from which we find that g is abelian. Using Proposition 1 we get i) ,ii) and iii).
As consequence of Theorem 2 we have the following result on the Wilson Pexider's functional
equation.
Corollary 1. Let ) , ( - X be a hypergroup and { } 0 ) ( , , e X C h g f
b
such that f is abelian. If
) , , ( h g f is a solution of the equation
, , ), ( ) ( 2 , , X y x y h x g f f
y x y x
e = - + -

o o o o (3.2)
then
i) There exist { } 0 eC o , C e |, and multiplicative function _ _

= on ) , ( - X such
that
2 2
,
2
_ _

_ _
|
_ _
o

+
+
=
+
= f h and
2 2
_ _
o
_ _
o
|

+
+
= g .
ii) There exist a multiplicative function _ _

= and { } C C e 0 ) , ( o such that
, ,
o
_ o_
f
g and l f h = + = =
where l is a solution of the functional equation
, , ), ( ) ( ) ( ) ( , X y x y l x y x l l
y x
e + = - _ _ o o
satisfying l l =

.
Proof. If we put e y = in (3.2) we find that
) ( ) ( ) ( e h x g x f = .
The inequality 0 = f implies 0 ) ( = e h . Using the equation (3.2) we get that
, , ,
) (
) (
) ( 2 , , X y x
e h
x h
x f f f
y x y x
e = - + -

o o o o
A.Roukbi et al.
International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Mathematical Research (IJSIMR) Page | 74

So, the pair )
) (
, (
e h
h
f is a solution of the equation (1.1). Then the rest of the proof follows
immediately from Theorem 2.
In the following corollary we solve the Jensen's functional equation in a hypergroup in the case
where f is central.
Corollary 2. Let { } 0 ) ( e X C f
b
such that f is central. If f is a solution of the Jensens
functional equation
, , ), ( 2 , , X y x x f f f
y x y x
e = - + -

o o o o (3.3)
Then, there exists a complex constant such that l f + = where l is an odd and additive
function on ) , ( - X i. e. l satisfies the equalities: X y x y l x l l
y x
e + = - , ), ( ) ( , o o and
l l =

.
Proof. Let { } 0 ) ( e X C f
b
be a solution of the equation (3.3) then ) , 1 ( f is a solution of the
equation (1.1). We note that 1 g is an abelian d'Alembert function and if
2
1
_ _

+
= = g for a
multiplicative function _ on X then, since the set of multiplicative functions on X is linearly
independent [14, Proposition 3] then 1 = = _ _

. By examining the assertions (i) - (iii) of
Theorem 2 we deduce that the solutions of (3.3) are exactly the functions f of the form: l f + =
where is a complex constant and l is an odd additive function on X .
3.2 The non abelian case for the equation (1.1)
Let g be a non-abelian fixed solution of (1.2). In the following theorem, we study the space
) (g W of Wilson functions corresponding to g . The result is closely related to and inspired by the
works by Stetkr .
Theorem 3. Let X x x tr x g e = )), ( (
2
1
) ( t , be a non-abelian d'Alembert function on X as
described in Theorem 1. We may assume that t is a representation of X on
2
C .The
corresponding space ) (g W of Wilson's functions consists of the functions of the form
X x all for x A tr x f e = )) ( (
2
1
) ( t , (3.4)
where A ranges over the complex 22 matrices.
Proof. According to [26, Theorem 5(c)], { } ) ( , ) ( ) ( X M g L span g W e = where L is the left
regular representation of X on ) (g W . So any Wilson function ) (g W f e has the form

=
=
n
i
i i
g L a f
1
) (

,
where C a a a
n
e ,..., ,
2 1
and ) ( ,..., ,
2 1
X M
n
e . Now, for all X x e we have
Hyers-Ulam Stability of Wilsons Functional Equation on Hypergroups
International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Mathematical Research (IJSIMR) Page | 75

) ( ) ) ( ( ) (
1
x g L a x f
n
i
i i
=
=

= ) (
2
1
,
1 1
x i
n
i
i
n
i
x i i
tr a g a o t o - = -

= =

= ) ( ) (
2
1
1
x tr tr a
i
n
i
i
t

=

= ) ( ) ( (
2
1
1
x tr a tr
i
n
i
i
t

=
,
so as A we may take ) (
1
i
n
i
i
a A t

=
= we have thus proved that W(g) is contained in the space of
functions of the form (3.4). Now ) (g W has dimension 4 by [26, Theorem 5(a)]. But so has the
space of functions of the form (3.4), because the space of complex 22-matrices has dimension 4.
Then we have the desired equality.
By using Theorem 3 we obtain the following result
Corollary 3. Let ) , ( - X be a hypergroup and C X g : be a non-Abelian d'Alembert
function on X . If C X f : is a Wilson function corresponding to g (i.e. ) (g W f e ), then
there exists a continuous multiplicative function ) ( ) , ( :
2
C Mat X - | and ) (
2
C Mat Ae
satisfying X x x adj x e = )), ( ( ) (

, such that
X x x A tr f and x tr x g e = = )), ( (
2
1
) (
2
1
) ( ,
where ) (
2
C Mat is the space of complex matrices of order 2 and
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

o o
|
| o
o
) ( ) ( :
2 2
C Mat C Mat adj .
4. STABILITY OF THE EQUATION (1.1)
There is a strong stability phenomenon which is known as a super stability. An equation of
homomorphism is called superstable if each approximate homomorphism is actually a true
homomorphism. This property was first observed by J. Baker, J. Lawrence, and F. Zorzitto  in
the following Theorem: Let V be a vector space. If a function IR V f : satisfies the
inequality c s + ) ( ) ( ) ( y f x f y x f for some 0 > c and for all V y x e , . Then either f is a
bounded function or . , ), ( ) ( ) ( V y x y f x f y x f e + = +
Later this result was generalized by J. Baker  and L. Szkelyhidi [21, 22].
In present section we shall extend the investigation given by J. Baker , L. Szkelyhidi [21, 22],
R. Badora  and E. Elqorachi and M. Akkouchi  to equations (1.1) and (1.2).
Lemma 4. Let 0 > o be given. Assume that continuous functions C X g f : , satisfy the
inequality
A.Roukbi et al.
International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Mathematical Research (IJSIMR) Page | 76

, , , ) ( ) ( 2 , , X y x y g x f f f
y x y x
e s - + - o o o o o
(4.1)
such that 0 = f . If g is unbounded then so is f .
Proof. Assume that g is unbounded function satisfying the inequality (4.1). If 0 = f is bounded,
let f M sup = and choose X ae such that 0 ) ( = a f then we get from the inequality (4.1)
that
, , ) ( ) ( 2 , , X y y g a f f f
y a y a
e s - + - o o o o o

from which we obtain that
, , , , ) ( ) ( 2 X y f f y g a f
y a y a
e s - + - o o o o o

so we conclude that
, ) 2 (
) ( 2
1
) ( X y all for M
a f
y g e + s o
then g is bounded which contradicts our assumption.
In theorem 4 below, the Hyers--Ulam stability of equation (1.1) will be investigated without the
additional condition that f satisfies the Kannappan's type condition:
. , , , , X z y x all for f f
y z x z y x
e - - = - - o o o o o o
Theorem 4. Let 0 > o be given. Assume that continuous functions C X g f : , satisfy the
inequality
, , , ) ( ) ( 2 , , X y x y g x f f f
y x y x
e s - + - o o o o o

then:
i) g f , are bounded or
ii) f is unbounded and g satisfies the d'Alembert's long equation (2.3) or
iii) g is unbounded and f satisfies the equation (1.1) (if 0 = f then g satisfies the
d'Alemberts long equation (2.2).
Proof. Assume that g f , satisfy inequality (4.1). ii) First we consider the case of f unbounded.
For all X z y x e , , we have
) ( ) ( 4 , , , , ) ( 2 y g x g g g g g z f
x y y x x y y x
- + - + - + - o o o o o o o o

= { } ) ( ) ( ) ( 8 , , , , ) ( 2 y g x g z f g g g g z f
x y y x x y y x
- + - + - + - o o o o o o o o

= ) )( ( ) ( ) ( 2 ) )( ( ) ( ) ( 2 ) )( ( ) ( ) ( 2 t d t g z f t d t g z f t d t g z f
y x
X
x y
X X
y x
o o o o o o - + - + -
} } }

Hyers-Ulam Stability of Wilsons Functional Equation on Hypergroups
International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Mathematical Research (IJSIMR) Page | 77

) ( ) ( ) ( 8 ) )( ( ) ( ) ( 2 y g x g z f t d t g z f
X
x y
- +
}
o o
}
- - + - s
X
y x t z t z
t d t g z f f f ) )( ( )) ( ) ( 2 , , ( o o o o o o

}
- - + - +
X
x y t z t z
t d t g z f f f ) )( ( )) ( ) ( 2 , , ( o o o o o o

}
- - + - +
X
y x t z t z
t d t g z f f f ) )( ( )) ( ) ( 2 , , (

o o o o o o
}
- - + - +
X
x y t z t z
t d t g z f f f ) )( ( )) ( ) ( 2 , , ( o o o o o o

