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Basic Engineering Drawing - An Introduction To Engineering Drawing Introduction 1. A drawing is a graphic representation of a real thing. To draw something as a figure by means of lines expressing some ideas on the paper is known as a drawing. The purpose of the drawing is to define and specify the shape and size of a particular object by means of lines and other information about the object. A good drawing gives full information about the object in the shortest and simplest way. 2. A drawing worked out by an engineer, having engineering ideas, for engineering purpose, is known as Engineering Drawing. It is the universal graphic language of engineers. Every language has its own rules of grammar. Engineering Drawing also has been devised according to certain rules. It has its own conventions in the theory of projection, the types of lines, its abbreviations, symbols and its description. The knowledge of the drawing is the most important requirement of all the technical persons to work in an engineering occupation. 3. A technician expresses his ideas on the paper through the medium of drawing. A complete working drawing of a job is prepared in brief. It is then followed up by the workers who give accurate shape to the raw materials according to the drawing. If technician commits a little error in the initial drawing work, it is carried over in the practical work by the workers resulting in the loss of time, money, material and labour. As a result, the production efficiency of the factory decreases. Therefore, it is extremely important for the engineers, designers, supervisors, draftsmen, mechanics and other workers engaged in production to have a thorough knowledge of engineering drawing. Objective 4. The ability to read drawing is the most important requirement of all technical people in engineering profession. The potentialities of drawing as an engineer‟s language may be made use of, as a tool for imparting knowledge and providing information on various aspects of engineering. Significance 5. Engineering drawing is a two dimensional representation of a three dimensional object. It is the graphic language from which a trained person can visualize the object. As an engineering drawing displays a precise picture of the object to be produced, it conveys the same picture to every trained eye. Drawings prepared in one country may be utilized in any other country, irrespective of the language spoken there. Hence, engineering drawing is called the universal language of engineers. 6. By means of drawing, the shape, size, finish, color and construction of any object can be described accurately and clearly in the simplest and shortest way. The quality of any engineering drawing depends on the following factors:

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(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Utility 7.

Ability to visualize the job in three dimensions. A clear conception and appreciation of the shape, size, proportion and design. Clarity of Expression of ideas on the paper by sketches. Speed and accuracy of the drawing work. Interest in the drawing works.

The numerous utilities of engineering drawing are as follows:

(a) As it is the representation of an object on a single plane, even a huge object can be drawn on a small piece of paper with all the necessary details of the object. (b) It precisely and fully gives shape of an object and contains all the information required for its manufacture, inspection or maintenance. (c) It also supplies the information regarding the exact size, material, the relative position, finish, accuracy and method of securing of the parts. (d) Even large machining operations can be represented by small symbols.

Basic Engineering Drawing - Conventions and Abbreviations
Introduction 1. Conventions make the drawing simple and easy to draw. But it is difficult for untrained eyes to understand it easily. Drafting time should be reduced to cut drafting cost. Time must be saved in drafting. It will take a lot of time to draw the actual shape, hence, some conventions are standardized and used in the drawing to save the time. In 1935 the American Standard Association issued the first American standards, entitled “Drawing and Drafting Room Practice”. This standard advocated conventions in many ways, e.g. partial views, half views, symbols, lettering, lines, hatching lines, etc. These have been adopted as a standard convention by the Bureau of Indian Standards also. Types of Lines 2. The basis of any drawing is a line. The use of a right type of line results in a correct drawing. The Bureau of Indian Standards has prescribed the types of lines in its code IS-107141983 to be used for making a general engineering drawing. Table 1 shows the types and thickness of lines used for various purposes. Each line is used for a definite purpose and it should not be used for anything else. (Refer Fig. 1). The various types of lines and their uses are described below:

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(a) Outlines (A). Lines drawn to represent visible edges and surface boundaries of objects are called outlines or principal lines. These are continuous thick lines. (b) Margin Lines (A). These are continuous thick lines along which the prints are trimmed.

(c) Dimension Lines (B). These lines are continuous thin lines. These are terminated at the outer ends by pointed arrowheads touching the outlines, extension lines or centre lines. (d) Extension or Projection Lines (B). These lines are also continuous thin lines. They extend by about 3 mm beyond the dimension lines. (e) Construction Lines (B). These lines are drawn for constructing figures. These are shown in geometrical drawings only. These are continuous thin light lines. (f) Hatching or Section Lines (B). These lines are drawn to make the section evident. These are continuous thin lines and are drawn generally at an angle of 450 to the main outline of the section. These are uniformly spaced about 1 mm to 2 mm apart. Table No. 1 Types of Lines

