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You are on page 1of 20

Basic Problem

We wish to solve the following problem: Wave Equation:

2 2u u 2 =c 2 t x 2

Boundary Conditions:

u(0,t) = 0

and u(L, t) = 0

for all t

Initial Conditions

CM3900 Lecture 4 2

Discretisation Method

We consider a mesh in one space and one time dimension xi xN = L x1 x2 x3 x4 x0

t0 t1 t2 t3

x

x i = x 0 + i x

t (xi, tj)

where N x = L and t j = t 0 + j t

tj

CM3900 Lecture 4 3

The power series expansion for a function f(x) at the point x + h is given by 2

and about x - h is

Adding these two equations and keeping terms to second order in h, we obtain

4

CM3900 Lecture 4

Hence, we see that an approximation to the second derivative is given by

CM3900 Lecture 4

We can therefore discretise the second derivatives in the wave equation using this formula

u(xi ,t j + t) 2u(xi ,t j ) + u(xi ,t j t) 2u (xi ,t j ) = 2 t ( t)2

i.e.

CM3900 Lecture 4

Similarly

u(xi + x,t j ) 2u(xi ,t j ) + u(xi x,t j ) 2u (xi , t j ) = 2 ( x)2 x

CM3900 Lecture 4

2 2 u u , becomes 2 So the wave equation =c 2 t x 2

u i, j+1 2u i, j + u i, j1 ( t )

2

=c

u i+1, j 2u i, j + u i1, j ( x ) 2

or

i.e.

where

ct = x

CM3900 Lecture 4 8

In terms of the mesh points ui,j-1 -1 ui-1,j ui,j 22 ui,j+1 ui+1,j t = tj+1 t = tj t = tj-1

we can construct a diagram to show the relative contribution of the preceding points to ui,j+1

CM3900 Lecture 4 9

To advance the solution from the tj to the tj+1 time-slice, we use the boundary conditions together with the main equation

for i = 1, 2, N 1

There is however a problem with the initial step from t0 to t1. Because the wave equation is a p.d.e. which is second order in the time variable, the discretised version approximates the function at on the next time-slice by using information from the preceding, as well as the current time.

10

CM3900 Lecture 4

At j = 0, the information for this time-slice is provided by the initial condition u( x,0 ) = f ( x ) which is discretised to u i,0 = f ( x i ) Unfortunately there is no previous data corresponding to j = -1. However, we do have initial conditions which give the initial

u derivative function t

= g( x )

t =0

CM3900 Lecture 4

11

Discretising this derivative using

u( x i , t j + t ) u( x i , t j t ) u (x i , t j ) = 2t t =

setting j = 0, we get:

u i, j+1 u i, j1 2t

and so

CM3900 Lecture 4 12

To get started therefore, we have

u i,1 = (u i+1,0 + u i1,0 ) + (2 2)u i,0 u i,1 = (u i+1,0 + u i1,0 ) + (2 2)u i,0 [u i,1 2t g( x i )]

Hence

u i,1 = (u i+1,0 + u i1,0 ) + (2 2)u i,0 u i,1 1 = { (u i+1,0 + u i1,0 ) + (2 2)u i,0 + 2t g( x i )} 2 = [u i+1,0 + u i1,0 ] + (1 )u i,0 + t g( x i ) 2

CM3900 Lecture 4 13

The diagram for the initial step is therefore

/2

1-

/2

t g(xi)

t = t0

t = t1

CM3900 Lecture 4

14

Summary

For the initial step we use:

j = 0: j = 1:

CM3900 Lecture 4

15

Example

2 2 u u 2 Numerically solve the 1-D wave equation = c 2 2 t x with c = 1, subject to

i) ii)

u(0, t) = u(1, t) = 0

for all t

using x = 0.1 and t = 0.05 i.e. find u(x, t) for x = 0.0 to 1.0 in steps of 0.1 and t = 0.00 to 2.00 in steps of 0.05.

CM3900 Lecture 4 16

Solution

We first calculate = Initial step:

1/8 3/4 1/8 t = t0

1 ct = 4 x

t = t1

CM3900 Lecture 4

17

Solution

Subsequently

-1

1/4

3/2

1/4

CM3900 Lecture 4

18

Solution

The calculation can be set out as a table

x 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 t 0.05 0.000 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.400 0.300 0.200 0.100 0.000 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 etc

CM3900 Lecture 4 19

Solution

The solution can be graphed for various values of t

0.5 u0,i u2,i u5,i 0 u8,i u10,i 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0.5

0.5 0.5 0 xi 1

CM3900 Lecture 4

20

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