Angela Leong Feng Ping, Lee Tze How, Tian Junfu M13608 EL6105 Project: Textual Analysis

Text
"My friends, we have already overcome our most formidable enemies, and are now about to encounter not hunger and want, but men. This day will decide everything. Remember what you promised me at Dyrrhachium. Remember how you swore to each other in my presence that you would never leave the field except as conquerors. These men, fellow soldiers, are the same that we met at the Pillars of Hercules, the same that we drove out of Italy. They are the same who sought to disband us without honours, without a triumph, without rewards, after the toils and struggles of ten years, after we had finished those great wars, after innumerable victories, and after we had added 400 nations in Spain, Gaul, and Britain to our country's sway. I have not been able to prevail upon them by offering fair terms, nor to win them by benefits. You know that I dismissed them unharmed, hoping that we should obtain justice from them. Recall all these facts to your minds to-day, and if you have had any experience of me recall also my care for you, my good faith, and the generosity of my gifts to you. Nor is it difficult for hardy and veteran soldiers to overcome new recruits who are without experience in war, and who, moreover, like boys, spurn the rules of discipline and of obedience to their commander. I learned that he [Pompey] was afraid and unwilling to come to an engagement. His star has already passed its zenith; he has become slow and hesitating in all his acts, and no longer commands, but obeys the orders of others. I say these things of his Italian forces only. As for his allies, do not think about them, pay no attention to them, do not fight with them at all. They are Syrian, Phrygian, and Lydian slaves, always ready for flight or servitude. I know very well, and you will presently see, that Pompey himself will not assign them any place in his line of battle. Give your attention to the Italians only, even though these allies are running around you like dogs trying to frighten you. When you have put the enemy to flight let us spare the Italians as being our own kindred, but slaughter the allies in order to strike terror into the others. Before all else, in order that I might know that you are mindful of your promise to choose victory or death, throw down the walls of your camp as you go out to battle and fill up the ditch, so that we may have no place of refuge if we do not conquer, and so that the enemy may see that we have no camp and know that we are compelled to occupy theirs." ― Julius Caesar’s pre-battle speech at the Battle of Pharsalus, 9 August 48BC (461 words)

which allowed him to command them on the course of action to take when the time came. courageous. “me”. and which also served to cast the enemy in a negative light. In the Battle of Pharsalus. helps to establish a close relationship between the commander and his troops. and had better supplies. my good faith. strong. had lost an engagement directly before in the Battle of Dyrrhachium. “your”) pronouns in his speech. This was achieved mainly through the interpersonal meaning of the text which very effectively established a bond between Caesar and his soldiers. This was conveyed via the mood of the text. the army of the Republic of Rome led by Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (also known as Pompey the Great). and ‘us’ (Caesar’s army) as righteous. and low on supplies – it was especially critical to raise his soldiers’ morale. They further begin to establish a divide between Caesar’s army and the enemy. The demographics of the battle were staggeringly in favor of Pompey. however. Pompey held the higher ground (an advantageous force multiplier in war). interpersonal devices are understandably the most prominent here. Caesar’s forces managed to rout the enemy. Caesar is deemed to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. Caesar uses a lot of first-person (“I”. Analysis War speeches are an excellent medium allowing national or military leaders to inspire the people under their lead: to boost confidence. while concurrently demoralising the enemy[1]. weak and inferior. The phrases “you promised me” and “you swore to each other” compel the soldiers to remember the loyalty they pledged to their commander and to one another. “our”. This. and had no lines of retreat. “we”. give optimism.Background Julius Caesar was a famous Roman general. and Consul. which is large imperative with instances of declarative mood. The ideational meaning also contributed to instilling notions of ‘them’ (the enemy) as morally corrupt. and the generosity of my gifts to you” is associated with selfless offers . Julius Caesar’s primary intention in making this speech was to rouse his troops for the battle at Pharsalus. “us”) and second-person (“you”. which is greatly exploited by the ideational devices. Interpersonal Meaning Since the main purposes of the speech were to boost troop morale and create a sense of spirit de corps. cut off on enemy grounds. and in 48 BC he engaged in the Battle of Pharsalus. coupled with the fact that he is directly addressing his army. statesman. Despite this massive disadvantage. and between the soldiers themselves. under the particular circumstances his army was in at that point of time – vastly outnumbered. “my”. had much greater forces. A secondary aim was to give his army an understanding of the situation of the war. sustaining losses of only 1200 men to Pompey’s 6000. and band together an often large group. one of his greatest military victories. so that their goals and opinions become aligned as one. and the string of ‘my’ in “my care for you. In stark contrast. Julius Caesar’s forces were drastically outnumbered by his enemies (about 60000 to 30000). Caesar’s forces were very low on supplies.

