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Experiment No:1


Aim: To study and prepare report on the constructional details of frames of models & ambassador car. Types of frames: There are three types of frames. 1. Conventional frame: It is also known as non load carrying frames. In this types of frames the load on the vehicle is transferred to the suspension by the frame which is main skeleton of the vehicle. The frame supports the engine, power train and car body. It is supported on wheel axles by means of springs. This type of construction is widely used in trucks. The frame sections are usually channel, tubular, or box type. The channel section is good is binding, tubular in torsion, and box in bending and section.

Fig: A Typical Conventional Frame 2. Semi-integral frame: In semi integral frame, the rubber mounts are replaced by relatively stiff mounts so that a part of the from load transferred to the body structure also. This type of frame is quite popular for small European and American cars. This frame is however heavy.

Fig: Semi integral frame

In some vehicles half frame is fixed in the front end on which engine gear box and front suspension is mounted. It has the advantage when the vehicle is met with accident the front frame can be taken easily to replace the damaged chassis frame. This type of frame is used in some of the European and American cars.
3. Integral or unit frame: In the integral frame & body type construction, there is no frame and all assembly units are attached to the body. All the functions of the frame are carried out by the body and frame are single unit welded together. The construction is such that the body sheets relieve the metal frame work of the parts of the stresses. It results in same weight saving over the conventional separate frame and body construction.

Fig: Integral frame

Functions of frame:
1. 2.

To carry the weight of the vehicle and its passengers. To withstand the engine and transmission torque and thrust stresses as well as acceleration and braking torque.

3. 4.

To withstand the centrifugal force while cornering. To withstand the bending stress and twisting due to the rise and fall of the front and rear axles.

Frame section: The frames are made of following steel sections: 1. Channel Sections. 2. Box Sections. 3. Tubular Sections. Channel section is used in long members and box section is used in short members. Tubular section now a day in three wheelers, scooters and matadors pickup vans. Sub frame: The various components of vehicle are bolted directly either on main frame member or cross members of the frame. But sometimes, the engine and gear bar are carried on a sub frame of simple construction. Function of sub frame: 1. To isolate the component from the effect of twisting and flexing of the main frame. 2. To reduce transmission of vibrations. Case I - Morris car: The whole chassis of Morris car is tapered outward when we look from engine side to the rear such narrowing provided at the front helps in the vision of members seating inside the car. The chassis consists of four cross members and two long members. Two additional cross members are provided for seats. The material used for long and cross members is alloyed carbon steel having good toughness and tensional rigidity. The long members are channel section at the rear but front curving is strengthened by box section. Both the front cross members have concave at the middle. The rear wheel cross members in front of differential is made current at the middle so that propeller shaft can pass without obstruction to gear box. All the cross members one can observe the reducing thickness of the end.

It has been provided to save the material because bending stresses at the end have small or negligible magnitude. The front narrowing allows turning of the wheel for short radius when vehicle make turn. Case II Ambassador car : It has frame less construction or utilized frame. The body and frame are single unit welded together. It results in reduction of weight over the conventional separate frame and body construction. As its weight is reduced so it consumes less fuel comparatively. The main advantage of this type of construction is that the body itself becomes a load carrying beam. The load is defused through the structure so that the body becomes lighter as well as stronger. It can be assembled very easily. It has low manufacturing cost. Having all these advantages, this type of construction widely used in passenger cars. Modification in the frame: 1. In small vehicles the long members are not parallel but converging towards front. This provides a pace

for front wheels while they are kept in line with rear wheels. 2. In smaller vehicles sometimes the middle members are made inform of letter X engine is supported on V and front cross members are not easily changeable complicated because X structure riveting etc. are difficult. 3. Elevation of long member, long members of small vehicles have got swept of front and rear axles positions. This gives space for springing action of the axles keeping the C.G. low, if we use flat member. 4. Long members with decreases towards front and rear due to bending. 5. Engine cross members (front & rear) are suitable arched to mount (detached) the engine and to keep C.G. vehicle low. This also avoids obstruction of vision by engine. Conclusion: Hence the study and preparation of report on the constructional details of frames of models & ambassador car is completed. Exercise: 1. Discuss the frame construction with neat sketch.