5 mm long. position of movable part. (o) Chain Thick (J).4 (g) Leader or Pointer Lines (B). These are drawn freehand and are used to show a short break. Locus lines. These are of medium thickness and made up of short dashes of approximately equal lengths of about 2 mm spaced at equal distances of about 1 mm. conical or spherical objects or details. The point of intersection between two centre lines must always be indicated. (h) Border Lines (B). Perfectly rectangular working space is determined by drawing the border lines. It is a long. These are drawn to show long breaks. The location of a cutting plane is shown by this line. These are also called dashed lines or dotted lines. (j) Short-Break Lines (C). (l) Hidden or Dotted Lines (E or F). Leader line is drawn to connect a note with the feature to which it applies. These lines are thin ruled lines with short zigzags within them. thin and wavy. Centre lines are drawn to indicate the axes of cylindrical. or irregular boundaries. (m) Centre Lines (G). initial outlines prior to forming and part suited in front of the cutting plane. (n) Cutting-Plane Lines (H). These are thin. long. The longer dashes are about 6 to 8 times the short dashes which are about 1. extreme positions of movable parts and pitch circles are also shown by this type of line. (k) Long-Break Lines (D). These lines are continuous. For the purpose of dimensioning or to correlate the views these may be extended as required. centroidal lines. . thick at ends only. Interior or hidden edges and surfaces are shown by hidden lines. their point of intersection or meeting should be clearly shown. alternative and extreme. These lines are used to indicate special treatment on the surface. (p) Chain Thick Double Dashed (K). chain lines composed of alternately long and short dashes spaced approximately 1 mm apart. This chain thin double dashed is used for outline for adjacent parts. These are continuous thin lines. thin chain line. and also to show the centers of circles and arcs. It is a continuous thin line. Centre lines should extend for a short distance beyond the outlines to which these refer. When a hidden line meets or intersects another hidden line or an outline.

For any particular drawing. The line group is designated according to the thickness of the thickest line. The thickness of lines are varied depending on whether the drawing is drawn by ink or pencil.5 Fig. (a) Ink Drawing. a line-group is selected according to its size and type. The thickness of lines of various groups is shown in table 2. 1 Types of Lines Comparative Thickness/Grades of Lines 3. All lines should be sharp and dense so that good prints can be reproduced. .

clean and uniform.6 Table No. 2 Thickness of Lines (Ink Drawing) (b) Pencil Drawing.25 mm. dotted lines. Thick and Thin Lines. leader lines.1 Thin Line 4.lines Center-lines. Construction line should be drawn very thin and faint and should be hardly visible in the finished drawing. thick and thin lines. The ratio between the thick line and thin line should not be less than 2:1. If the thickness of thin line is 0.7 mm. It is important to note that in the finished drawing.2 Thickness Medium Lines Out lines. There are only two types of lines used in drawing. section-lines. then the distance between two hatching lines will be1. e.g. For drawing finalised with pencil. Similarly the distance between two parallel thin lines (Hatching lines) is twice the thickness of the heaviest line. If the thickness of the heaviest line is 0. the lines can be divided into two line. . Table No. dimensionlines. then the thickness of the thick line will be 0. all lines except construction line should be dense. The thickness of lines depends upon the size and type of drawing. extension lines.4 mm. construction lines.groups as shown in table 3.5 mm. short break lines and long break lines 0. 3 Thickness of Lines (Pencil Drawing) Line Group mm 0. Cutting plane.

etc. Symbol of two crossed diagonals are used for two distinct purposes. 2) The breaks used on cylindrical metal are often referred to as "S" breaks and these are drawn partly freehand or partly with irregular curves or compass. 3 Approximate Method of Drawing “S” Break . flat surface. (Refer Fig. Conventional symbols are also used in the drawing to indicate many details such as knurl. pipes. are generally shown broken in the middle by conventional breaks to accommodate their view of whole length without reducing the scale. 6. The shape of the broken section is indicated either by a revolved section or more often by a same pictorial break line (Refer Fig. electrical apparatus. Long parts such as bars. etc. 2 Conventional Breaks Fig. Fig. 3) Breaks of rectangular metal and wood sections are always drawn freehand. chain. rolled shapes. first to indicate on a shaft the position of finish for a bearing and second to indicate that a certain surface is flat usually parallel to the picture plan.7 Conventional Breaks and Symbols 5. shafts.

