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# Mathematical Shortcuts for Aptitude

Adding Time
Let's add 1 hr and 35 minutes and 3 hr 55 minutes together. What you do is this: make the 1 hr 35 minutes into one number, which will give us 135 and do the same for the other number, 3 hours 55 minutes, giving us 355 Now you want to add these two numbers together: 135 355 ____ 490 What you need to do to this and all sub totals is add the time constant of 40. No matter what the hours and minutes are, just add the 40 time constant to the sub total. 490 + 40 = 530 so we can now see our answer is 5 hrs and 30 minutes!

Percentage
If the value of something is increased by x % then decreased by y % then resulting effect in percent :
100

Example 1
The Salary of a worker is first increased by 10% and thereafter decreased by 5%. What is the overall change in percent. overall change = + 10 - 5 + (+10)(-5)/100 = + 4.5 % (increased) use (+) sign for increment and (-) sign for decrement.

Example 2
A shopkeeper marks the price of goods 20% more than the real price. He allowed a discount of 10%.What profit or loss did he get? Profit or loss the shopkeeper get: 20 - 10 + (+20)(-10)/100 = + 8% (profit)

Example 3
The side of a square is increased by 30%. Find the percentage increase in area. Increase in area = 30 + 30 + (30)(30)/100 = 69%.

Example 4
If the radius of a circle is decreased by 20%. What percent change in area? percent change in area: - 20 - 20 + (-20)(-20)/100 = -36% (decreased)

Example 5
If the price of a shirt is increased by 15% than decreased by 15%. What is percent change? percent change : + 15 - 15 + (+15)(-15)/100 = - 2.25 % (decreased)

Example 6
The length of a rectangle is increased by 40% and breadth is decreased by 40%. Find change in area. percent change in area: 40 - 40 + (-40)(+40)/100 = -16%(decreased)

Example 7
if a number is increased by 20% and again increased by 20%. By what percent should the number increased. percent increased: 20 + 20 + (+20)(+20)/100 = 44%(increased)

Percentage 2
If the price of the commodity is increased or decreased by r% then reduction in the consumption so as not to increase the expenditure :

100 100+

Example 1
If the price of the sugar fall down by 10%. By how much percent must the householder increase its consumption so as not to decrease the expenditure. increase in consumption :

10 % 10010

100 9

= 11.11%

Example 2
If A's salary is 25% more than B then how much percent the B's salary is less than that of A. B's salary is less than that of A :

25 % 125

100 5

= 20%

Example 3
If the price of petrol is increased by 30 percent, by how much petrol a car owner must reduce his consumption in order to maintain the same budget. reduction in consuption :

30 % 130

300 13

= 23.07%

Percentage 3
x% of a quantity is taken by the first, y% of the remaining is taken by the second and so on, Now if A is the amount left then find the initial amount :
initial amount = A X
100100100 100 100 100

## where A is the left amount.

Example 1
After reducing 10% from a certain sum and then 20% from the remaining , there is Rs3600 left then find the original sum. original sum

## 100100 =3600 10010 10020 10000 =3600 X = Rs.5000. 9080

Example 2
In a library 20% of the books are in hindi , 50% of the remaining are in English 30% of the remaining are in french, the remaining 6300 books are in regional language, total no of books would be? Total no of books = 100 100 100 6300X =22500
80 50 70

Percentage 4
A candidate scoring x% in an examination fails by 'a' marks, while another candidate who scores y% marks gets 'b' marks more than then the minimum required pass marks. Then the maximum marks for the examination are

+ 100

Example
A candidate scores 25% and fails by 30 marks, while another candidate who scores 50% marks, gets 20 marks more than the minimum required marks to pass the examination. Find the maximum marks for the examination.
Maximum marks = 100X
30+20 =200. 5025

Percentage 5
If 'a' articles are bought for Rs 'b' and sell them 'c' for Rs 'd'. Then profit or loss made by the vendor:
100

Example 1
If a man purchase 11 orange for Rs 10 and sell them 10 for Rs 11. How much profit or loss did he made? Profit or loss made = profit.
11111010 X100 1010