it is Caesar who holds the final decision. to remind them of their proven capability. The third-person pronouns “they” and “them” are used exclusively to refer to the enemy soldiers. These have a much more pronounced effect on his army by de-alienating his troops from their general. Caesar uses very positive. the building of a stronger connection between men and their leader would ensure . after innumerable victories”. The enemy armies are “always ready for flight or servitude”. but obeys” – all highly negative terms painting Pompey as an indecisive. The declarative mood clearly cements Caesar’s position as one of higher expertise. As the commander. the commands often carry high modality. and “no longer commands. The overarching command is absolute. which creates a stronger sense of loyalty than that which stems only from a sense of duty. wherein he commands his troops to “remember what you promised […] how you swore […]”. This is meant to evoke gratitude from his soldiers.– “care”. uncourageous puppet leader. creating the beginning of a gulf between his army and the enemy armies. In referring to his army. “you will presently see”. he always uses addresses such as “friends” and “fellow soldiers” to put himself firmly on their side and portray them as all being together in the same boat. a speech riddled with first. and “I know very well. as he is disseminating information about the war which was previously unknown to his soldiers. “before all else”. with no middle ground: “choose victory or death”. In contrast. Note also the wording used in his speech. “let us spare the Italians […] but slaughter the allies”). and you will presently see”. Furthermore. when referring to his army. This is most evident when Caesar says that “I learned that [Pompey] was afraid and unwilling to come to an engagement”. determination and experience. “slow and hesitating in all his acts”. who achieves the ultimate victory for the whole army. Pompey is “afraid and unwilling”. and instructs them in the strategies to take for this battle (“give your attention to the Italians only”. Caesar still places himself in a position of higher authority. implying that they lack loyalty and only care for their individual survival. However. “I have not been able to prevail upon them” and “I dismissed them unharmed” show that although victory is earned by the entire battalion.and second-person pronouns aligns the interests of an entire group. and especially “do not think about them. pay no attention to them. This ensures that his troops will obey his commands. The lexical choice also features high modality. Certain phrases reinforce Caesar’s power in the relationship between his army and him: “Remember how you swore to each other in my presence” awards him an almost god-like status. Caesar thus successfully paints himself as a selfless commander who sincerely cares about his men. do not fight with them at all”. “give your attention to the Italians only”. as a figure of power and command. in the adjectives and modal verbs he chooses to describe his army and their enemies. “good faith” and “gifts”. This befits his status as the commander. and “hardy” and “veteran” in describing his soldiers. wielding the power to decide whom they should fight and how. This is achieved largely through the imperative mood of the speech. such as “you would never leave the field except as conquerors”. When delivered under circumstances of war. compelling every soldier to think and feel the same way – this is crucial to ensure that the whole battalion will follow his commands. high-modality phrases such as “after we had finished those great wars. it is crucial that the balance of power is tilted in Caesar’s favour.

