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APPARATUS AND EQUIPMENTS

a) Faradays Electromagnetic lab (2.07) software b) Computer

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

General Precautions Be calm and relaxed, while working in lab Keep the work area neat and clean Be sure about the locations of fire extinguishers and first aid kits in the lab Keep bags and coats in the designated area, as they can cause people to trp if they are simply lying around the room Look away from the screen once in a while to give your eyes a rest Do not touch any exposed wires or sockets Avoid making loud noises and speaking loudly Do not attempt to open any machines, and do not touch the backs of machines when they switched on Do not spill water or any other liquid on the machine, in order to maintain electrical safety There is a lot of equipment in labs that could short circuit itself or cose electrc shocks, so one need to be very careful

Rules for Protecting Equipment

Do not bring any food or drinks near the machine Turn off the machine you were using, when you are done using it Do not access external devices without scanning them for computer viruses Ensure that the temperature in the room stays cool, since there are a lot of machines inside a lab, and these can overheat easily. This is one of the many ways of ensuring computer safety

Try not to touch any of the circuit boards and power sockets when something is connected to them and switched on Always maintain an extra copy of all your important data Dust can affect computers adversely. Ensure that the machines are cleaned on a regular basic

EXPERIMENTS Experiment 1: Bar Magnet This experiment requires student to be able to understand the function of magnet and its capability to generate electromagnetic field when applied. Procedure: 1. Application of the Faradays electromagnet lab was started 2. Bar magnet icon at the top of the software was clicked 3. The indicator was be checked to make sure it at the right side of the software by clicked the icon show field and show compass 4. Any changes was recorded when make the observed by moved the magnet bar around. Attention was be given to ensure that any happen to the south and north pole magnetic field during experiment 5. The polarity was flipped and any changes was observed

Experiment 2: Pick up coil This experiment is expecting student to apply the knowledge of making a solenoid and be able to understand the relationship between number of loop with current as well as magnetic field. Procedure: 1. Application of the Faradays electromagnet lab was started 2. Pick up coil at the top of the software was clicked 3. The indicator was be checked to make sure it at the right side of the software by clicked the icon show field and show compass 4. It started by set the loop to 1 and the magnet was moved from right to left few time. The change was recorded 5. Number of loop was changed to 2 and 3 and repeat step 4 and the change was recorded 6. The polarity was flipped and any changes was observed

Experiment 3: Electromagnet This experiment encourage student to relate the dependence of voltage, number of loop and its relationship to magnetic field once current is supplied.

Procedure: 1. The application of Faradays electromagnet lab was started 2. Electromagnet icon at the top of the software was clicked 3. The indicator was be checked to make sure it at the right side of the software by clicked the icon show field, show compass, show field meter and show electrons 4. Solenoid are moved around and the reading are recorded into the table below

Type of current: DC

Number of loop

Observation

5V

10 V

5. DC was being changes to AC and the change was observed. The result was be recorded into table below Type of current: AC Number of loop Observation

5V

10 V

Experiment 4: Transformer This experiment encourage student to relate the dependence of voltage, number of loop and its relationship to magnetic field once current is supplied.

Procedure: 1. Application of Faradays electromagnet lab was started 2. The transformer icon at the top of software was clicked 3. The indicator was be checked to make sure it at the right side of the software by clicked the icon show field, show compass, show field meter and show electrons 4. Solenoid was moved from the right to the left inside the coil that is attached to the bulb and the reading was recorded into the table below Type of Number of Number of Observation current: DC source pick up coil loop loop 1 (MIN) 5V 2 3 (MAX) 1 (MIN) 10V 4 3 (MAX)

5. DC was being change to AC and the change was observed. The result was be recorded into table below Type of current: AC Number of source loop 2 3 (MAX) 1 (MIN) 10V 4 3 (MAX) Number of pick up coil loop 1 (MIN) Observation