}
- - + - +
X
x z y t y t
t d y g t f f f ) )( ( )) ( ) ( 2 , , ( o o o o o o

}
- - + - +
X
y z x t x t
t d x g t f f f ) )( ( )) ( ) ( 2 , , ( o o o o o o

}
- - + - +
X
y z x t x t
t d x g t f f f ) )( ( )) ( ) ( 2 , , (

o o o o o o
}
- - + - +
X
x z y t y t
t d y g t f f f ) )( ( )) ( ) ( 2 , , (

o o o o o o
) ( ) ( 2 , , ) ( 2 x g x f g g y g
x z x z
- + - +

o o o o
) ( ) ( 2 , , ) ( 2 y g z f g g x g
y z y z
- + - +

o o o o .
By virtue of inequality (4.1), we obtain
) ( ) ( 4 , , , , ) ( 2 y g x g g g g g z f
x y y x x y y x
- + - + - + - o o o o o o o o

o o ) ) ( 2 ) ( 2 ( 8 x g y g + + s . (4.2)
Since f is unbounded, from the preceding (4.2), we conclude that g is a solution of the
d'Alembert's long equation (2.2), which ends the proof in this case.
iii)If g is unbounded, then 0 = f is a trivial solution of the Wilson equation (1.1). Now assume
that 0 = f .
) ( ) ( 2 , , ) ( 2 y g x f f f z g
y x y x
- + -

o o o o
A.Roukbi et al.
International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Mathematical Research (IJSIMR) Page | 78

=
) ( ) ( ) ( 4 ) )( ( ) ( ) ( 2 ) )( ( ) ( ) ( 2 z g y g x f t d t f z g t d t f z g
y x
X X
y x
- + -
} }
o o o o

}
- - + - s
X
y x z t z t
t d z g t f f f ) )( ( )) ( ) ( 2 , , ( o o o o o o

}
- - + - +
X
y x z t z t
t d z g t f f f ) )( ( )) ( ) ( 2 , , (
o o o o o o

}
- - + - +
X
x y t x t x
t d t g x f f f ) )( ( )) ( ) ( 2 , , ( o o o o o o

}
- - + - +
X
z y t x t x
t d t g x f f f ) )( ( )) ( ) ( 2 , , (
o o o o o o

}
- - + - +
X
y z t x t x
t d t g x f f f ) )( ( )) ( ) ( 2 , , ( o o o o o o

}
- - + - +
X
y z t x t x
t d t g x f f f ) )( ( )) ( ) ( 2 , , ( o o o o o o

}
- - + - +
X
z x y t y t
t d y g t f f f ) )( ( )) ( ) ( 2 , , (
o o o o o o

}
- - + - +
X
z x y t y t
t d y g t f f f ) )( ( )) ( ) ( 2 , , ( o o o o o o

) ( ) ( 4 , , , , ) ( 2 z g y g g g g g x f
y z y z z y z y
- + - + - + - + o o o o o o o o
) ( ) ( ) ( 4 ) ( , 2 ) ( , 2 y g z g x f y g f y g f
z x z x
- + - + o o o o
In virtue of inequality (4.1), we obtain
) ( ) ( 2 , , ) ( 2 y g x f f f z g
y x y x
- + -

o o o o o o ) ( 2 8 y g + s
) ( ) ( 4 , , , , ) ( 2 z g y g g g g g x f
y z y z z y z y
- + - + - + - + o o o o o o o o .
By using Lemma 4 we see that g is unbounded implies necessarily that so is f hence according
to theorem 4 ii) g is a solution of the equation (2.2). We conclude that
) ( ) ( 2 , , ) ( 2 y g x f f f z g
y x y x
- + -

o o o o o o ) ( 2 8 y g + s . (4.3)
Since g is unbounded, from the preceding (4.3), we conclude that f satisfies the equation
(1.1). If 0 = f then, by Lemma 2, g satisfies the equation (2.2) and the proof of the theorem 4
is finished.
Hyers-Ulam Stability of Wilsons Functional Equation on Hypergroups
International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Mathematical Research (IJSIMR) Page | 79

As a consequence of Theorem 4, we have the following result on the superstability of the
d'Alembert equation (1.2) which generalizes the Baker's result on the classical d'Alembert
functional equation on an abelian group  (Theorem 5).
Corollary 4. Let 0 > o be given. Assume that continuous functions C X f : satisfies the
inequality
, , , ) ( ) ( 2 , , X y x y f x f f f
y x y x
e s - + - o o o o o

then either: , ,
2
2 1 1
) ( X x x f e
+ +
s
o

or . , ), ( ) ( 2 , , X y x y f x f f f
y x y x
e = - + -

o o o o
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