they “spurn”. without rewards [circumstance] finished those great wars added 400 nations in Spain. but men everything the field [goal] except as conquerors [circumstance] at the Pillars of Hercules [circumstance] out of Italy disband us [goal] without honours. one that builds greater confidence and internal trust for his side while simultaneously establishing all hostile troops as one joint enemy. Doing so relegates the enemies to a passive position. Furthermore. with the decision resting on Caesar. the soldiers. the material processes associated with the enemy are often negative: they have “sought to”. Gaul. (However. indicating a lack of discipline and command in their camps. with the implication that they never really succeed. This also further reinforces the “us-versus-them” mentality that Caesar wants to instill in his army. ultimately resulting in victory over said “formidable” foes. This is in jarring contrast to Caesar and his troops. Actor we [we] This day you we [they] we Material process have already overcome are now about to will decide would never leave met drove sought to had Goal [unless otherwise indicated in brackets] our most formidable enemies to encounter not hunger and want. In such clauses. and Britain to our country's sway . Finally. Caesar is portrayed to act with mercy and righteousness by the circumstances with which he tries to “prevail upon” and “win” his enemies – via “offering fair terms” and “by benefits”. and shining glory as “conquerors”. as presented in the unshaded cells in the table below. requiring them to face their “most formidable enemies”. except for the times indicated in the yellow-shaded cells. “spared”. or are “trying to”. Caesar’s and/or his men’s “goals” often are often those involving tremendous courage and ability. which was addressing his army directly. reinforcing his indecisiveness and distrust of his men. wielding all the choices and decisions in this situation. either to be “put to flight”. “we”). when rallying his troops for battle. Further. “have already” accomplished a great many victories and “will” continue to do so. but it is also to place themselves in an active position. and future tense. giving the impression that they are sitting ducks waiting unprepared for the attack by Caesar’s army.greater morale and loyalty in the troops. and “are running around”. Ideational Meaning Transitivity Analysis The process types observed in the speech are mostly material when the “actor” is either Julius Caesar (“I”) or his soldiers (“you”. Caesar’s phrasings put his enemies in the position of “beneficiaries”. without a triumph. who. “you” is often masked because Caesar is directly addressing “you”.) The enemy is rarely placed in the “actor” role. with the help of ample usage of the past perfect tense. “already”. Caesar always uses the active voice when he and/or his army are the “actors” – this is largely due to the nature of the speech. or “slaughtered”. Pompey himself “has already passed” his prime and “will not assign”.

justifying the declarative mood of the text. Caesar also mentions the enemy. Senser [you] [you] You [You] I I you the enemy [the enemy] Mental Remember Remember know Recall learned know very well will presently see may see [may] know Phenomenon what you promised me at Dyrrhachium how you swore that I… these facts/my care for you/my good faith/the generosity of my gifts to you that he [Pompey]… that we have no camp that we are compelled to occupy theirs . Caesar typically calls upon them to “remember” or “recall” their promises of fealty.I I have not been able to [nor to] dismissed them hardy and veteran to overcome soldiers [new recruits] spurn [Pompey’s] star Pompey himself these allies dogs [referring to the allies] you [let] us has already passed will not assign are running around trying to have put spare slaughter prevail upon them [goal] by offering fair terms [circumstance] win them [goal] by benefits [circumstance] unharmed [goal]. but reveal interesting information. hoping that we should obtain justice from them [circumstance] new recruits the rules of discipline and of obedience to their commander its zenith them [beneficiary] any place in his line of battle [circumstance] you [beneficiary] frighten you the enemy [beneficiary] to flight [circumstance] the Italians [beneficiary] as being our own kindred [circumstance] the allies [beneficiary] in order to strike terror into the others [goal] Mental processes appear less frequently. Even when he says “You know that I…”. When the senser is Caesar’s army. “learned” or “know very well” is used. and this cements his position as a figure with greater knowledge of the battle situation. When the senser is Caesar himself. he is in effect asking them to remember a previous action of his (dismissing the enemy unharmed). with the hopes that they sense the magnitude of the motivation driving Caesar’s army to conquer their camps. as well as how kindly he has treated them in the past. but with an ominous undertone.