5V

Experiment 5: Generator This experiment encourage student to relate the dependence of voltage, number of loop and its relationship to magnetic field when water is used to generate electricity through ,echanical movement of wheel rotation. Procedure: 1. Application of Faradays electromagnet lab was started 2. Generator icon at the top of the software 3. The indicator was be checked to make sure it at the right side of the software by clicked the icon show field and show compass 4. The loop area was changed 100% as it allows and better bulb was being observed 5. Experiment is done as the table below

RPM

Number of pick up coil loop

Observation

1 (MIN) 50 3 (MAX)

1 (MIN) 100 3 (MAX)

RESULT AND DATA Record your observation in the table below

Experiment

Observation

Bar Magnet

Pick up coil

Electromagnet

Transformer

Generator

Discussion 1. Define Faradays Law Faradays law is a fundamental relationship which comes from Maxwells equations. It is a relative movement of the magnetic flux and the conductor then causes an emf and thus the current to be induced in the conductor. Induced emf on the conductor could be produced by two methods i.e. flux cuts conductor or conductor cuts flux.

a. Flux cuts conductor Flux cut conductor is when the magnet is move towards the coil as shown in Figure 2.0, a deflection is noted on the galvanometer showing that a current has been produced in the coil.

Figure 2.0: Flux cuts conductor

b. Conductor cuts flux Conductor cut flux is when the conductor is moved through a magnetic field as shown in Figure 2.1. An emf is induced in the conductor and thus a source of emf is created between the ends of the conductor. This is the simple concept of AC generator. This induced electromagnetic field is given by

E = Blv volts

where B = flux density, T l = length of the conductor in the magnetic field, m v = conductor velocity, m/s If the conductor moves at the angle q to the magnetic field, then

E = Blv sinvolts

Figure 2.1: Conductor cut flux

2. List down few devices that can be used to measure magnetic field. Many devices that can be used to measure magnetic field which is: Magnet Magnetic field meter Gaussmeters Compasses Filing viewer

3. Explain solenoid and draw standard symbol of a solenoid in a circuit. The general principle of the solenoid action is very important in machine control. Solenoid is an electromechanical device. Electrical energy is used to magnetically cause mechanical movement. Solenoid is a coil of wire wound an iron core and will becomes a magnet when current passes through the coil. It has the shape of a long cylinder. If current is sent through a solenoid, a magnetic field will be created inside it. It also known as solenoid switch. For standard symbol of a solenoid in a circuit which is figure below

Figure 2.2

4. What is saturation in magnetic field and state what happen when a magnet reach its saturation level

5. Give 5 applications of solenoid in the industry. Valves Locks Punches Marking machines Flow control Linear movement

6. According to the findings, what is the effect on the magnetic field when the direction of current is reversed ? Effect of the magnetic field if the direction of current is reversed. The answer is, if were ran a current through a simple straight length of wire, the magnetic field lines that describe the field would be concentric circles with the wire as a center point. these circular field lines would run over the length of the wire pointing either clockwise or counter clockwise. Reversing the current in the wire will reverse this clockwise or counterclockwise direction. To describe the exact affect that reversing the current will have on a particular shape of wire were need to use the this general rule: The direction of the magnetic force at any point is equal to the cross product of a differential current direction and a position vector from the differential segment to that point. Use the following steps to draw the magnetic field lines of the field produced by running a current through any shape of wire:

1) Point the thumb of your right hand in the direction of the current through a small segment of the wire 2) Your four fingers will then sweep out the path of the field lines produced by that segment 3) Repeat this for all small segments of the wire until you have a nice picture of what the overall magnetic field looks like. If us want to see how changing the current affects the nature of the magnetic field for this given shape of wire, repeat 1-3 above but change the direction of the current. Compare the two drawings that you have made.

REFERENCES Robert L. Boylestad & Louis Nashelsky. (2006). Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory (Ninth Edition). Prentice, New Jersey, USA. Hall Sabrie Soloman. (1994). Sensor And Control System In Manufacturing Electronic. McGrawHill, Inc William Bolton. (2008). Mechatronics Electronic Control Systems in Mehanical and Electrical Engineering. Pearson Prentice Hall 4th edition. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

Pengajian Kejuruteraan Elektrik dan Elektronik, Cetakan Pertama 2000 by Mohd. Isa bin Idris