DDC Controls and Software for the HVACR Lab

by Greg Jourdan Wenatchee Valley College Las Vegas, Nevada March 15-16th, 2010 2:30-4 PM


DDC Controls and Software for the HVAC Lab Agenda

1. Types and Level of Automation 2. HVAC DDC Control Principles 3. Open Protocol Control Principles 4. DDC Architecture 5. Examples of DDC Software Programs 6. Typical DDC Control Systems and Applications 7. Present and Future Trends in DDC Controls 8. Getting DDC Equipment in your Schools

DDC Controls Quiz
1. T F 2. T F DDC and PLC’s are basically the same control devices. There are 3 key components of any DDC controls system.

3. T F
4. T F

BACNet, Lon, and Tridium are Open Software DDC Integration Tools
The thermistor is linear like the RTD.

5. T F

The Boolean Point is used for converting temperature sensors into useful information.

The Various Levels of DDC and Automation
• Residential and Home Automation
– Smart Homes, not widely adopted with HVAC Manufacturer’s Equipment – Smart HVAC Systems, ie. Carrier, Nordyn

• Commercial
– DDC is Designed for Commercial Buildings – Multiple Vendors

• Industrial
– PLC’s, SCADA, Ladder Logic, Costly $$$

Residential and Home Automation .

Commercial DDC Automation .

Present DDC Control Vendors and Merger Corporations Schneider .

Industrial Automation .

Evolution of Controls and DDC .

PC Based DDC Control System Trunk / Network Cable Field Panel 1 Field Panel 2 Field Panel 3 LAN Devices LAN Devices .

Modern DDC Building Controls Utilize a Four Level Architecture .

Sensor Level .

Field Controller Level .

Integration Level .

Management Level .

a temperature sensor (stat) sends a signal to a control panel. This type of AHU is called a single zone AHU. which sends a signal to a valve.The Purpose of any Temperature Control System • Control systems are the “brains” of HVAC equipment to maintain human comfort. Pictured below is an AHU that serves only one zone. In the example. .

Three (3) Key Components of any Control System Include: .

In the example below.DDC Terminology Set Point and Offset Set point is the desired condition of a variable that is to be maintained. In the example below. 75 degrees F. Offset is the amount of difference between control point and set point in a proportional control system. such as temperature. . the offset is approximately 4°F. is the room temperature set point.

but instead may be above or below it. .DDC Terminology Control Point • The Control Point is the actual temperature being sensed. Simply stated. The Control Point (temperature) may not be on the set point. set point is what you want. while control point is what you get.

.DDC Terminology Throttling Range • System Throttling Range (STR) is the change in the measured variable (i.e. temperature) that causes the controlled device to travel from one end of its stroke to the other.

The DDC Control Cycle and Control Action Can be Very Accurate •Two Position •Floating Action •Proportional Action •PI •PID .

Control Cycle Graph .

Two Position (Old School-Not Accurate) Two Position control action chart (heating action shown) .

Floating Action Control Floating Control Action .

Proportional Action Proportional Control Action .

Proportional with Integral Control (PI) Proportional Plus Integral (PI) Control Action .

PID-Proportional Plus Integral & Derivative Proportional Plus Integral Plus Derivative (PID) control action .

Represents an enumerated state (more • String . such as a multi-speed fan with states "Off. ." and "Fast." Enums are often called multi-states or discretes. rate or similar floating point number. or a varying count (integer).Control Points for the DDC System Four Types of Point Data Categories • Boolean .Represents a binary value with only • Numeric . temperature. level." • Enum . such as "Off" or "On.Represents an analog value such as a two states.A string of one or more ASCII characters and often (if alpha-numeric) with some literal meaning. than two)." "Slow.