(Interesting to note here is that Caesar is very subtly reiterating what he expects of his soldiers – “discipline and obedience to their commander”. they have a score to settle against these men who have tried to disband them before. further helping to persuade his army of their ability and strength. “we have already overcome our most formidable enemies.S.” It is important that in this case the “most formidable enemies” referred to are hunger and want. Caesar is effectively telling his army that they have defeated these men before and will do so again – and furthermore. his already-legendary reputation adds substance to his claim. and are now about to encounter not hunger and want. Identifier These men Relational process are Identified the same that we met at the Pillars of Hercules the same that we drove out of Italy the same who sought to disband us… without experience in war afraid and unwilling to come to an engagement ready for flight or servitude new recruits [Pompey] who are was [The Syrian. and Lydian are always slaves] Lexical Choice Through his lexical choice. Additionally. Caesar uses “When we have put the enemy to flight…” instead of “if”. The attributes that they are identified with are largely very negative. these enemies don’t stand a chance. Caesar constructs a positive self-representation of ‘us’ – himself and his troops – and a negative other-representation of ‘them’ – the enemy armies. implying that Caesar’s troops have already defeated the real enemies and that the current foe is nothing but a annoying hindrance that can be easily swept away. moreover. like boys. and phrases such as “running around you like dogs trying to frighten you” and “Pompey . Further. “without experience in war”) and disloyal cowards (“ready for flight or servitude”). while their commander is presented in an equally derogatory light (“afraid and unwilling”). They are depicted as inept (“drove out of Italy”. who sought to disband us”. relational processes are mostly attributed to the enemy. while painting the Western world as stronger physically and on higher grounds morally. President George W. This is a common global semantic strategy. spurn the rules of discipline and of obedience to their commander”) – compared to his “hardy and veteran soldiers”.Finally. this trivialises the opposing army. that we drove out of Italy. but men. Phrygian. Bush on 17 March 2003.) Caesar also describes some of the enemy as “dogs” and “slaves”. particularly notable in the ultimatum speech given by then-U. Caesar goes on to insult the enemy by implying that they lack in not only experience. Speaking with such arrogance and self-assurance emphasizes Caesar’s confidence of victory. where he derogated the ‘terrorists’ and their ‘allies’. and who.[2] Caesar starts off his speech by saying. by identifying these mean as “the same that we met before. but also discipline and obedience ("Nor is it difficult for hardy and veteran soldiers to overcome new recruits who are without experience in war.

and that “we” deserve more reason to live. Courage is seen today as a good trait to have – in the time of Rome. it was part of the very definition of manhood. Caesar says. Lastly. and no longer commands. He also mentions that the enemy has little initiative.” “I have not been able to prevail upon them by offering fair terms. Beyond that.” and “You know that I dismissed them unharmed. In his speech. Caesar also boasts of the rift in courage between his troops and the enemy. This is curious. and after we had added 400 nations in Spain. thus justifying and legitimating his reasons for war. and Caesar uses it here to demonise the enemy and put himself on a moral high ground. after we had finished those great wars. He also implies that every reasonable possible effort to avoid war had already been made and that the enemy refused to see sense. however. implying that they have a significant advantage both militarily and psychologically. Moral superiority is repeatedly emphasized in this speech – examples include “sought to disband us without honours. something absolutely crucial to have as a man. Aside from having a moral high ground. “When you have put the enemy to flight let us spare the Italians as being our own kindred. This exploits both traditional Roman . he has become slow and hesitating in all his acts. By asserting that ‘they refuse to reward us after we helped them so’. hoping that we should obtain justice from them. “This day will decide everything. it would appear as intentional and thus would make the offending party all the guiltier. when instilled into soldiers. after the toils and struggles of ten years.” This sense of righteousness. Gaul. Caesar insults the honour of the foe while enraging his troops. but obeys the orders of others”). and by association improving his army’s standing and self-respect relative to their enemy. the speech is designed to carry across an idea of immense urgency. another mechanism by which he increases the determination of his army to fight the enemy. after innumerable victories. but slaughter the allies in order to strike terror into the others. and he does this by essentially dividing the enemy into dogs/slaves and fellow Romans. is an important element in improving morality. without a triumph. without rewards. of absoluteness. Caesar implies that his army is much “manlier” than the enemy. “If the same mistakes are repeated. Examples of such include “he was afraid and unwilling to come to an engagement”.himself will not assign them any place in his line of battle” imply that there is much confusion and a lack of trust in the enemy camps – such direct insults put his army on a figurative pedestal above their foe. By these statements. removing their ability to retreat. implying that he has those traits and that he will use them to triumph over the enemy. This is a daring move in war – an all-or-nothing maneuver that tells his soldiers that there is no room for defeat.” This again enforces this divide between us and them. nor to win them by benefits. for in this case Caesar is trying to impress on his army an objective that they would not instinctively follow (don’t kill the Romans even though they’re part of the enemy). and Britain to our country's sway.” Caesar tells them. and he further completely eliminates the possibility of losing the battle in the minds of his soldiers through telling them to dismantle the walls of their camp before they go to battle.” – Bush exploited this stance in his ultimatum speech[2]. independence and ability (“[Pompey’s] star has already passed its zenith. it also improves rapport between Caesar and his army by stating a common opinion that they both share – that their enemies are weak and inconsequential. implying “our” lives are more worthy. and is applied well by Caesar in this speech. “always ready for flight or servitude”.

