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The elastodynamic field of an infinite isotropic elastic medium is investigated when a
spherical portion of the medium experiences a dynamic phase transformation. The phase
transformation is modeled as a spatially uniform eigenstrain over a sphere multiplied
by an arbitrary function of time.

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ByY. MIKATA

(Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529-0247, USA) [Received 24 September 1991. Revise 2 January 1992] SUMMARY The elastodynamic field of an infinite isotropic elastic medium is investigated when a spherical portion of the medium experiences a dynamic phase transformation. The phase transformation is modelled as a spatially uniform eigenstrain over a sphere multiplied by an arbitrary function of time. The objective is to determine the elastic fields inside and outside the sphere when the dynamic eigenstrain is given. Using a Green's-function approach, an exact closed-form solution is obtained for this problem. As special cases, a time-harmonic solution as well as an elastodynamic response of the medium due to a sudden phase transformation are discussed.

1. Introduction

ELASTODYNAMIC response of a material is investigated when a spherical portion of the material undergoes a dynamic phase transformation. The time response of the phase transformation is arbitrary. The present problem was motivated by the desire to understand the dynamic response of transformation-toughened ceramics. These have attracted considerable attention in recent years (1 to 4). Toughening in ceramics occurs when a zirconia particle undergoes a stressinduced phase transformation which accompanies a volumetric expansion. Most of the studies on this phenomenon have been for quasi-static loadings (for example, (5 to 7). In a previous paper (8), in an attempt to analyse the dynamic behaviour of transformation-toughened ceramics, a time-harmonic elastodynamic field due to a dynamically transforming spherical inclusion was investigated. In a related paper (9), interaction between a harmonic stress wave and a dynamically transforming spherical inhomogeneity has been treated. The present paper is an extension of (8) in the sense that the elastodynamic response due to an arbitrary temporal progression of the phase transformation is investigated instead of the time-harmonic behaviour of the material.

The dynamic phase transformation is modelled as a spatially uniform eigenstrain (or transformation strain) over a sphere multiplied by an arbitrary function of time. Our objective is to determine the elastic fields inside and outside the sphere within an infinite isotropic elastic medium when the dynamic eigenstrain is given. An exact closed-form solution is obtained for this problem.

[Q. Jl Mtch. appL Mtlt, Vol 46, PL 2, 1993] Oxford Unhersity Press 1993

276

Y. MIKATA

Our solution is a generalization of Willis's solution (10), where only the spherically symmetric deformation was considered.

Consider a dynamic inclusion Q with an eigenstrain e* which is embedded in an infinite isotropic elastic medium. Here we use the term 'inclusion' to denote a subset of a matrix, which has an eigenstrain (or transformation strain), but has the same elastic properties as the matrix. Our objective is to determine the elastic fields inside and outside the inclusion Q. The following eigenstrain is considered: 0, xeR3-Q,

where ef, are constant eigenstrain components over Q, and f(t) is an arbitrary function of time t. By using the Fourier-transform method (see (11, (8.11)), the displacement field is given by

Too Too

*, t) = J oo * oo

CmMet,(x',

t')Gim,n(x

-x',t-

t')dx'dt',

(2.2)

Anp \_ dxfix^ x

dx,dxm

ax r X< tx

<X

(2.3)

0

C i C C \ I 1 C C

otherwise,

/ ^ A \

a=

/ZCLJ:,

p=

,

VP

x = \x\ = (xkxk)*.

(2.5)

Here Cmtkl are the elasticity tensor components of the medium, \i and X are Lame constants, and Gim(x,t) is the three-dimensional elastodynamic Green's function. The above form (2.3) can be derived from (11, equation (9.34)). It is noted here that (2.3) is similar to the equation (34) given by Willis (10). There are, however, a couple of minor misprints in the equation (34). It may be also noted that there are several minor misprints in equation (38) in (10).

277

3. Spherical inclusion Substituting (2.1) into (2.2), and applying Gauss's theorem to the resulting expression, we have

Ui(x,t)

= CnmUetl f f{f)df

J -oo

Jan

(3.1)

where nn is the nth component of the outward normal to the inclusion surface dQ. When the inclusion Q is a sphere of radius a, we have n (x') - a By setting v = t t', (3.1) is rewritten as (3.2)

* f

J -00

)Elmn(x,v)dv,

(3.3)

1

p,!

_ f

32

1

(x, - x',)(xM - x^;]

Jr

nn(x')8(\x-x'\-Pv

|x-x'|3 d2

pL(x,v)=!

l

The evaluation of the integrals F imn, F ^ , and Ff^, is the major result in this paper, and is carried out in the following. Let us first note that the domain of integration r ( c dil) is, in general, a strip on the surface of the sphere, which has axial symmetry with respect to the line L (see Fig. 1), given by

L.A=*i =

A_

X3

(38)

X,

X2

278

Y. MIKATA

From the above observation, it is natural to select a new coordinate system x'i[i = 1,2,3) such that the i'3-axis coincides with the line of symmetry L (see Fig. 2). The relation between the two coordinate systems is

A=

where xy x2x3

9 = (9tj)

=

(3.9)

y y 0

X

*2

X

xy _y

(3.10)

and x = *Jx\ + x\ + x\, y = yjx\ + x\. The matrix g is orthogonal. Thus we have | x - x ' | = |0(x-*')l = | x - x ' | . Let us first concentrate on F,1,^,. Using (3.6.1), we have FLK v) = 3LxiXmGsm - axfil, - axmG5mi + a2G^ - 5imG3n, (3.12) (3.11)