Control Points for the DDC Eight Types of Control Points Boolean BooleanPoint •A read only point −Facets −Proxy Extension −Out Numeric NumericPoint • A read only point −Facets −Proxy Extension −Out Enumerated EnumPoint • A read only point −Facets −Proxy Extension −Out String StringPoint • A read only point −Facets −Proxy Extension −Out BooleanWritable • Extended to include −Priority controls −Fallback property −Override expiration −7 Commands −On & Off timers NumericWritable • Extended to include −Priority controls −Fallback property −Override expiration −5 Commands EnumWritable • Extended to include −Priority controls −Fallback property −Override expiration −5 Commands StringWritable • Extended to include −Priority controls −Fallback property −Override expiration −5 Commands 29 .

humidity.Sensors • A sensor monitors and measures a variable. flow. The HVAC variables are temperature. . While it may appear to be a thermostat. it is a remote sensor with a remote set point dial. Different types of signals are produced by different types of sensors. They include: – Electric Sensors – Pneumatic Sensors – Electronic Sensors Examples of a sensor is shown here. The controller is in another location. and pressure.

humidity and pressure. The typical current range is 4 to 20 mA (milliamps). • Voltage sensors could be used for temperature. and are used in measuring temperature. . • Current sensors could be used for temperature. and pressure. humidity.Electronic Sensors Include: • Resistance sensors are Resistance Temperature Devices (RTDs).

RTD. This Chart Compares the Advantages and Disadvantages. or Thermistor. .Temperatures Sensors Can be either Thermocouple.

Modern HVAC DDC Sensors Include • Humidity and Temperature Transmitters • CO2 for Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Utilizing Demand Ventilation • Power Meters • Branch Circuit Monitors • Energy Meters .

Controllers Can Include: Electric Controls Pneumatic Controls DDC Controls Electronic Controls .

Controllers Principles The Controller Receives the Input and Processes an Output .

Processes an Output .The DDC Controller Has 3 Functions 1. Performs a Logic Function 3. Receives the Input From the Sensor 2.

Basic DDC-Electronic Control System

Direct Digital Control System








Controlled Devices Dampers and Valves

Automatic Control Typical Multiblade Dampers

Typical Single - and Double-Seated Two-Way Valves

Typical Three-Way Mixing and Diverting Valves

Controlled Devices 2-Way & 3-Way Control Valves

DDC Control Systems Use Control Valves That Are •Fully Electronic •3-Way Control Valves •Not commonly used •2-Way Control Valves •Used with DP sensors and VSD pump systems •Pressure Independent Characterized Control Valves™ (PICCV) •No Cv required. reduced pumping costs. easy to balance . higher efficiency.

Controlled Devices Economizer Damper Actuators Direct Connect Actuator Damper Connected to Actuator Via Shaft and Coupling .

Damper Actuators are Controlled by Either a Voltage (2-10vdc) or Current (4-20ma) Signal from the Controller Courtesy Belimo .

Electronic ASDs. VFD’s Adjustable Speed Drives •Vary Frequency of Motor •Often Called VSDs or VFDs •Used with Any Variable Motor Speed Control Application .

Adjustable Speed Drives Turn AC to DC and Back to AC (Pulsed PWM) .

Variable Frequency Drives (VFD’s) are Becoming Standard Equipment On: • Towers • VAV Fans • Pumps • Chillers .

Example of DDC Controls .

Example of DDC Control Heating Coil Control With Reset .

Example of DDC Control Converter Control With Reset .

Variable Speed Pumps are Used in HVAC Projects for Energy Conservation The Westin Building: Hydronic System  VSD’s match calculated Building Demand to Cooling Tower tonnage .

VSD Drives on Fans to Maintain Static Pressure for Energy Conservation .

org/page/indexa916.html?id=44 .mmtmagazine.Many Factory Built-Up AHU’s Are VAV with DDC Controls http://www.

LON)        HVAC Life Safety Systems Lighting Security Chillers Boilers Building Switchgear .Modern Control Systems Tie All Building Systems Together Via a Standardized Networks (TCP/IP. BACnet.

security ■ Lighting.DDC Software is Integrated into the Building Systems Current automation systems allow communications with multiple vendors ■ Fire alarm. fan units ■ PLCs (Programmable Logic Controllers) ■ Boilers and chillers .

Non-proprietary. Developed by ASHRAE •True.BACnet Software Standard Protocol •BACnet. Open Protocol (Industry Standardized) •Multiple Vendor Controllers .

BACnet Connectivity .

Third Party Interface vs. BACNet Gateway .

LonWorks Platform (Open Protocol) .

LonTalk and the Neuron Chip .

BACnet is the Preferred and Fastest Growing Network Standard Units (1000s) BACnet Lon Proprietary BACnet Revenue (mill $) Lon Proprietary 1998 2001 145 183 44 58 588 717 110 231 43 61 604 684 2008 747 90 947 648 78 821 * Units sold and revenue for BACnet. 1998-2008 (Source: Frost & Sullivan. North American Building Protocol Analysis. LonWorks. and proprietary systems in the building automation industry. 2001 #A143-19) .

DDC Networks Have Lot of Connections And Don’t Always Communicate between the Various Vendors Application A Application B Application C .

Niagara Normalizes All Systems BACNet or LON Network Application A Application B Application C .

DDC Control Systems – Schematics are done on AutoCAD •Drawings are sent via email •As Built Modifications are easy to change .

Example of DDC AutoCAD Boiler Controls .

Typical DDC AutoCAD-Example Schematic Actuator Sensors Controller .

Typical DDC Software Controls on Factory AHU’s Economizer Example Sensors Controller Actuator .

Typical DDC Software Controls on Factory AHU’s Economizer Example Sensors Controller Actuator .

Typical Controls on Factory AHU’s Example of Program for Siemens Controls .

Example of Program for Siemens Controls .Typical Controls on Factory AHU’s.

Typical DDC Controls AHU’s-Example of Automated Logix Graphics Display .

Present and Future DDC Systems Are Using Smart Card Access • Employee ID Card • Physical Access Badge • Remote Access Token • Combines function into a single smart card on a USB stick .

Present and Future Control Systems are Using • PDA’s by the building operators are used as diagnostic and maintenance tools. .

000 feet • GPS Tracking Systems on each individual in the Building 75 .Present and Future Control Systems Will Be Able to Do Anything Money Will Buy Including: • Using Cloud Height Ceilometers • Owners can know the weather without going outside. Performance and reliability in all weather conditions up to 25.

Present and Future Controls are Using Wireless Mesh Networks Wireless Networks Include: Wibree Bluetooth ZigBee .

Present and Future Controls are Using Wireless Power Meters .

Present and Future DDC Controls are Smart at the Field Level Telephone Thermostats Talking Thermostats Smart Air Velocity Sensors .

Present and Future DDC Controls are Smart and on the Internet WEB .

Present and Future DDC Building Control Systems Will     Control Individual Lighting Monitor Each Tenants Total KwH Power Control RH and CO2 Provide Customers Options to Control Individual Space or Cubicle Areas via the Web .

Present and Future DDC Control Systems Can Use •Door Lock ID tags to always tell management where you are in the building. •Radio frequency ID systems which allow you to track building inventory and manage information with reliability. . even in harsh industrial environments.

DDC Challenges and Obstacles for HVAC Instructors and Students • DDC Building Systems are becoming more complex. • Information Tech (IT) Departments need to be involved in maintenance of building controls • Future trends and demands for skilled labor is creating shortages (not enough people entering blue collar trades) .

 Challenges and Obstacles will be a continued shortage of skilled labor. .DDC HVAC Controls Changes and Challenges Building Controls are Evolving to become:  Totally Integrated  Modern Sensors and Instrumentation Devices will be Adopted  Maintaining Building Efficiencies and Comfort at Minimum Costs will be more complex.

Getting Started with DDC at your HVAC School • Network with Industry • Work as Summer Interns • Develop or Buy Updated Curriculum .

New is Better • Start Writing Grants .Getting Started with DDC at your HVAC School • Get the DDC Equipment • Donated is Ok.

. T TF F 2. 9. and Tridium are Open According to EPA and WHO. 7. Americans Software DDC Integration Tools spend approximately 90% of their time The thermistor is indoors. energy in the typical building. T F 8.T F BACNet. information. linear like the RTD. Lon. The Boolean Point is above used for converting High return air CO2 1000 ppm is temperature sensors an indication of into IAQuseful problems. chimneys. T F 5. T TF F DDC and PLC’s are the HVAC Systems costbasically over 35% ofsame control thedevices.Answers to DDC Controls Quiz 1. TT F F 10. flues must be at least 10’ from outside air intakes. There are 3 key components of any The minimum CFM requirements for a DDC controls system. 3. T F 4. home is based on the number of people. 6. Vents.

DDC Controls and Software for the HVACR Lab by Greg Jourdan Wenatchee Valley College Any Questions? Thank You 87 .