it had a lot of cultural influence on it) and the desire for victory that is part of human nature – Caesar even reminds them of their “promise to choose victory or death”.” “As for his allies.” Type of Statement Informative Statement Informative Statement Informative Statement Informative Statement Informative Statement Informative Statement Statement of Command Statement of Command Statement of Command Informative Statement Informative Statement Informative Statement Informative Statement Informative Statement Subject “you” is not mentioned in this sentence.” “I say these things of his Italian forces only. and Britain to our country's sway. moreover. Gaul.honor (“come back with your shield. Textual Meaning THEME/RHEME ANALYSIS *Italicized sentences indicate marked themes Clause “My friends.” “I have not been able to prevail upon them by offering fair terms. without a triumph. fellow soldiers. hoping that we should obtain justice from them. we have already overcome our most formidable enemies. do not think about them. and the generosity of my gifts to you” "Nor is it difficult for hardy and veteran soldiers to overcome new recruits who are without experience in war. and Lydian slaves. and who. Phrygian.” “I learned that he was afraid and unwilling to come to an engagement.” “These men. always ready for flight Informative Statement or servitude” “I know very well” Factual Statement “[…] and you will presently see” Informative Statement “[…] that Pompey himself will not assign them any place in his line of Informative Statement . spurn the rules of discipline and of obedience to their commander. statement is Statement of Command “They are Syrian. after the toils and struggles of ten years […]” “… after we had finished those great wars.” “He has become slow and hesitating in all his acts.instance of a marked theme” “[…] recall also my care for you. and if you have had any experience of me […]” . like boys. are the same that we met at the Pillars of Hercules” “They are the same who sought to disband us without honours. after innumerable victories.” “You know that I dismissed them unharmed. but obeys the orders of others. and after we had added 400 nations in Spain. or on it” was a famous Spartan saying – though Sparta predated Rome.” “His star has already passed its zenith.” – “[…] my good faith. do not fight with them at all. without rewards. pay no attention to them.” “Recall all these facts to your minds to-day. and no longer commands. nor to win them by benefits.