sliding parts. In high speed machines to withstand severe operating conditions with minimum friction and wear. Surface finish is also important to the wear service of certain pieces subject to dry friction. chain-sprockets. such as machine tool bits. etc. forging or moulding operations on the work piece is rough. threading dies. This basic symbol consists of two legs of unequal length inclined at approximately 600 to the line representing the surface to be machined with the vertex touching it. The surface obtained by casting. friction and hence the wear of the two mating parts is reduced. An engineer or designer must learn to note and read surface finish on the drawing.. Bearings. The surface finish or the surface texture is the amount of geometric regularity produced on the surface or a work piece. clutch plates. Smoothness is also important for the visual appearance of finished products. Lay is the primary direction of the surface pattern made by machine tool marks. By proper surface finish. It is to be finished by machining operations.4. called roughness. gears. Smooth finish is essentially required on high precision pieces. Surface Finish Characteristics. For rack and pinion. etc are the objects which require good surface finish. The quality of surface finish on a metal surface produced by any production method other than machining is indicated on the drawing by tick symbol as shown in Fig. lay and flaws. . journals. cylinders. (Ref Fig. gear meshing. rolls. The characteristics of surface finish are roughness. All smooth surfaces have finally spaced irregularities. surface finish is required to ensure quiet operation. a particular surface finish is essentially required. such as gauges. It is not possible to produce absolutely smooth surface. etc. Flaws are infrequent irregularities occurring at random places on the surface. brake drums. 8.Waviness irregularities are the longer roughness variations on the surface. 4) Fig 4 Different Surface Finish Symbols for Indicating Surface Finish 9. piston pumps. All surfaces have irregularities which can be controlled during manufacturing. He is responsible for specifying the correct surface finish for maximum performance and service life at the lowest cost. waviness. stamping dies.8 Surface Finish 7. in the form of peaks and valleys. The degree of surface finish is a factor of cost during manufacturing.

whether this state was achieved by removal of the material or otherwise. 13. it is necessary to indicate the different characteristics of surface roughness such as. direction of lay. If the surface finish is to be produced without the removal of the material. Fig 5 Machining Symbol (a) Basic symbol for Surface (b) Symbol for Surface Roughness by any Production Roughness by Machining without Process other than Machining Process Material (c) Symbol for Surface Roughness Removal of 12. Therefore it is very essential to indicate the exact place for each of these characteristics in the surface finish symbol. hence need not be indicated. grade number or symbol as follows: (a) Roughness value in micrometer which is the arithmetical mean deviation from the mean line of the profile.9 10. If the usual manufacturing process by themselves ensure the acceptable surface finish. a circle is inscribed in the basic symbol as shown in Fig 5. To fully define the quality of surface finish. other roughness values along with the surface finish symbol. The exact place and the method of indicating of these different characteristics in the surface finish symbol are detailed below. the specification of the surface finish is unnecessary. a horizontal bar is to be added to the basic symbol converting it into equilateral triangle as shown in Fig 5. or when a surface is to be left in the very state resulting from the preceding manufacturing process. roughness values or grades. . production method. . . sampling length. Indication of Surface Roughness 14. surface treatment or coating. 11. If the surface finish is to be obtained by removing the material by any of the machining processes. The surface roughness may be indicated by value in micrometer. machining allowance.

10 (b) (c) Roughness grade numbers. abbreviated as Ra is expressed in micrometer or microns (1 microns = 0. Indication of Surface Roughness by Grades in Surface Finish Symbol 16. Method of indicating the surface roughness by all the three methods are explained below. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) recommends the first two types. The surface roughness is also indicated by the grade number instead of their numerical values. (Ref Table 4). the standard grades of surface roughness are denoted as (Ref Table 5). Grades and Symbols (British System) . The Bureau of Indian Standards has recommended twelve grades of surface roughness. Indication of Surface Roughness by Values in Surface Finish Symbol 15. N2.001 mm). These standard grades of surface roughness are numbered as N1. N3………N12. Triangle symbol. The value of surface roughness which is the arithmetical mean deviation from the mean line of the profile. For Russian systems. Table 4 shows the recommended values of surface roughness. Table 4 Surface roughness: Values.

Fig 7 shows a surface finish symbol with all the characteristics of surface roughness indicated in their appropriate places. Instead of the roughness values in µm. Although the Bureau of Indian Standards prefers the indication of surface roughness by grades. from the consideration of the requirements of the general engineering industries. (Refer Fig 6). or by values.11 Table 5 Surface Finish : (Delta) Symbol (Russian System) Indication of Surface Roughness by Triangle Symbol 17. The BIS recommended symbols for indicating the surface roughness are shown in Table 4. the symbol ~ is used. For the roughness values greater than 25 microns. . Fig 6 Indication of Surface Roughness by Triangle Symbol Surface Finish Symbol with all Characteristics 18. it is suggested to indicate the surface roughness on drawing by symbols. the corresponding grade numbers may be indicated.

12 Fig 7 Surface Finish with all Characteristics Use of Symbols and Abbreviations 19. Some symbols and abbreviations used in Engineering Drawing are given in Table 6 for reference. Table 6 Abbreviations and Symbols Term Across Corner Across Flat Approved Approximate Assembly British Standard Fine British Standard Witworth Cast Iron Cast Steel BSW CI CS Right Hand Rivet Reference RH RVT REF Abbreviations A/C A/F APPD APPROX ASSY BSF Term Material Mechanical Number Not to Scale Outside Diameter Pitch Circle Abbreviations MATL MECH No. NTS OD PC Symbols . Symbols and abbreviations are intended for saving time and space.

