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# CAMBRIDGE A LEVEL PHYSICS

DEFORMATION OF SOLIDS

LEARNING OUTCOMES
NUMBER i ii iii iv v vi vii LEARNING OUTCOME Understand the behaviour of springs What is the difference between the elastic limit and proportional limit? Learn the concept of stress and strain in materials. Understand the difference between the elastic region and the plastic region. What sort of energy is stored in springs under compression / tension? Learn the difference between brittle, ductile and polymeric materials. Understand the concept of ultimate tensile strength

SPRINGS
Definition: Springs are

## devices capable of storing e l a s t i c e n e r g y .

SPRINGS
Springs can be extended / compressed by applying a load on it. Springs will usually return to their original length after the load is removed.

SPRINGS
H o w e v e r, t h i s c a n o n l y o c c u r if the elastic limit has not been exceeded The elastic limit is the maximum extension that the spring can undergo, beyond which, the spring loses its elasticity, i.e. cannot return to its original length even after the force is removed.
.

SPRINGS
Springs, when extended or compressed, exert a restoring force opposite to the direction of the load acting on it.

SPRINGS
A c c o r d i n g t o H o o ke s L a w , compression or the extension ( ) is directly proportional to the applied force , provided the proportional limit has not been exceeded. H o o k e s L a w : F

SPRINGS
The proportionality constant, , is known as the spring constant.

The spring constant, , gives us the amount of load required to produce an unit of extension or compression.

SPRINGS
In terms of material properties, gives the the value of elasticity / stiffness of that spring. The value of also tells us the resistance of the spring to extension / compression, i.e., high equals greater resistance to compression / extension.

SPRINGS
Proportional limit Elastic limit

## Sourse of image: http://www.antonine-education.co.uk/Salters/SUR/Stress-strain_2.gif

S P R I N G S C O M B I N AT I O N S
Springs with the same spring constant can often be combined in series / parallel. These combinations will change the spring constant of the system of springs. We will discuss examples to show how the effective spring constant of the system.

EXAMPLES
Oct/Nov 2008 Paper 1, Question 21.

EXAMPLES
May/Jun 2009 Paper 21, Question 4.

EXAMPLES
May/Jun 2009 Paper 21, Question 4 (contd).

EXAMPLES
May/Jun 2009 Paper 21, Question 4 (contd).

EXAMPLES
May/Jun 2009 Paper 21, Question 4 (contd).

HOMEWORK
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. May/ Jun 2010, Paper 11, question 20. Oct/Nov 2010, Paper 11, question 22. May/ Jun 2011, Paper 12, question 24. Oct/Nov 2011, Paper 11, question 25. Oct/Nov 2011, Paper 12, question 22.

STRESS / STRAIN
The action of a force on a body may produce a deformation. To analyse the deformation , we introduce two concepts in Physics called stress and strain.

STRESS
The situations below show how stress can be produced by a force acting on a body. Note : There are two types of stress: I. Tensile stress, and II. Compressive stress

STRESS
Stress is defined as the amount of force acting per unit of area of cross section. Mathematically, stress, where = magnitude of the perpendicular component of force acting (in N), and = cross sectional area (in m2). The units of stress are N m-2 / Pa. Stress is a scalar quantity.

STRAIN
When a body is under stress, the body also undergoes strain. Strain can either be tensile or compressive.
The diagram shows how a tensile stress produces a tensile strain. This diagram shows an exaggerated value of .

Diagram 11.13, Chapter 11: EQUILIBRIUM AND ELASTICITY, page 353; SEARS AND ZEMANSKYS UNIVERSITY PHYSICS (WITH MODERN PHYSICS); YOUNG, FREEDMAN, BHATHAL; Pearson , Australia 2011.

STRAIN
The diagram shows how a compressive stress produces a tensile strain. This diagram shows an exaggerated value of .