” “throw down the walls of your camp as you go out to battle and fill up the ditch” “[…] so that we may have no place of refuge if we do not conquer” “and so that the enemy may see that we have no camp and know that we are compelled to occupy theirs. pay no attention to them. throw down the walls of your camp as you go out to battle and fill up the ditch”. do not fight with them at all. the theme is “As for his allies”. Another clause with a marked theme is “Before all else. are the subject. Caesar’s soldiers. By organising his speech with a clear progression of ideas. which is non-subject. The sentence “As for his allies. marked themes help to emphasize the command that Caesar wishes his army to follow while unmarked themes (mentioning the subject before the information) draw his army’s attention in order that they will pay attention to the upcoming information. do not think about them. while he uses unmarked themes when making informative statements. “you”.” “Give your attention to the Italians only […]” “[…] even though these allies are running around you like dogs trying to frighten you. Again. The flow of thought of the speech also changes as the speech goes on. to criticising the enemy to improve the morale of the troops in the latter half. Speech Discourse[3–5] .battle. who are masked because Caesar is directly issuing a command to them. yet the theme is “in order that I might know”.” contains a marked theme." Statement of Command Informative Statement Factual Statement Statement of Command Statement of Command Statement of Command Informative Statement Informative Statement In his speech.” “Before all else. but slaughter the allies in order to strike terror into the others. which is non-subject. Caesar effectively guides his listening troops from one “argument” or command to the next. allowing Caesar to remind his troops of the reason why they are at war. in order that I might know that you are mindful of your promise to choose victory or death. without a transcript to allow one to reread earlier ideas. As such.” “When you have put the enemy to flight” “Let us spare the Italians as being our own kindred. the subject is “you” – Caesar’s soldiers. This reinforces Caesar’s request of loyalty from his troops – he wants them to show him that they remember their promise to him – and his higher position of authority. it can be observed that Caesar uses mainly marked themes when compelling his soldiers to pursue a course of action. in order that I might know that you are mindful of your promise to choose victory or death. However. Doing so gives particular prominence to “his allies” – the allies of the enemy – but the instructed treatment of them that follows is dismissive. the first half elaborates on the basic history of the battle. This brings out Caesar’s judgement of them as ‘hardly a concern’. the speech flows from giving justification and establishing a moral high ground in the first half. This theme-rheme arrangement is used to great effect. This avoids the pitfalls of sending a message through verbal means: topics just spoken of a second ago are easily forgotten as the speaker moves on to the next point. Here.

org/15-oral-persuasion-techniques . after the loss of the Battle of Dyrrhachium. are the same that we met at the Pillars of Hercules. Caesar also operated under the assumption that he had his men’s undying loyalty.uk/Secondary/EnglishAndMedia/1114/TextBuildingSkillsinEnglish/Samples/SamplepagesfromStudentBook3/Text3_web_pages. and “running around you like dogs” to describe the allies of the enemy. such as adjectives attributing nationality. do not fight with them at all.slideshare.Caesar frequently uses the Rule of Three. whereby three repetitions following a general theme enhance the fluency and flow of the entire text.net/gmurphy_tvo. with that assumption he was able to make demands of his soldiers that were almost beyond reason. especially for longer sentences. or are words in the same ‘functional category’.html [5] http://www. as in “They are Syrian. fellow soldiers. without a triumph.slideshare. pay no attention to them.edu/1139934/Churchills_War_Speeches [2] http://www.”. It can also be seen that Caesar uses promises that his troops had made to him as a device to spur their loyalty. the repetitions occur in pairs rather than in threes – this helps reiterate and reinforce ideas without losing the audience’s attention. rather than the rewards for winning the battle. the same that we drove out of Italy. without rewards. his men were so ashamed that they begged for decimation) to him to a great extent.” Another rhetorical device he employs is the use of imagery.g. and the generosity of my gifts to you.”. the three repetitions at least    share similar sentence structure: “[…] Do not think about them.co.pdf [3] http://www.com. Bibliography [1] http://www. e. and no longer commands. he uses the metaphor “his star has already passed its zenith” to describe Pompey. to tell his troops to cut off their own line of retreat. Remember how you swore to each other in my presence that you would never leave the field except as conquerors. convey notions along the same vein: “His star has already passed its zenith. An example is “Remember what you promised me at Dyrrhachium. and the similes “like boys” to describe how the enemy soldiers “spurn spurn the rules of discipline and of obedience”.pearsonschoolsandfecolleges.mrkdevelopment.au/language/text-types/Language-of-Speeches. They are the same who sought to disband us…” “…sought to disband us without honours. he has become slow and hesitating in all his acts.” Where the repetitions do not involve the use of the exact same word or phrase thrice.” “my care for you. and Lydian slaves” Sometimes.net/IhsanIbadurrahman/a-critical-discourse-analysis-of-a-speech-by-georgew-bush [4] http://neboliterature.    “These men. For instance. my good faith. but obeys the orders of others. Phrygian.academia.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful