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Summary of Lecture 3 Chapter 5

Simplest resistivity measurement and calculation of geometric factor to convert resistance into resistivity Normal device Lateral device Boundary and thin bed behavior Focused devices Induction devices Corrections to estimate true resistivity

Radioactive Properties of Rocks

Reading Assignment
Bassiouni Ch. 2 Radioactive Properties of Rocks

Where are we heading?

What reservoir properties can be inferred by radioactive measurements?

Atomic Structure

Cartoon only Electrons occupy orbitals, many of which are not spherical Size of nucleus is much smaller

Size of atom ~ 10-10 = angstrom Size of proton ~ 1 femtometer ~ 10-15 m ~ .00001 size of atom, i.e., tiny

Atomic Structure
Conventional units Na = Avogadro's number = 6.023 x 1023 Mass: 1 amu = (1 g/Na) me = .5 MeV/c2 Energy = eV Emitted light is visible to ultraviolet

Cartoon only Courtesy: Electrons occupy orbitals,C.C. Lin, many of whichUniversity are not of spherical Wisconsin Size of nucleus is much smaller
Size of atom ~ 10-10 = angstrom Size of proton ~ 1 femtometer ~ 10-5 angstrom

Nuclear Structure
The nucleus also has energy levels
Conventional units mp ~ mn ~ 1 amu ~938 MeV/c2 Note: masses are often expressed as energy/(speed of light)2 to make it easier to calculate the energy of emitted photons since E = h = hc/ Energy = MeV Emitted light is gamma radiation

Alpha particle emission two protons + two neutrons = He nucleus

16 12 4 O C + He (which is alpha particle) 8 6 2

Types of Natural Radioactive Decay

Beta particle emission one electron from the nucleus not the atomic orbitals
n p + + e +

Proton conversion to neutron

14 14 + C N e (which is beta particle) 6 7

Positron emission Electron capture (K shell capture)

ln 2 dN = (constant) Ndt = Ndt

Decay Rates

ln 2 dN = dt N hl ln 2 dN dt = N hl 0 N0 N t ln 2 ln = hl N0 N = N 0e
t ln 2 N t


N0 When t = = hl then N 2

Natural Gamma Radiation in Rocks

Clean sandstones emit very little radiation Clays attract radioactive minerals So for real rocks Shales are about 3% K, of which about 0.01% is radioactive K40 (or about 300 ppm) + 6 ppm U + 20 ppm Th Sandstones contain about 100 ppm K40 (about 1/3 of shale concentration) + 6 ppm U + 20 ppm Th Summary: shale emits about 3X the gamma rays of sandstone

Significance of Natural Gamma Rays

For sandstone-shale sequences, simply recording the nature gamma ray emissions from the formation provides a shale indicator

Absorption of Gamma Rays

Photoelectric effect low energy photons Depends on atomic number Z of atoms Compton scattering medium energy photons Independent of Z, just saps energy from Pair production high energy photons Independent of Z, just saps energy from

Photoelectric Effect

Compton Scattering

Gamma Ray Absorption Logging

Litho-density tool
Photoelectric effect absorption is a function of Z so absorption can be calibrated to estimate lithology (types of rocks and minerals) Compton scattered just depends on density of electrons which in turn depends on density of rock so absorption due to Compton scattering can be used to estimate density

Neutron Scattering
Fast neutrons are produced by bombarding targets with accelerated positive ions Neutrons are neutral bullets

Inelastic scattering
Neutron hits nucleus, excites it, the nucleus emits a that is detected. The has a particular frequency that is associated with a particular element.

Elastic Scattering
Hydrogen is the most effective moderator because the mass of a hydrogen nucleus is about the same as the mass of a neutron Where is most of the hydrogen in a reservoir?

Why is H the most effective moderator?

An effective neutron moderator is a nucleus to which a neutron will transfer a lot of energy in each elastic collision. What should the mass of an effective neutron moderator be?

You have all the tools to derive this result. Dont get lost in the weeds.

1. Physics

2. Algebra to Obtain Velocities

3. Algebra to Obtain Energy Transfer

4. Calculus to Obtain Maximum Energy Transfer

4. Calculus to Obtain Maximum Energy Transfer (continued)

Summary of Lecture 4 Chapter 2

Types of natural radioactive decay Units Decay rates and half-life Natural gamma radiation as shale indicator Gamma ray absorption Preview of gamma ray absorption logging Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering