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CARBON SEQUESTRATION BY POND BOUND ORGANIC CARBON PALAKKAD DIST, KERALA.

By 1Thrivikramji, K.P. & 2Jobin Thomas


1CED,

Trivandrm, thrivikramji@gmail.com 2Centre for Geomatics, UoK, Kariavattom Campus, 695581

PONDS AND SMALL LAKES PART OF AGRARIAN CULTURE, RELIGIOUS BELIEVES & NOW PART OF OUR HERITAGE. NATURAL LOWS OR LOWS WALLED IN BY SOIL + ROCK EMBANKMENTS EFFICIENTLY STORED RAIN/SNOW MELT- WATER FOR LATER USE DURING WATER EMERGENICIES.

POST WWII & DAWN OF MODERN STORAGE DAMS, SPREAD OF CANAL IRRIGATION, MACHINERY FOR PLOWING, SOWING, HARVESTING, CHEM. FERTS & PESTICIDES. THE CONVENTIONAL PONDS & SMALL LAKES GRADUALLY SELF-OBSCURED

PONDS, KERALA STATE (SOURCE: PAN FISH) TOTAL NUMBER=41784 2 AREA = 23814 HA OR 238.0 KM PASSIVE STRUCTURES OF CARBON CC&S.

RISING CO2 LEVEL IN TROPOSPHERE


post industrial revolution Rising use of FF like coal, oil and gas the chief source or drivers of GCC Atmospheric CO2 levels monitored at Mauna Loa, island in Hawaiian chain. Initiated by (Late) Prof. Keeling, USC, continued by Prof. Ralph Keeling now, NOAA Runs 200 observatories. 400 ppm, Nov, 13-13

2012-13 CO2 LEVEL, MAUNA LOA

CO2

CH4

CONSEQUENCES OF CO2 BUILD UP?


CO2 a green house gas CO2 build up leads to: lower tropospheric warming, shirking of glaciers, wasting of polar ice, rise in sea level, shift in climatic zones, changes rainfall patterns, vegetation shifts etc

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS?
Reduce consumption of fossil fuels? Go for new fuels or fuel mixes? Sequester (capture & store CO2?) Where?

In geological formations
In abandoned oil and gas fields

Mineralize CO2
In seas & oceans or such other????

Global Carbon Cycle: Inventories World oceans = ~39,000 GtC Fossil fuel deposits = ~6,000 GtC Soils & vegetation = ~2500 GtC, Atmosphere= ~ 760 GtC2

In Post IR, Land use changes added~136 GtC to Lr. Troposphere, Fossil fuel use added~270 GtC Atmosphere trapped~180 GtC, New biomass consumed ~110 GtC Balance entered the oceans.

CO2 Flux, 1990-99. RELEASES= fossil fuel: ~6.3 GtC/yr, biomass burning (leaves &timber): ~1.6 GtC/yr ABSORPTIONS= oceans & new/growing vegetation: ~2.3 GtC/yr, Balance =3.3 GtC/ yr in atmosphere.

Tropospheric CO2 build up drives up av. Terrestrial temp.; Warms - expands SW & causes GSLR. Higher av. temp. melts Polar & Greenland ice sheets, Himalayan glaciers driving up SL. MITIGATION BY: Lower FF use & lower biomass burning (forest vegetation) to shrink CO2 emission for reversing potential of warming & SLR trends

Mitigation Suggestions (Pascala & Solocow (2004):


Raise fuel economy of 2 billion cars from 30 to 60 mpg Reduce use of 2 billion 30-mpg cars, from 10,000 to 5,000 mi/yr. Raise building energy efficiency by 25% vs. levels projected in 50 years. Double the 32% capacity of efficient baseload (60% energy efficient) coal-fired power

Mitigation Suggestions (Pascala & Solocow (2004):


Replace 1,400 gw of 50%-energy-efficient coal-fired power plants with natural gas-fired power plants quadrupling current gas-fired capacity. Introduce carbon capture & storage (CCS) at 800 Gw of coal base-load power capacity or 1,600 Gw of natural gas base-load power capacity. Introduce CCS at plants producing 250 mt/y of hydrogen from coal or 500 mt/y from natural gas.

Carobon capture &

SEQUESTRATION
to set off or apart; separate; segregate;

Carbon capture & sequestration, CCS One approach for mitigating potential GCC due to anthropogenic emissions of CO2 & other GHGs, is to capture CO2 at fossil fuel using sources, & store it terrestrially or oceanically.

Oak Ridge National Lab Focuses on sequestering C in geological formations, biologically active ponds & on improving degraded lands to enhance C storage.

Worldwide Potential of CO2 Storage @Gt C Ocean, 100010,000 Deep saline formations, 10010,000 Depleted oil and gas fields, 1001000 Coal seams, 101000 Terrestrial, 10100 Utilization Currently, 0.1 Gt C/yr

TOC = OC + CC
2 Types- organic and inorganic carbon TERRESTRIAL SEQUESTRATION:
Soil carbon

During photosynthesis, plants convert CO2 into organic carbon in roots and as plant residue, A horizon Inorganic carbon minor- is in carbonates resulting form non-biological interactions but considered more permanent.