No. STD SF SPEC SPHERE SQ SYM TP TCD UNF RD U/Cut Beam Channel Number of teeth (Gear) Parallel Tee (Structural section) I ] Z II T .13 Case Hardened Centre line Chamfered Countersunk Counter Bore Cylinder Diameter Drawing Dimension Extruded External Figure Hydraulic Hexagonal Horizontal Indian Standard Inside diameter Internal Machine Machined CH CL CHMED CSK C‟BORE CYL DIA DRG DIM EXTD EXT FIG HYD HEX HORZ IS ID INT M/C M/CD Screw Sheet Serial Number Standard Spot face Specification Spherical Square Symmetrical True Position Traced Unified Fine Round Undercut SCR SH Sl.

In other words. Different methods. This shadow is the projection on the object on the plane of screen showing the contour line of the object. If straight lines are drawn from the various points on the contour of an object to meet a plane. Fig 1 Projection . therefore. The pictorial view of the object does not carry all the details.14 Basic Engineering Drawing . development and structures of machines to manufacturers and builders. are implied for describing the exact shape based on the „projectors‟ drawn by engineers. the object is said to be projected on that plane. Engineers are confronted with the task of communicating the design. The lines from the object to the plane are called projectors. we can say that the projection of an object on a plane is the shadow of the object on the plane showing each and every edge line of the object. Projection on a Single Plane 3.Projection Introduction 1. especially the inner details and correct shape of complicated parts. The shape and size of various parts of a machine and its structure must be recorded on plane sheets in a systematic way for communication. the figure obtained on the plane is called the Projection of the object. Principle of Projection 2. If straight lines are drawn from various points on the contour of an object to meet a plane. Suppose an object is placed in front of a screen and light thrown on the object (assuming the light rays to be parallel to each other and perpendicular to the screen) then a true shadow of the object is obtained on the screen. The imaginary lines drawn from the object to the plane are called projectors or projection lines. the points at which these lines meet the plane. in correct sequence. is called the projection of the object. The figure formed by joining. The object is said to be projected on the plane. The plane on which the projection of the object is taken is called plane of projection.

(b) and (c) represent the object by a pictorial view as an observer sees it. are: In engineering drawing following four methods of projection are commonly used. these (a) Isometric projection (b) (c) (d) Oblique projection Perspective projection Orthographic projection In the above methods (a). These projections. The projections are classified according to the method of taking the projection on the plane. Plane of projection. Thus every drawing of an object will have four things on which projection depends (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Object.15 Types of Projections 4. Projectors. A classification of projection is shown below: Factors on Which Type of Projection Depends 5. Methods of Projection 6. and Observer's eye or station point. Different views of an object can be drawn by projections. which come under the category of „Pictorial Drawing‟ have already been .

In these methods of projection a three dimensional object is represented on a projection plane by one view only.16 discussed in detail in Chapter-7. Usually two views are sufficient for simple objects. Fig. Orthographic Projections 7. at least two or three views are required. named Horizontal Plane (HP). Each projection view represents two dimensions of an object. the projectors to his eyes becomes parallel to the object and he observes the same shape and size as that of the object. a picture is formed having the same shape and size as that of the object. While in the orthographic projection an object is represented by two or three views on the mutual perpendicular projection planes. The view so formed is known as the orthographic projection. 2 View from Parallel Projection . The straight description here stands for the parallel projectors from the object to infinity. These picture planes are mutually perpendicular to each other and are known as „Principal Planes‟ of projectors. (Refer Fig 2). Similarly. Vertical Plane (VP) and Profile Plane (PP). If an observer at position „A‟ moves to infinity. The word orthographic means straight description. the parallel projectors shall form the pictures on the respective picture planes from the positions B and C. but the help of three or more views is necessary for complicated objects. Orthographic projection comes under the category of „Non-Pictorial Drawing‟. If a perpendicular picture plane is inserted between the projectors. For the complete description of the three dimensional object.

The revolving direction of the horizontal plane shows that quadrants I and III are ”open” but II and IV quadrants become “closed” when the horizontal plane coincides with the vertical plane. This method of projection is popular in Europe. Similarly. The intersecting line of the planes is called the co-ordinate axis. Figure 4 shows an object placed in the first quadrant. First Angle Projections. The symbol of first angle is shown in Fig 6. The view on the profile plane is known as Side View or Side Elevation. Fig 3 Four Quadrants 9. parallel projectors from the direction of 'B' forms the picture on the horizontal plane (HP). Parallel projectors in the direction 'A'. . known as Top View orPlan. from the object. known as profile plane (PP) also receives projectors from the object from the direction C. 5.17 Methods of Orthographic Projection 8. especially in Britain. Bureau of Indian Standard has also recommended it now. (a) (b) The two methods of projections are: First angle projections Third angle projections Figure 3 shows four quadrants formed by the intersection of horizontal and vertical planes. It is obvious that the closed quadrant has no use for the purpose of projectors as the views taken on these will overlap. A mutually perpendicular plane to both HP and VP. forms a picture on the vertical plane (VP) which is known as Front View or Front Elevation. The three planes containing the views are then opened on a plane as shown in Fig.