=21%

Example 2
A boy buys orange 9 for Rs 16 and sell them 11 for Rs 20. Find profit or loss percent. profit or loss percent made : 9201116 25 100 = %
1116 11

Percentage 6
Selling Price(SP) = given(Rs) X
100 100%

By selling a horse for Rs 570 a trader loses 5%. At what price must he sell it to gain 5%. Selling Price = 570 X
100+5 1005

=Rs.630

Percentage 7
Cost Price(CP) =
X

100

Mahesh sold a book at a profit of 12%. Had he sold it for Rs 18 more , 18% would have been gained. Find CP. Cost Price =
18 100=Rs.300. 6

Example 2
A man sold a horse at a loss of 7%. Had he be able to sell it at a gain of 9%. It would have fetch 64 more. Find Cost Price. Here difference in Percent is 9 - (-7) = 16
Cost Price =
64 100=Rs.400 16

Simple Interest 1
Principal
100 =

A sum was put at SI at a certain value for 2 years, had it been put at 3% higher rate, it would have fetch 300 more , find the sum. Principal =
300100 2 3

=Rs.5000.

Simple Interest 2
Time = given time X
2 1 1 1

A sum of money double itself in 4 years , in how many years will it become 8 times of itself ? Time = 4 X
81 =28 21

years

Example 2
A sum of money double itself in 7 years , in how many years it will become 4 times of itself? Time =
41 7 =21 21

years.

## S.I & C.I

If the difference between Simple Interest and Compound Interest on a certain sum of money for 2 years at R% rate is given then

If the difference between simple interest and compound interest on a certain sum of money at 10% per annum for 2 years is Rs 2 then find the sum.

## S.I & C.I

If the difference between Simple Interest and Compound Interest on a certain sum of money for 3 years at R% is given then

If the difference between simple interest and compound interest on a certain sum of money at 10% per annum for 3 years is Rs 2 then find the sum. Sol:

COMPOUND INTEREST
If sum A becomes B in T1 years at compound interest, then after T2 years
Rs 1000 becomes 1100 after 4 years at certain compound interest rate. What will be the sum after 8 years? Sum: Here A = 1000, B = 1100 T1 = 4, T2 = 8

Ratio / Proportion
If two values are respectively x% and y% more 100+ than a third value, then the first is X100
100+

of the second. Two numbers are respectively 20% and 50% more than a third , what percentage is the first of the second
120 100=80% 150

Ratio / Proportion 2
If A is x% of C and B is y% of C then A is x100% of B

Two numbers are respectively 20% and 25% of a third number, what percentage is the first of the second.

20 100=80% 25

Partnership 1
If two partners are investing their money C1 and C2 for equal period of time and their total profit is P then their shares of profit are

If these partners are investing their money for different period of time which is T1 and T2, then their profits are

Partnership 2
Jack and Jill start a business by investing \$ 2,000 for 8 months and \$ 3,000 for 6 months respectively. If their total profit si \$ 510 and then what is profit of Jill? Lets Say C1 = 2000, T1 = 8 C2 = 3000, T2 = 6 P = 510

Partnership 3
If n partners are investing their money C1, C2, , Cn for equal period of time and their total profit is P then their shares of profit are

If these partners are investing their money for different period of time which is T1, T2, , Tn then their profits are

Example 1
Raju, Kamal and Vinod start a business by investing Rs 5,000 for 12 months, Rs 8,000 for 9 months and Rs 10,000 for 6 months. If at the end of the year their total profit is Rs 2000 then find the profit of each partner. Lets Say C1 = 5000, T1 = 12 C2 = 8000, T2 = 9 C3 = 10000, T3 = 6 P = 2000

## Time & Distance 1

If different distance is travelled in different time then,
If a car travels 50 Km in 1 hour, another 40 Km in 2 hour and another 70 Km in 3 hour then what is average speed of car. Total Distance Covered = 50 + 40 + 70 = 160 Km Total Time Taken = 1 + 2 + 3 = 6 hours.

## Time & Distance 2

If equal distance is travelled at different speed. If equal distance is travelled at the speed of A and B then,
A boy goes to his school which is 2 Km away in 10 minutes and returns in 20 mins then what is boys average speed.