CHEMICAL SEPARATION Scrubbing CO2


Amine absorbents: Flue gas is bubbled through a solution of water & (lean) amines. Portion of CO2 remains in solution & rich amines are pumped to another vessel & heated to decompose back into regular (lean) amines & pure CO2 gas. Pure CO2 gas is collected from this vessel, & regular amines are recycled to flue contactor gas vessel.

GEOLOGICAL SEQUESTRATION
Depleted oil & gas reservoirs: Ideal sites for Pumping down CO2 for long-term storage. Former oil pools with the cap rock secure reservoirs for storage. Currently this technology is in vogue for Tertiary recovery of oil & gas.

GEOLOGICAL SEQUESTRATION
Unmineable coal seams: Deep coal seam is not minable. Methane (CBM) trapped in the open pores of coal seams are recovered by drilling deep wells for depressurization & dewatering. Nitrogen is also pumped down to CBM recovery. Instead, pumping CO2 down will recover the CBM & securely store the CO2.

Serpentinite reactions Reaction 1 Mg-Olivine + Carbon dioxide Magnesite + Silica

Mg2SiO4 + 2CO2 2MgCO3 + SiO2 + H2O

Reaction 2 Serpentine + carbon dioxide Magnesite + silica + water Mg3[Si2O5(OH)4] + 3CO2 3MgCO3 + 2SiO2 + 2H2O

Reaction 3 Mg-Olivine + Water + Silica Serpentine 3Mg2SiO4 + 2SiO2 + 4H2O 2Mg3*Si2O5(OH)4

Reaction 4 Mg-Olivine + Water + Silica Serpentine 3Mg2SiO4 + 2SiO2 + 4H2O 2Mg3*Si2O5(OH)4

TERRESTRIAL SEQUESTRATION
Phytoplanktons atmospheric CO2. So organic matter in bottom sediments of ponds, small & large lakes ideal loci River waters trap dissolved OC Soil & humus & Photosynthesizing terrestrial & aquatic plant life trap C of

SKY MINING
CAPTURING CO2 OF FLUE GAS TO make foodgrade Na-bicarbonate (baking soda) & hydrochloric acid, both of which generate revenue. offsets carbon build up.
Also used for the production of CH4

Life on Earth carbon based. Suns energy fixes CO2 in biomass. Fossil fuels a legacy of algal photosynthesis in geologic past.

CO2 Mining
by Algaemarine & freshwater, micro & macro plants with higher photosynthetic efficiencies compared to terrestrial plants & thus efficient carbon capturers/traps /removers

HOME OF ALGAL BIOMASS:


TERRESTRIAL WATER BODIES LIKE PONDS, SMALL AND LARGE LAKES AS WELL AS COASTAL OCEANS IN THE LR. LATITUDES.

Lakes- Globally accumulate OC @ ~ 42 Tg yr1. Reservoir sediments trap 160 Tg yr-1, Peatlands trap 96 Tg yr-. But only cover < 2% of the Earth's surface. A carbon sink of ~300 Tg yr1. Oceans cover 71% of Earth's surface, but trap OC @ of ~100 Tg yr1

Small Continental Waters LAKES & PONDS completely ignored in all global processes & cycles. Ecologists ignored such systems & processes, as such ecosystems of limited areal extent. So no major role in global processes. Little things mean a lot

But recent inventories based on modern geographical & mathematical approaches show that continental waters occupy nearly twice as much area as was previously believed

Halbfass (1914) and Thienemann (1925), pioneered cataloguing of worlds Lakes

Farm ponds linked to extent of agricultural land area & precipitation. 304 million natural lakes in the world covering about 4.2 million km2. Roughly twice that of earlier estimates.

Small lakes, ponds, puddles, marshes & streams, are of disproportionately greater importance in world cycles & processes.

Globally, small lakes in size 0.0001-0.001 km2 (100-1000 m2), the dominate on continents. Number in the range of 3.2 109 natural ponds & cover some 0.8 billion km2

Oligotrophic lakes/ponds with sedimentation rate of <1 mm/y, Life span might be 1000-10,000 y In highly erodible, nutrient-riched environments, small lakes/ponds disappear in a few decades by sedimentation & succession.

Carbon-processing intense small lakes/ponds more heterotrophic than large ones, process substantial amounts of terrestrial or external carbon

Globally, small agricultural ponds cover ~77,000 km2. OC burial ranges from 17 kg C/m2/y to 148 g C/m2/y greater in small impoundments than large ones

Areal C burial rates in lakes 10x - of wetlands 100x of tropical forests, 1000x in tropical & boreal forests, and 10,000x for the worlds oceans. Moderately sized ponds/lakes may bury 4x as much C as the worlds oceans.