18 Fig 4 First Angle Projection Fig 5 Three Views on a Plane .

The hinged walls of the box are opened and laid down on a plane. The view from the left side (Direction C) is placed on the right side of view A. 9). Fig 7 First Angle Projection 11. The placement of various views are in a systematic way. the projectors from six directions of the object in the first angle are shown. The planes are imagined to be made of transparent material. The view from the right side (Direction D) is placed on the left side. say a glass box. The view from the front (Direction A) is placed in the centre. if necessary. The view from the bottom (direction E) is placed on the top as “E” view. (Refer Fig. The view from the top (Direction B) placed underneath. The view from the right hand side is placed on the right side of FV. Third Angle Projections. The object is placed in the 3rd quadrant. (Refer Fig 7). 8). The view from left hand side is placed on the left side of . The views are to be shown symmetrically as shown in Fig 7 (b). The view from the top is placed above the Front View (FV). (Refer Fig. Although two or three views are enough to reveal an object. The parallel projectors in all the six directions form respective views on the walls of the box serving as picture planes.19 Fig 6 Symbol for First Angle Projection 10. The front wall of the box is assumed to be hinged to the other walls as shown in the figure. This system of projection is known as the American system. The view from the rear (Direction F) may be placed on the right or left side of C or D views.

The view from bottom is placed underneath the FV. The symbol for the third angle is given in Fig 10. Fig 8 Object in a Transparent Box . The view from the rear may be placed on the right or the left of the side views.20 FV.

The object is kept in the first quadrant. The object lies between the observer and the plane of projection. 2 . The plane of projection lies between the observer and the object. 1 Fig 10 Symbol for Third Angle Projection Comparison of First Angle Projection and Third Angle Projection method First Angle Projection Method Third Angle Projection Method The object is assumed to be kept in the third quadrant.21 Fig 9 Layout of Various Views 12. Sl No.

The plane of projection is assumed to be transparent In this method. where it is inconvenient to read dimensions from the right hand side. In this method. all dimensions are so placed that these may be read from the bottom edge of the drawing sheet.S.Dimensioning and Layout Procedure Introduction 1. Plan (Top view) comes below the elevation (Front view). etc. the view of the object as observed from the leftside is drawn to the right of elevation.22 3 The plane of projection is assumed to be nontransparent. diameter of holes. To give all those measurements and information describing the size of the object in the drawing is called dimensioning. 2) . In this system. The shape description is based on projection and the size description on dimensioning. Every drawing must give its complete size description stating length. 1) (b) Unidirectional System. This method of projection is now recommended by the “Bureau of Indian Standards” from 1991. (Refer Fig. which shows the relevant features most clearly. when the views are drawn in their relative positions. Plan comes above the elevation. and such other details relating to its construction. grooves. there is no restriction controlling the direction of dimension lines. Dimensions should be placed on the view. width. Placing of Dimensions 2. preferably near the middle for the insertion of the dimension value. left hand side view is drawn to the left hand side of the elevation. when the views are drawn in their relative positions.A and also in other countries. A drawing of an object is prepared to define its shape and to specify its size. The two recommended systems of placing the dimensions are: (a) Aligned System. In this system. angles. all dimensions are so placed that these may be read from the bottom or the right hand edge of the drawing sheet. In this system. In this method. all dimension lines are interrupted. All dimensions should be placed above the dimension lines. (Refer Fig. thickness. This system is advantageous on large drawings. 4 5 This method of projection is used in U. Basic Engineering Drawing .

However . etc. . however. the lines should not be broken. for example. a cylindrical part. (d) Dimensions for different operations on a part. based on design requirements and the relationship to other parts. should be given separately as in Fig 8. General Principles of Dimensioning. (Refer Fig 6 & 7) . Fig 3 but if it is not possible it may be placed within the view as shown in Fig 4. (b) Normally dimensions should be placed outside the views.23 Fig. such as diameter and depth of drilled hole. or size and depth of a threaded hole. Dimensions are to be given from a base line.(Refer Fig 2) . Fig 5. rather than from hidden lines. drilling and bending. if permissible by its design. all the dimensions for one particular operation shall be specified in one view only. (c) Dimensions are to be given from visible outlines. (e) An axis or a contour line should never be used as a dimension line but may be used as a projection line. the intersection of two dimension lines is unavoidable. 1 Aligned System Fig. Dimension lines may be broken for inserting the dimension in the case of unidirectional dimensioning. dimensions should not be placed within a view unless drawing becomes clear by doing so. important hole or a finished surface which may be readily established. 2 Unidirectional System 3. a centre line of the hole. (a) As far as possible.(Refer Fig 9) (f) The intersection of dimension line should be avoided as far as possible if. Dimensions should not be placed too close to each other or to the parts being dimensioned.