## Lets say A = 2/10 = 0.2 km/min

And B = 2/20 = 0.1 km/min

## Time & Distance 3

If equal distance is travelled at the speed of A, B and C then,
If a car divides its total journey in three equal parts and travels those distances at speed of 60 kmph, 40 kmph and 80 kmph then what is cars average speed?

## Decimal Equivalent of Fractions

With a little practice, it's not hard to recall the decimal equivalents of fractions up to 10/11! First, there are 3 you should know already: 1/2 = .5 1/3 = .333... 1/4 = .25 Starting with the thirds, of which you already know one: 1/3 = .333... 2/3 = .666... You also know 2 of the 4ths, as well, so there's only one new one to learn: 1/4 = .25 2/4 = 1/2 = .5 3/4 = .75

Fifths are very easy. Take the numerator (the number on top), double it, and stick a decimal in front of it. 1/5 = .2 2/5 = .4 3/5 = .6 4/5 = .8 There are only two new decimal equivalents to learn with the 6ths: 1/6 = .1666... 2/6 = 1/3 = .333... 3/6 = 1/2 = .5 4/6 = 2/3 = .666... 5/6 = .8333... What about 7ths? We'll come back to them at the end. They're very unique. 8ths aren't that hard to learn, as they're just smaller steps than 4ths. If you have trouble with any of the 8ths, find the nearest 4th, and add .125 if needed:

1/8 = .125 2/8 = 1/4 = .25 3/8 = .375 4/8 = 1/2 = .5 5/8 = .625 6/8 = 3/4 = .75 7/8 = .875 9ths are almost too easy: 1/9 = .111... 2/9 = .222... 3/9 = .333... 4/9 = .444... 5/9 = .555... 6/9 = .666... 7/9 = .777... 8/9 = .888... 10ths are very easy, as well. Just put a decimal in front of the numerator: 1/10 = .1 2/10 = .2 3/10 = .3

4/10 = .4 5/10 = .5 6/10 = .6 7/10 = .7 8/10 = .8 9/10 = .9 Remember how easy 9ths were? 11th are easy in a similar way, assuming you know your multiples of 9: 1/11 = .090909... 2/11 = .181818... 3/11 = .272727... 4/11 = .363636... 5/11 = .454545... 6/11 = .545454... 7/11 = .636363... 8/11 = .727272... 9/11 = .818181... 10/11 = .909090... As long as you can remember the pattern for each fraction, it is quite simple to work out

Oh, I almost forgot! We haven't done 7ths yet, have we? One-seventh is an interesting number: 1/7 = .1428571428571428 57... For now, just think of one-seventh as: .142857 See if you notice any pattern in the 7ths: 1/7 = .142857... 2/7 = .285714... 3/7 = .428571... 4/7 = .571428... 5/7 = .714285... 6/7 = .857142...

Notice that the 6 digits in the 7ths ALWAYS stay in the same order and the starting digit is the only thing that changes! If you know your multiples of 14 up to 6, it isn't difficult to work out where to begin the decimal number. Look at this: For 1/7, think "1 * 14", giving us .14 as the starting point. For 2/7, think "2 * 14", giving us .28 as the starting point. For 3/7, think "3 * 14", giving us .42 as

the starting point. For 4/14, 5/14 and 6/14, you'll have to adjust upward by 1: For 4/7, think "(4 * 14) + 1", giving us .57 as the starting point. For 5/7, think "(5 * 14) + 1", giving us .71 as the starting point. For 6/7, think "(6 * 14) + 1", giving us .85 as the starting point. Practice these, and you'll have the decimal equivalents of everything from 1/2 to 10/11 at your finger tips!

Rule of Alligation
If two ingredients are mixed, then

. ..