Worlds farm ponds likely sequester more OC/yr than oceans and 33% as much as the worlds rivers deliver to the sea. Rate of C burial in eutrophic lakes are ~an order of magnitude higher than those in oligotrophic lakes of similar size

Ocean & land-based sites have an enormous capacity for storing CO2. Worlds oceans are the largest traps for carbon storage. Worldwide total anthropogenic carbon emissions are 7GtC per year (1 GtC=1 billion metric tons of carbon equivalent).

In Iowa (Downing et al., 2008) small, agriculturally-eutrophic impoundments bury carbon @ av. of 2122 g m-2 yr-1

5X higher than in large river impoundments, 30X


more than in small, natural lakes & over 400X greater than in inland seas & large natural lakes (Mulholland and Elwood, 1982; Dean and Gorham, 1998).

PONDS: SPATIAL TYPES

1. Head-valley Ponds 2. Mid-valley Ponds 3. Toe-valley Ponds

PONDS: GENERIC TYPES, NATIONAL SCENE


1. Temple Ponds 2. Public Ponds 3. Private Ponds 4. Quarry & Mine Ponds 5. ???

PONDS INTERNATIONAL SCENE


Most OM of Lakes / ponds autochthonous, OC/N ratio = <10.0 Plant pigments in surface sediments of lakes in the English Lake District, much like Minnesota lakes, Organic matter in more productive lakes autochthonous (Gorham et al., 1974).

Average OC content= 20% OC/N =11 in sediments of 23 Wisconsin lakes (Brunskill et al., 1971).

If OC in lakes of glaciated areas of N.Hemisphere, like Minnesota lakes, Experimental Lakes Area, English lakes, & Great Lakes, is out of photosynthesis, the carbon pool buried over the past 10,000 yr must be enormous.

Similarly the OC trapped in Holocene, by the coastal wetlands (Kayal) of Kerala must be equally huge in content (e.g., especially in the humus-rich bottom sediments of Kuttanad, Vembanad and Kole) and in the several thousand smaller ponds of much younger age.

MAR (MASS ACCUMULATION RATE) OC IN THE TOP 10.0 CM OF EUTROPHIC LAKE GREIFEN, SWITZERLAND = 5060 G M2 YR1 BUT STOOD AT ~10 G M2 YR1 IN PRE1880S (HOLLANDER ET AL., 1992).

OC ACCUMULATION IN MINNESOTA LAKES AVERAGES AT 72 G M2 YR1, SUM OF OC ACCUMULATION STANDS AT ~1012 G YR1 OR 1.0 TG YR1.

The total OC MAR yr-1 in lakes = 42.0 Tg, Reservoirs = 160.0 Tg, Boreal peat-lands = 96.0 Tg Or sums up to 298.0 Tg. Total area of three carbon sinks only about 2% of the world oceans surface area. But they bury 3X more carbon than the oceans do.

To calculate accumulation rates of carbon we need measurements of dry bulk density (DBD), a good chronology, and measurements of OC.

SEDIMENT PHYSICAL PROPERTIES


Pond-ID SKPM TTLA PLKD KLD CHTR

Organic Carbon, 4.1335 OC, (%)

0.973

3.3357

1.752

5.741

Inorganic carbon 2.3988 0.5644 1.9473 1.0162 3.3299 (%) Dry bulk density (g/ cm3) 1.18 1.14 1.16 1.46 0.94

Textural class

fszC

zC

fzC

fszC

fszC

YEARLY OC BURIAL
Pond-ID Area, m2 t C/yr Total burial, t C/yr SKPM 311.0 15.18 TTLA 5793 64.26 PLKD 11446 442.89 KLD 2034 52.03 CHTR 200 10.75

585.11

PALAKKAD DIST., Yrly OC BURIAL


Type / Title Private ponds Area 948.27 ha Quantum 355,612.0 t C/y

Panchayath ponds
Quarry ponds All ponds

176.84 ha
136 1180.27

66,287.0 t C/y
55.16 t C/y

442,414 t C/y

POND FREQUENCY, KERALA


10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

POND FREQUENCY DENSITY, KERALA


100 80

60

40

20

POND FREQUENCY, PKD


500

375

250

125

POND FREQUENCY DENSITY, PKD


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

0.0

CHARACHIRA, TRIVANDRUM

COMMUNITY POND, VEERAVANALLUR, TN

STORAGE POND, NANJINADU, NAGERKOVIL

POND TURNING MARSH

SUBURBAN POND, TRIVANDRUM

POND IN KUTTANAD, KERALA

TEMPLE POND, MYLAPORE, CHENNAI

TEMPLE POND, TIRUANNAMALAI

OFFICE COMPLEX IN FILLED POND, TRIVANDRUM

RECLAIMED POND, TRIVANDRUM

ROWING POOL IN OLD TIME POND, TRIVANDRUM

HAVE A GOOD DAY