24 (g) Overall dimensions should be placed outside the intermediate dimensions. Where an overall dimension is shown. (Refer Fig 10). Fig 3 Dimensions Placed Outside the View Fig 4 Dimensions Placed within the View Fig 5 Dimensions for Visible Outline Fig 6 Dimensions to a Centre Line . one of the intermediate dimensions is redundant and should not be dimensioned.

25 Fig 7 Dimensioning the Cylindrical Parts Fig 8 Dimensions for Different Operations used as Dimension Line Fig 9 Axis or Contour Line not .

1:5.e. 1:1. 10713-1983 are as follows: The scales recommended for use in engineering drawing by IS: (a). Therefore. 1:20. then RF = (1 cm) / (1 m) = (1 cm) / (1X 100 cm) = 1/100 In terms of Representative Ratio. The ratio of the size of the drawing to the size of the object is known as the representative fraction. Full Size Scale. A convenient scale is chosen to prepare the drawings of big as well as small objects in proportionately smaller or larger size. i.26 Fig 10 Overall Dimension Outside the Intermediate Dimensions Scales 4. scales are used to prepare a drawing at a full size. When the size of the drawing and the object is the same. Drawings of very small objects also cannot be prepared in full size because these would be too small to draw and to read. the reduced scales are used. reduced size or enlarged size. If the length of an object is one meter and it is represented on the drawing by a line one centimeter long. then it is known as full-size scale. Recommended scales are 1:2. Drawing of very big objects cannot be prepared in full size because these would be too big to accommodate on the drawing sheet. RR = 1:100 7. 6. The Representative Fraction (RF) when given in terms of ratio is known as Representative Ratio (RR). Recommended Scales. When the drawings are smaller in size than the actual objects. 1:100. 1:50. Representative Fraction. It is denoted as RF. etc. (b) Reduced Scale. 1:10. . 5.

(a) Sheet Sizes. 20:1. Prints are trimmed along these lines. etc. The recommended scales are 50:1. 8. Fig. After trimming. A full size drawing paper is normally of 565 mm x 765 mm size. 10:1. Margin is provided in the drawing sheet by drawing margin lines (Ref Fig 11). . the prints would be of the recommended sizes of the trimmed sheets. 2:1.12 show an A1 size sheet layout. the enlarged scales are used. Layout of Drawing Sheet. All dimensions are in millimeters. 11 and Fig. The preferred sizes of the drawing sheets recommended by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) are given below as per SP: 46 (1988). Table No 1 Size of Drawing sheet The layout of the drawing on a drawing sheet should be done in such a manner so as to make its reading easy.27 (c) Enlarged Scale. (b) Margin. 5:1. When the drawing to be drawn is larger than the actual objects.

(e) Orientation Mark. . Four centering marks are drawn as shown in Fig 12 to facilitate positioning of the drawing for the reproduction purpose. When prints are to be preserved or stored in a cabinet without filing. (d) Borders and Frames. The orientation mark will coincide with one of the centering marks which can be used for the orientation of drawing sheet on the drawing board. Clear working space is obtained by drawing border lines as shown in Fig 11.28 Fig 11 Margin (c) Border Lines. SP: 46 (1988) recommends the borders of 20 mm width for the sheet sizes A0 and A1 and 10 mm for the sizes A2 to A5. Frame shows the clear space available for the drawing purpose. More space is kept on the left-hand side for the purpose of filing or binding if necessary. equal space may be provided on all sides.

The size of the title block as recommended by the BIS is 185 mm x 65 mm for all designations of the drawing sheets. 2. (b) Title Block. Fig. alterations or additions.. All title blocks should contain at least the particulars as shown in table 13 .29 Fig 12 Border Lines (a) Grid Reference System (Zone system). D. 5 shows the simplest type of a title block. etc. The rectangle of grid along the length should be referred by numerals 1. as shown in Fig 12.Fig 13 Title Block . Space for the title block must be provided in the bottom right-hand corner of the drawing sheet as shown in Fig 3and Fig 4. The grid reference system is drawn on the sheet to permit easy location on the drawing such as details. and along the width by the capital letters A. C. 3.. B.

having two dimensions. According to Euclid. breadth and radius such as square. cylinder. length.e. drawn. rectangle. Geometrical drawing is the foundation of all engineering drawing. Without the knowledge of geometry it is difficult to prepare a drawing. i. Sl No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Information Name of firm Title of the drawing Scale Symbol for the method of projection Drawing number Initials with dates of persons who have designed. cube. neatness and legibility are of great importance in engineering drawing.30 Table No. it is something that has position but no dimensions. All drawings have points. B. Accuracy. etc. C… 4. cone. sphere. sphere.Preliminary Geometry Introduction 1. It is the representation of objects on a drawing sheet. 2. cylinder. length. 2 Title Block Sl No. lines and angles. Engineering drawing is the application of the principles and methods of geometry. etc. circle. A point is marked by a dot in engineering drawing and denoted by capital letters A. Geometrical drawing is the art of representation of geometrical objects such as square. i. Geometrical drawing consists of: (a) Plane Geometrical Drawing.e. (b) Solid Geometrical Drawing. having three dimensions. Lines are of various types as given below: . cone. breadth and height such as cube. etc. It is the representation of objects on a drawing sheet. Point. Lines. checked standards and approved. parallelogram. of sheet and total number of sheets of the drawing of the object Basic Engineering Drawing . rectangle. Terms 3.

31 (a) Straight Line. An angle is the included inclination of the two lines. which is neither vertical nor horizontal. Two straight lines meeting at a point make an angle. 1(a) Various Angles (d) Adjacent Angles. It is an angle whose sides lie on the same straight line. It is an angle. (b) Straight Angle. Two angles whose sum is a right angle are termed as complementary angles. (c) Horizontal Line. An obtuse angle is an angle greater than a right angle and smaller than a straight angle. a horizontal line is a line which is parallel to the surface of earth looked upon as a plane. Oblique Line. In a three dimensional object. (f) Parallel Lines. It is neither broken nor a straight line. It is a straight line perpendicular to the horizontal line. It is an angle numerically smaller than a right angle. It is a straight line. In engineering drawing. The two acute angles in a right triangle are always complementary to each other. [Refer Fig 1(a) and (b)] (a) Acute Anqle. (a) Obtuse Angle. (b) Curved Line. (e) Complementary Angles. which is greater than 180O and less than 360O. lt is the shortest distance between two points joined by a series of points overlapping each other. . a line drawn parallel to base line is known as a horizontal line. A curved line is a line which continuously changes direction. a common vertex and lying on opposite sides of their common side are termed as adjacent angles. but extend in opposite directions from the vertex. (d) (e) Vertical Line. (c) Reflex Angle. Fig. Two lines are said to be parallel if these lie in the same plane and do not meet however far they are extended. It is an angle of 180°. Angle. Two angles having a common side. 5.

Tangent to a Circle. angles. 1(b) Various Angles 6. Chord. The longest chord of a circle is its diameter.32 (f) Supplementary Angles. It is a straight line joining any two points on the circumference of a circle. Fig. Two angles whose sum is 1800 are termed as supplementary Fig. 1(c) Chord and Tangent . A tangent is always at right angle to the radius passing through the point of contact. 7. It is a straight line that passes through exactly one point on the circumference of the circle.

It is prepared. Pictorial Drawing 3. Engineering Drawing 2. based on certain basic principles. Engineering drawing is a language which is understood throughout the world by engineers and fabricators. Its execution requires a thorough understanding of the principles of projection and its reading requires a good practice of constructive imagination.e. etc. standard conventions. The drawings used for communicating the ideas of the design engineer to the production engineer and technicians is known as „Workshop Drawing’. symbolic representations. the communication of ideas to others. inner details. It is the graphic representation of physical objects and their relationship. shape. finish. but the engineers‟ language known as „Engineering Drawing‟ never fails. notations.. The most intricate assemblies with their various complicated parts can be easily represented by engineering graphics. i. which can be understood quite easily. A drawing Prepared by an engineer. Every person cannot understand the orthographic projection. We can describe the shape of a job by means of pictorial drawing also. Other languages may fail to describe the size. for an engineering purpose is known as an engineering drawing. etc. There are various types of engineering drawings and all have one simple purpose. It is the only universal means of communication used by engineers and technicians.33 Engineering Drawing And Workshop Drawing Introduction 1. physical aspects. Pictorial drawing is the drawing of a picture in graphic .

