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Differentiation



Derivative
The tangent line to the curve y = ¡(x) at the point A(o, ¡(o)) is the line
through A with slope (gradient)
¡′(o) =lim
h→0
¡(o +ℎ) −¡(o)


which is called the derivative of ¡(x) at x = o.


The rate of change of the function f at A(o, ¡(o)) is given by the gradient of the
tangent to the curve at A.

Except for the Newtonian (prime) notation there is also the Leibniz notation
for the derivative of the function y = ¡(x)
¡
i
(x) = y
i
=
Jy
Jx
=

Jx
=
J
Jx
¡(x)
A
B

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E Ex xa am mp pl le e
Find, from first principles, the derivative of ¡(x) =x
2

Solution
At any point x the derivative is given by
¡
i
(x) =lim
h→0
¡(x +ℎ) −¡(x)

=lim
h→0
(x + ℎ)
2
−x
2

=
=lim
h→0
x
2
+2xℎ +ℎ
2
− x
2

=lim
h→0
(2x + ℎ)ℎ

=lim
h→0
(2x +ℎ) =2x
Thus, the derivative (or gradient) function is ¡
i
(x) =2x

Differentiation Rules
(¡(x) ±g(x))
i

i
(x) ±g
i
(x)
(c ∙ ¡(x))
i
=c ∙ ¡
i
(x)
(¡(x) ∙ g(x))
i

i
(x) ∙ g(x) +¡(x) ∙ g
i
(x) Product Rule
[
](x)
g(x)
¸
i
=
]
|
(x)∙g(x)-](x)∙g
|
(x)
(g(x))
2
Quotient Rule
(¡ ∘ g)
i
(x) =¡
i
(g(x)) ∙ g
i
(x) Chain Rule


dx
=

du
du
dx
Chain Rule(Leibniz notation)



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Function Derivative
¡(x) =c ¡′(x) =0
¡(x) =x
k
, k ∈ ℝ ¡′(x) =kx
k-1
, k ∈ ℝ
¡(x) =√x ,x ≥ 0
¡
i
(x) =
1
2√x
,x >0
¡(x) =sinx ¡′(x) =cosx
¡(x) =cosx ¡
i
(x) =−sinx
¡(x) =tonx ¡
i
(x) =
1
cos
2
x
=scc
2
x
¡(x) =cotx ¡
i
(x) =−
1
sin
2
x
=−csc
2
x
¡(x) =cscx ¡
i
(x) =−cscx cotx
¡(x) =sccx ¡
i
(x) =sccx tonx
¡(x) =orcsinx ¡
i
(x) =
1
√1−x
2

¡(x) =orccosx ¡
i
(x) =
−1
√1−x
2

¡(x) =orctonx ¡
i
(x) =
1
1+x
2

¡(x) =orcsin [
x
o
¸ ¡
i
(x) =
1
√o
2
−x
2

¡(x) =orccos [
x
o
¸ ¡
i
(x) =
−1
√o
2
−x
2


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¡(x) =orcton [
x
o
¸ ¡
i
(x) =
o
o
2
+x
2

¡(x) =c
x
¡
i
(x) =c
x

¡(x) =lnx ,x >0
¡
i
(x) =
1
x

¡(x) =log
u
x ,x >0
¡
i
(x) =
1
x lno

¡(x) =
1
x
,x ≠ 0 ¡
i
(x) =−
1
x
2

¡(x) =o
x
, o >0 ¡
i
(x) =o
x
lno

Composite Function Derivative
¡(x) =g
k
(x) ¡′(x) =kg
k-1
(x)g
i
(x)
¡(x) =¸g(x) ,g(x) ≥ 0
¡
i
(x) =
1
2¸g(x)
g
i
(x) ,g(x) >0
¡(x) =sin(g(x)) ¡′(x) =cos(g(x)) g
i
(x)
¡(x) =cos(g(x)) ¡
i
(x) =−sin(g(x)) g
i
(x)
¡(x) =c
g(x)
¡
i
(x) =c
g(x)
g
i
(x)
¡(x) =lng(x) ,g(x) >0 ¡
i
(x) =
g′(x)
g(x)

¡(x) =ton(g(x)) ,cos(g(x))
≠ 0
¡
i
(x) =
1
cos
2
(g(x))
g
i
(x)

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¡(x) =cot(g(x)) ,sin(g(x)) ≠ 0 ¡
i
(x) =−
1
sin
2
(g(x))
g
i
(x)
¡(x) =
1
g(x)
,g(x) ≠ 0 ¡
i
(x) =−
1
(g(x))
2
g
i
(x)
¡(x) =o
g(x)
¡
i
(x) =o
g(x)
lno ∙ g
i
(x)
¡(x) =(ℎ(x))
g(x)
¡
i
(x) =(c
g(x)Inh(x)
)′

E Ex xa am mp pl le es s
1. Find the derivative of ¡(x) =
x
2
c
x
+sìn
3
x
Inx

Solution (Newtonian notation)
¡
i
(x) =_
x
2
c
x
+sin
3
x
lnx
_
i
=
(x
2
c
x
+sin
3
x)
i
lnx −(x
2
c
x
+sin
3
x)(lnx)
i
(lnx)
2
=
=
[(x
2
c
x
)′ +(sin
3
x)
i
]lnx − (x
2
c
x
+sin
3
x)
1
x
(lnx)
2
=
=
2xc
x
lnx +x
2
c
x
lnx +3sin
2
xcosxlnx − (x
2
c
x
+sin
3
x)
1
x
(lnx)
2





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2. Find the derivative of y =(4x − 12)
6

Solution (Leibniz notation)
Let u =4x − 12 and y =u
6

Thus,

du
=6u
5
and
du
dx
=4
Since

dx
=

du
du
dx


dx
=6u
5
∙ 4 = 24u
5
= 24(4x − 12)
5

Implicit Differentiation
In order to find the derivative

dx
when y is implicitly defined as a function of x we can
use implicit differentiation which means that we have to differentiate both sides of the
equation with respect to x and then solving the resulting equation for

dx
.
E Ex xa am mp pl le e
(a) If x
2
+y
2
=13 , find

dx

(b) Find an equation of the tangent to the circle x
2
+y
2
=13 at the point (2,3)
Solution
(a) Differentiate both sides of the equation we have
J
Jx
(x
2
+y
2
) =
J
Jx
(13) ⇒
J
Jx
(x
2
) +
J
Jx
(y
2
) =0 ⇒
⇒ 2x +2y
Jy
Jx
=0 ⇒
Jy
Jx
= −
x
y


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(b) At the point (2,3) we have that

dx
= −
2
3

Therefore the equation of the tangent to the circle at (2,3) is
y −3 =−
2
3
(x − 2) ⇒ 3y −9 =−2x +4 ⇒
⇒ 2x +3y =13

Tangents and Normals
The equation of the tangent to a curve y =¡(x) at (x
1
,y
1
) is given by
y − y
1

i
(x
1
)(x −x
1
)

The equation of the normal to a curve y =¡(x) at (x
1
,y
1
) is given by
y −y
1
= −
1
¡
i
(x
1
)
(x − x
1
)






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E Ex xa am mp pl le e
A curve has equation x
4
y
3
=27 . Find the equation of the normal to the curve
at the point (1,3).
Solution
Differentiate both sides of the equation we have
J
Jx
(x
4
y
3
) =
J
Jx
(27) ⇒
J
Jx
(x
4
) ∙ y
3
+x
4

J
Jx
(y
3
) =0 ⇒
4x
3
∙ y
3
+x
4
∙ 3y
2
Jy
Jx
=0
ut (1,3)
=====
⇒ 4 ∙ 1
3
∙ 3
3
+1
4
∙ S ∙ 3
2
Jy
Jx
=0 ⇒
Jy
Jx
= −
108
27

Therefore the gradient of the normal at (1,3) is
27
108

and the equation of the normal is
y − 3 =
27
108
(x −1) ⇒ 108y − 324 =27x −27 ⇒
⇒ 27x − 108y =297




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Stationary points
A stationary point is a point where ¡
i
(x) =0. It could be a local minimum,
local maximum or a point of inflexion.




















maxi
minimum
point of
inflexion
¡
i
(x) >0
=0
Increasing
¡
i
(x) <0
Decreasing
¡
i
(x) >0
=0
Increasing
Local maximum
Local minimum
x
y

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Points of inflexion(inflection)
A point of inflexion is a point on a curve at which a change of concavity occurs.
We have a point of inflexion at x =x
0
if ¡
ii
(x
0
) =0 and the sign of ¡
ii
(x)
changes on either side of x =x
0
.



















¡
ii
(x) <0
Concave down
¡
ii
(x) >0
Concave up Point of inflexion
x
y

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Curve sketching of y =¡(x)
Identify the domain of ¡, that is , the set of values of x for which ¡(x) is
defined.
Find I’ and I’’
Find x − ax|x intercepts setting y =0 and solve for x.
Find y −ax|x intercept setting x =0 and solve for y.
Find Horizontal (behavior of ¡ as → _∞ ) and Vertical Asymptotes (where
the function is not defined).
Find where the curve is increasing (¡
i
(x) >0) and where it is
decreasing(¡
i
(x) <0).
Find where the curve is concave up (¡
ii
(x) >0) and where it is concave
down (¡
ii
(x) <0).
Find Local Minimum, Maximum values and points of inflexion.
Find any symmetries (even function: symmetry about y-axis, odd function:
symmetry about the origin) the curve may have.





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E Ex xa am mp pl le e
Sketch the graph of ¡(x) =
x
x
2
-1

Solution
The domain of ¡ is Ð
]
= ℝ −{−1,1}
The x − oxis and y − oxis intercept is the origin (0,0)
¡
i
(x) =
(x)
|
(x
2
-1)-x(x
2
-1)
|
(x
2
-1)
2
=
(x
2
-1)-2x
2
(x
2
-1)
2
= −
x
2
+1
(x
2
-1)
2
<0
¡
ii
(x) =_−
x
2
+1
(x
2
−1)
2
_
i
=
= −
(x
2
+1)
i
(x
2
− 1)
2
−(x
2
+1)( (x
2
− 1)
2
)
i
(x
2
−1)
4
=
= −
2x (x
2
− 1)
2
−(x
2
+1)2(x
2
− 1)(x
2
− 1)′
(x
2
−1)
4
=
= −
2x (x
2
− 1)
2
−(x
2
+1)2(x
2
− 1)2x
(x
2
− 1)
4
=
= −
2x(x
2
− 1)[x
2
− 1 −2x
2
−2]
(x
2
− 1)
4
=
2x(x
2
+3)
(x
2
− 1)
3


−∞ -1 0 1 +∞
¡
ii
(x) - + - +
¡
i
(x) - - - -
¡(x)
Decreasing and
Concave down
Decreasing and
Concave up
Decreasing and
Concave down
Decreasing and
Concave up

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The function has a vertical asymptote at x =1 and x = −1
and an horizontal asymptote y =0
There is no local minimum or maximum although we have an inflexion
point at (0,0).
The function is odd because ¡(−x) =
-x
(-x)
2
-1
= −¡(x) which means that
there is symmetry about the origin.
Finally the graph of ¡(x) =
x
x
2
-1
is the following

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