C.P of a unit quantity of cheaper = (c) C.P of a unit quantity of dearer = (d)
C Mean Price (m) DM MC D

2.In what ratio must a grocer mix two varieties of pulses costing `.15 and `.20 per kg respectively so as to get a mixture worth `.16.50 kg?
First tyoe 15 3.50 Mean Price 16.50 Second type 20 1.50

3.50 35 7 = = 1.50 15 3

4. A jar full of whisky contains 40% alcohol. A part of this whisky is replaced by another containing 19% alcohol and now the percentage of alcohol was found to be 26%. The quantity of whisky replaced is:
First 40% 7 Mean Price 26% Second type 19% 14

## The ratio is 7:14 = 1:2. 2 Hence quantity replaced =

3

5.In what ratio must water be mixed with milk 2 to gain 16 % on selling the mixture at cost 3 price?

50 % 3 1
6

50 1 = = . 300 6 1 6 1 = 7 = . 7 1+ 6
Mean Price 6 7 Second type 1 6 7 0 1 7

First tyoe

## Ratio of water and milk = 1:6.

If n different vessels of equal size are filled with the mixture of P and Q in the ratio p1 : q1, p2 : q2, , pn : qn and content of all these vessels are mixed in one large vessel, then

Three equal buckets containing the mixture of milk and water are mixed into a bigger bucket. If the proportion of milk and water in the glasses are 3:1, 2:3 and 4:2 then find the proportion of milk and water in the bigger bucket. Sol: Lets say P stands for milk and Q stands for water, So, p1:q1 = 3:1 p2:q2=2:3 p3 : q3=4:2

## So in bigger bucket, Milk : Water = 109 : 71

If n different vessels of sizes x1, x2, , xn are filled with the mixture of P and Q in the ratio p1 : q1, p2 : q2, , pn : qn and content of all these vessels are mixed in one large vessel, then

Three buckets of size 2 litre, 4 litre and 5 litre containing the mixture of milk and water are mixed into a bigger bucket. If the proportion of milk and water in the glasses are 3:1, 2:3 and 4:2 then find the proportion of milk and water in the bigger bucket. Sol: Lets say P stands for milk and Q stands for water, So, p1:q1 = 3:1 , x1 = 2 p2:q2=2:3 , x2 = 4 p3 : q3=4:2 x3 = 5, so

## So in bigger bucket, Milk : Water = 193 : 137

Suppose a container contains x of liquid from which y units are taken out and replaced by water. After n operations, the quantity of pure liquid = 1 units. A container contains 40 litres of milk. From this container 4 litres of milk was taken out and replaced by water. This process was repeated further two times. How much milk is now contained by the container?
Milk = 40 1
4 3 40

= 29.16 .

p gram of ingredient solution has a% ingredient in it. To increase the ingredient content to b% in the solution

125 litre of mixture of milk and water contains 25% of water. How much water must be added to it to make water 30% in the new mixture? Sol: Lets say p = 125, b = 30, a = 25 So from the equation

## Quantity of water need to be added = 8.92 litre.

1.

If in x litres mixtures of milk and water, the ratio of milk and water is a:b, the quantity of water to be added in order to make this ratio c:d is
In a mixture of 60 litres, the ratio of milk and water is 2:1. If this ratio is to be 1:2, then the quantity of water to be further added is a) 20 litres. b) 30 litres c) 40 litres d) 60 litres.

+
60 2211 = 1 2+1

x ad bc c a b
C.S.VEERARAGAVAN, APTITUDE TRAINER,veeraa1729@gmail.com

## Thursday, September 05, 2013

63

11. A vessel is filled with liquid, 3 parts of which are water and 5 parts syrup. How much of the mixture must be drawn off and replaced with water so that the mixture may be half water and half syrup? Old ratio 3:5 new ratio 1:1
Qty of water to be added =
35 8

= = 25%

1 4

1. A milk vendor has 2 cans of milk. The first contains 25% water and the rest milk. The second contains 50% water. How much milk should he mix from each of the containers so as to get 12 litres of milk such that the ratio of water to milk is 3:5. For the first the old ratio 1:4. new ratio 3:5 Amount of milk should be added= For the second the old ratio 1:1. new ratio 3:5
12(512) 5(1+4)

84 25

.
60 . 25

## Amount of milk should be added=

Totally get 12 litres of milk.
144 25 19 . , 5 litres 25

12(53) 5(2)

12 5

## of milk should be added to

LCM MODEL 1
Any number which when divided by p,q or r leaving the same remainder s in each case will be of the form k (LCM of p, q and r)+ s where k = 0,1,2 If we take k = 0, then we get the smallest such number. Example: The least number which when divided by 5,6,7 and 8 leaves a remainder 3, but when divided by 9 leaves no remainder, is: K(LCM of 5,6,7 and 8) + 3 = 840k + 3 Least value of k for which 840k + 3 divisible by 9 is K=2. Required number is 1683.

LCM MODEL 2
Any number which when divided by p,q or r leaving respective remainders of s, t and u where (ps) = (q t) = ( r u) -= v (say) will be of the form K(LCM OF P, Q AND R) V The smallest such number will be obtained by substituting k = 1. Example: Find the smallest number which when divided by 4 and 7 gives remainders of 2 and 5 respectively. LCM OF 4 AND 7 IS 28. HENCE 28 2 = 26.

LCM MODEL 3
Find the smallest number which when divided by 7 leaves a remainder of 6 and when divided by 11 leaves a remainder of 8. The required number will be 11k + 8 When divided by 7 leaves a remainder 6. Subtracting 6 from 11k + 8 we have 11k + 2 which should be multiple of 7. By trial, when k =3, we get 35. Hence Required number is when k = 3, 11k+8 = 41.

HCF MODEL 1
The largest number with which the numbers p,q or r are divided giving remainder of s, t and u respectively will be the HCF of the three numbers of the form (p s), (q t) and (r u) Example Find the largest number with which when 906 and 650 are divided they leave remainders 3 and 5. The HCF of (906 3) and ( 650 5). HCF of 903 and 645 is 129.

HCF MODEL 2
The largest number which when we divide by the numbers p,q and r , the remainders are the same is HCF of (p r) and (q r) where r is the smallest among the three. Example Find the greatest number that will divide 43, 91 and 183 so as to leave the same remainder in case. Required number = H.C.F of (91 43), and (183 43) = H.C.F of 48 and 140 is 4.

## LAST DIGIT OF ANY POWER

Last digit of 21 is 2 Last digit of 22 is 4 Last digit of 23 is 8 Last digit of 24 is 6 Last digit of 25 is 2 Last digit of 31 is 3 Last digit of 32 is 9 Last digit of 33 is 7 Last digit of 34 is 1 Last digit of 35 is 3

Digit s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Powers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 4 9 6 5 6 9 4 1 3 8 7 4 5 6 3 2 9 4 6 1 6 5 6 1 6 1 5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 6 4 9 6 5 6 9 4 1 7 8 7 4 5 6 3 2 9 8 6 1 6 5 6 1 6 1 9 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

For every digit unit place digits of increasing powers repeat after 4th power. This means unit place digit for power=5 is same as unit place digit for power=1 for every number. 2) For digits 2, 4 & 8 any power will have either 2 or 4 or 6 or 8 at unit place. 3) For digits 3 & 7 any power will have either 1 or 3 or 7 or 9 at unit place. 4) For digit 9 any power will have either 1 or 9 at unit place. 5) And for digits 5 & 6 every power will have 5 & 6 at unit place respectively.

## LARGEST POWER OF A NUMBER IN N!

Find the largest power of 5 that can divide 216! without leaving any remainder. (or) Find the largest power of 5 contained in 216! Add all the quotients to get 43 + 8 + 1 = 52. Therefore 552 is the highest power of 5 contained in 216!
5 5 5 216 43 8 1 Number given Quotient 1 Quotient 2 Quotient 3

Please note that this method is applicable only when the number whose largest power is to be found out is a prime number. If it is not a prime number, then split the number as product of primes and find the largest power of each factor. Then the smallest amoung the largest poser of these relative factors of the given number will the largest power required.

an bn
It is always divisible by a b. When it is even it is also divisible by a + b. When it is odd it is not divisible by a + b.

an + bn
It is never divisible by a b. When it is odd it is also divisible by a + b. When it is even it is not divisible by a + b.

There are three departments having students 64,58,24 .In an exam they have to be seated in rooms such that each room has equal number of students and each room has students of one type only (No mixing of departments. Find the minimum number rooms required ? The HCF is 2. Hence 32 + 29 + 12= 73.