6. Following three methods of pictorial projections are commonly used in engineering drawing: Fig 7. It shows the appearance of the object by one view only. there are three axes known as ISOMETRIC AXES. A trained eye and good imagination will be able to understand the three dimensions of an object. To start an isometric drawing. breadth and height) of the object.1 Isometric.2. Isometric projection is a type of pictorial projection. Y Z) are drawn by taking an angle of 30° from the reference horizontal line as drawn in Fig 7. Metric plane is the same horizontal plane which is used in orthographic projection. In this isometric projection. Oblique and Perspective Drawing (a) (b) (c) Isometric projection Oblique projection Perspective projection Isometric Projection 4. Several orthographic views on different planes are to be drawn to understand fully an object. Anyone can understand by looking at a view what the job is by isometric projection. To represent the three dimensions (length. Z axis is a vertical line to the horizontal line drawn from intersection point of X and Y axes. to represent a real thing by means of picture views. a reference line (horizontal line) and the three axes (X. . Isometric means equal measure.2 Isometric Projection 5. only one view on a plane is sufficient to represent an object in its realistic appearance. all the plane surfaces and the edges formed of these plane surfaces should be equally inclined to the metric plane.34 language of engineers. But in isometric projection. Fig 7.

because the front face is in actual shape and size.6) 8.3 Oblique Projection . But the oblique projection is preferable to the isometric projection in representing the objects of circular shapes. The rest of the object is not projected true in its shape and size. Oblique projection may be illustrated in different ways. second side is vertical and the third side is inclined at 30Oor 45O to the horizontal. 7. in oblique projection. In oblique projection.7. Fig 7. As compared with isometric projection.3 to 7. The lengths of the horizontal and vertical sides are equal to the actual lengths. one side of the object is horizontal. but the length of the inclined side is taken as three-fourth or half of the actual length. length of inclined side and direction of looking the side. an object is placed with its front face parallel to a vertical plane of projection and the visual rays parallel to each other pierce the plane of projection obliquely (Oblique means inclined). The projection represents the front face of the object in its true shape and size. It is not distorted. according to the choice of axes. Both the isometric and oblique projections are the methods of representing the object pictorially. (Refer fig.35 Oblique Projection.

7. as it would appear to the eye. 7. .7. It may also be defined as the figure formed on the picture plane when visual rays from the eye to the object cut the picture plane.36 Fig. the architecture is able to show how an object would appear when constructed.4 Third Axis of the Oblique Projection may be Inclined at 30O or 45O Fig.6 Oblique projection of a cube Perspective Projection. Perspective is mainly used in architecture.5 Inclination of Inclined Axis Fig. By means of perspective. when viewed from a fixed position. Perspective projection or perspective drawing is the representation of an object on a plane surface. called the picture plane. 9.

e. The drawing will show all necessary measurements. e. the assembly of the various parts of a hydraulic component. one part of a hydraulic component. The drawing may not be of actual size. This type of drawing provides all necessary dimensions and working instructions for the production of an item. Orthographic projections are discussed in detail in Chapter-8.contained unit. the complete hydraulic system of an aircraft.7 Perspective Projection Non-Pictorial Drawing 10. Workshop Drawing 11.g. maps. 7. aerial photographs and orthographic projections. The limits of accuracy or the class of fit and the raw materials from which the parts are to be made. . (b) Assembly Drawing. This type of drawing shows a number of components in an assembled condition to form a self. e. in such a manner that the work to be done can be completed with accuracy and as rapidly as possible.g.g. it is undesirable that the original drawing should be used in the workshop. It is not always possible to visualize the object merely by looking at the drawing. There are three types of workshop drawing: (a) Detail Drawing. Instead. a good workshop drawing should satisfy the following requirements: (a) It should show all the necessary measurements without superfluous data or repetition. i. are also indicated. but for convenience may be made larger or smaller than the actual job. (c) General Arrangement Drawing. To facilitate its reading. 12. Workshop drawings are intended to convey the requirements of the designer to the tradesman in such a way that the intended work can be carried out accurately and rapidly. Owing to usage and the possibility of being torn. which are expressed clearly without the need for any calculation. It requires the help of certain rules and convention of engineering drawing. e. Requirement of a Good Workshop Drawing 14. lay-outs. The scale is indicated in the title block. This type of drawing shows the component or assembly in an assembled state.37 Fig. The purpose of a workshop drawing is to convey the instructions of the designer to the mechanic concerned. a number of prints are reproduced. it will be drawn to scale. It can be charts. Types of Workshop Drawing 13.

(f) Any other information not provided in the above clauses that may be required for satisfactory completion of work. . Notes are also used to convey supplementary instruction about the kind of material. etc.38 (b) (c) (d) (e) It should not entail any kind of calculations. kind of fit. Clearly indicate the raw material from which parts are to be made. Brevity in form is desirable for notes of general information or specific instructions. Workshop Notes 15. The use of properly composed notes often adds clarity to the presentation of dimensional information involving specific operations. degree of finish. Clearly indicate the limit of accuracy or class of fit as applicable. Provide a key to machining and other symbols. It is a good practice to specify information representing a specific tool operation or a series of tool operations by notes rather than by figured dimensions.

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