Diagram 11.14, Chapter 11: EQUILIBRIUM AND ELASTICITY, page 354; SEARS AND ZEMANSKYS UNIVERSITY PHYSICS (WITH MODERN PHYSICS); YOUNG, FREEDMAN, BHATHAL; Pearson , Australia 2011.

STRAIN
Strain is defined as the ratio of change in length to the original length of the object. Mathematically, strain,
,

## where = change in length, and = original length.

Strain is dimensionless / unitless, provided the units of and are the same. Strain is also a scalar quantity, but sometimes compressive strain is given a negative sign.

STRESS/STRAIN
If stress produces strain, how are they related mathematically? Stress and strain are related mathematically by a constant called Youngs modulus, E.

Youngs modulus is material specific, i.e. it has different values for different materials.

STRESS/STRAIN
Mathematical formulation:

## Youngs modulus has units of N m-2 / Pa since strain has no units.

STRESS/STRAIN
From the mathematical formulation it can be seen that stress is directly proportional to strain for a given material.
The gradient of the straight line gives the value of Youngs modulus for that material. This is provided the proportional limit is not crossed.
Source of image: http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/assets/learn_its/alevel/physics/stress-and-strain/definitions-ofstress-strain-and-young-s-modulus/image1.jpg

STRESS/STRAIN
The table below gives the Youngs modulus of some materials:

Table 11.11, Chapter 11: EQUILIBRIUM AND ELASTICITY, page 353; SEARS AND ZEMANSKYS UNIVERSITY PHYSICS (WITH MODERN PHYSICS); YOUNG, FREEDMAN, BHATHAL; Pearson , Australia 2011.

EXAMPLES
May / Jun 2008 Paper 1, Question 24.

EXAMPLES
Oct / Nov 2009 Paper 11, Question 22.

EXAMPLES
Oct / Nov 2009 Paper 21, Question 4.

EXAMPLES
Oct / Nov 2009 Paper 21, Question 4 (contd).

EXAMPLES
Oct / Nov 2009 Paper 21, Question 4 (contd).

EXAMPLES
Oct / Nov 2011 Paper 12, Question 21.

HOMEWORK
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Oct / Nov 2008 Paper 1, Question 22. May/ Jun 2009 Paper 1, Question 20. May/ Jun 2009 Paper 11, Question 19. Oct / Nov 2010 Paper 11, Question 22. Oct / Nov 2010 Paper 21, Question 4. May/ Jun 2011 Paper 11, Question 21. May/ Jun 2011 Paper 12, Question 23. May/ Jun 2011 Paper 21, Question 4.

HOMEWORK
9. May/ Jun 2011 Paper 22, Question 4. 10.Oct / Nov 2011 Paper 11, Question 23. 11.Oct / Nov 2011 Paper 11, Question 26. 12.Oct / Nov 2011 Paper 23, Question 3.

ELASTIC REGION vs. PLASTIC REGION Hookes law and the stress strain proportional relationship are only valid in the elastic region, i.e. the material / spring returns to its original length after the load has been removed. What happens when the elastic limit is exceeded? The material now enters the plastic region, i.e. the material will not be able to retain its original length after the load is removed.

X

Youngs modulus

## Source of image: http://www.thesafetybox.org/brunelintro/images/b12.jpg

ELASTIC REGION vs. PLASTIC REGION The graph above shows a stress vs. strain for a hypothetical material. The graph is divided into two sections: the elastic region and the plastic region. If the strain exceeds the yield point the material is permanently deformed and will not return to its original length after stress is removed. For example, it might follow the dashed blue line if point X is reached.

EXAMPLES
May/June 2008 Paper 1, Question 22 .

EXAMPLES
Oct/Nov 2009 Paper 11, Question 20 .

ELASTIC POTENTIAL / STRAIN ENERGY Materials are capable of storing energy when they are extended / compressed. This type of energy is known as strain energy or elastic potential energy. Definition: The ability to do work as the result of the change in length of a material.

ELASTIC POTENTIAL / STRAIN ENERGY When a specimen of a material is extended / compressed, the forces between the molecules increase. This produces a change in potential energy of the molecules. The change in potential energy is stored as elastic potential or strain energy.

## ELASTIC POTENTIAL / STRAIN ENERGY

For springs, the strain energy
,

where spring constant, N m-1 change in length, m. For materials, the strain energy per unit volume ,

## where Youngs modulus of the material, in N m-2, change in length , m.

ELASTIC POTENTIAL / STRAIN ENERGY The equations in the previous slide are only valid if the material is still in the elastic region. We can use the area under the graph of a stress strain relationship or load vs. extension relationship to obtain the stored strain / elastic potential energy for both the plastic and elastic regions, if required in calculation.

EXAMPLES
May/June 2008 Paper 1, Question 23 .

EXAMPLES
Oct/Nov 2008 Paper 1, Question 23.

EXAMPLES
May/Jun 2009 Paper 1, Question 21 .

EXAMPLES
Oct/Nov 2009 Paper 22, Question 4.

EXAMPLES
Oct/Nov 2009 Paper 22, Question 4 (contd).

EXAMPLES
Oct/Nov 2009 Paper 22, Question 4 (contd).

EXAMPLES
Oct/Nov 2009 Paper 22, Question 4 (contd).

EXAMPLES
Oct/Nov 2009 Paper 22, Question 4 (contd).

EXAMPLES
Oct/Nov 2009 Paper 22, Question 4 (contd).

EXAMPLES
Oct/Nov 2009 Paper 22, Question 4 (contd).

HOMEWORK
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. May / Jun 2008, Paper 2, question 2. Oct/Nov 2009, Paper 11, question 21. May / Jun 2010, Paper 21, question 3. May / Jun 2010, Paper 22, question 5. Oct/Nov 2010, Paper 11, question 21. Oct/Nov 2010, Paper 22, question 4. Oct/Nov 2010, Paper 23, question 5. May / Jun 2011, Paper 11, question 20.

HOMEWORK
9. May / Jun 2011, Paper 23, question 4. 10.Oct/Nov 2011, Paper 11, question 24. 11.Oct/Nov 2011, Paper 12, question 23. 12.Oct/Nov 2011, Paper 21, question 6.

## BRITTLE, DUCTILE AND P O LY M E R I C M AT E R I A L S

Ductile materials are materials that have undergo a significant plastic deformation after the elastic limit is exceeded, e.g. steel, aluminium, copper. Brittle materials are materials that have a short or non - existent plastic region after the elastic limit is exceeded, e.g. wood, glass, concrete.

DUCTILE

BRITTLE

## BRITTLE, DUCTILE AND P O LY M E R I C M AT E R I A L S

Polymeric materials have the longest plastic region compared to brittle and ductile materials. A typical stress strain graph of a polymeric material is given by curve labelled elastomeric (rubbery) on the left. Example of a polymeric material: rubber.
Source of image: http://images.books24x7.com/bookimages/id_29301/fig213_01.jpg

U LT I M AT E T E N S I L E STRENGTH
Under tension, there is a limit to the amount of extension a material can be subjected to. This limit is known as the ultimate tensile strength. Definition: The maximum force acting per unit original cross sectional area that the material can be subjected to before it b r e a k s .

EXAMPLES
Oct / Nov 2008 Paper 1, Question 19.

EXAMPLES
May / Jun 2009 Paper 1, Question 19.

EXAMPLES
Oct / Nov 2011 Paper 22, Question 3.

EXAMPLES
Oct / Nov 2011 Paper 22, Question 3 (contd).

EXAMPLES
Oct / Nov 2011 Paper 22, Question 3 (contd).

EXAMPLES
Oct / Nov 2011 Paper 22, Question 3 (contd).

EXAMPLES
Oct / Nov 2011 Paper 22, Question 3 (contd).

EXAMPLES
Oct / Nov 2011 Paper 22, Question 3 (contd).

HOMEWORK
1. May / Jun 2010, Paper 11, question 21.