279

n n

;dS, :dS,

*m*

Jrlx-x'|

(3.13)

-5 _ f >imn '

i mnn 77

Gi =

Jrlx-x'|

Let us introduce the spherical coordinates (r, 6, <p) in the new coordinate system j?J. The relationship between the coordinates $.\ and the spherical coordinates (r,6,4>) is given by \ = rs\n6cos<p, X'2 = r sin 0 sin 4>, i' 3 = rcos0. (3.14)

f .y^.5dS = a

Jr|X

X |

|X X

(3.15)

280

Y. MIKATA

FIG. 3. Polar angles 0, and #2. a n d t n e domain of the integration F where ^i and 92 are the polar angles corresponding to the boundaries of the strip F (see Fig. 3). The normal vector A is given by

n = (sin 9 cos <f>, sin 6 sin (j>, cos 6).

(3.16)

o

2u

(3.17)

Carrying out the integrals (3.15) using (3.17), and substituting the resulting expressions into (3.12), and setting z = |x - x'| = yjx2 + a2 - laxcosd, we finally obtain F L ( M ) = [!W];i, where (3-19) z} = Jx2 + a2 - 2axcos9j, (3.18)

l^^

(3.20a)

281

H^z)

= --\--{x2 8x*|_ z

9z(x2 + 5a2) -

3

)3 +

J

8x

-z(x 2 +9a 2 )

z3

(3.20b) It should be noted here that z{ and z 2 depend on y through 0, and 02. Similarly, we obtain

{fW

where r . : | x - x ' | = o, and

^^-"a

0

(3,,)

r , : | x - x ' | = /?,

(3.23)

f

H A a) = [/(ay){x4 - 2x2(7a2 - (ay)2) + 5(a2 - (av)2)2} + 16a2x4], 8x 4 '

4 H5(a) = -^[/(ay){x + 4(ax)2 - (a2 - (au)2)2} - 8a 2 x 4 ], 4 8x

282

Y. MIKATA

We now turn to the determination of the boundary of the strip F. We have two cases: (I) the observation point x is inside the inclusion ft, and (II) x is outside ft. Six wave-front diagrams are shown for each of these two cases, in Figs 4 and 5, respectively, to determine the strip F. In these figures, the observation point x is located on the positive i'3-axis without loss of generality.

(i)

- x

FIG. 4. Wave-front diagrams for the observation point x inside the inclusion

283

(iii) j | \a - x | < v 4. - (a + x)

(iii)' ^

FIG. 4. Continued

284

Y.

MIKATA

-*3

i

^ \

fiv

7 \

\ \

~a

<I(

Jti

(v)

v > Ua + JC)

FIG. 4. Continued

285

(ii) I \a - x \ 4. v < m i n { i (a + x ) , \a - x \ ) FIG. 5. Wave-front diagrams for the observation point x outside the inclusion

286

Y. MIKATA

FIG. 5. Continued

287

, i | a -x\}<

< ( a + x)

x;

FIG. 5. Continued

288

Y. MIKATA

Using(3.19), (3.21) and (3.22) with the help of Figs 4and 5, we finally arrive at (i) (ii)

B

^I|a-x|, a

Ffnn(x,v) = Fln(x,v)

= Ffmn(x,v) = O;

(3.25.1)

(iii) I | f l (3.25.3)

Ffmn(x,v) = Ffmn(x,v) = O;

(3.25.4)

(iv)

(v)

Ak U ] k + ),ax\]^v^Ua

FL(x,) = 0, / r L,(x,o) = L,(/J);

y

+U x\ FL(x,)

[a

J (3-26.2)

7^L(^)]r:-^ + -EL()1;

(iii) - | a - x | ^ D < -a( a + x),

(3.26.3) (3.26.4)

289

~P

(3.26.5)

=<

4np\

(v)

v>-(

P

c),

Eimn(x,v)

(3.26.6)

Equations (3.3) and (3.26) represent the displacement field due to the spherical dynamic inclusion Q with a spatially uniform but arbitrary time-profile eigenstrain e*,(x, t) given by (2.1). By substituting (3.20) and (3.24) into (3.26), we have, as a simplified form,

(ii) -\a-x\

(3.27.1)

(iii)

-|a-

16px |_a 1 a 1

\ - Yimn(av) -

\a-x\

lmn

>

(3.27.2)

-Y,

(/ a3.; 2px4

(3.27.3)

(iii)'

-(

Eimn{x,v) = 1

|a-x

1

(v) where

v^-(a

16px4| 0, Elmn(x,v) = 0,

(3.27.5) (3.27.6)

imn X X X X

(3.28)

2

Y. MIKATA

where e* signifies the magnitude of dilatation. Substituting (2.4) and (4.1) into (3.3), we have u f (x, t) = (2fi + U)e* |

J c

(4.2)

Substituting (3.27) along with (4.3) into (4.2), we obtain u,(x, t) = ^ ''f(t - v)l(otv)dv. (4.4)

Equation (4.4) represents the displacement field due to the spherical inclusion Q with a dilatational eigenstrain e?,(x, t) given by (2.1) and (4.1). It should be mentioned here that the radial component of the displacement (4.4) if rewritten in spherical coordinates coincides with the result given by Willis (see (10, (41)). 5. Time-harmonic solution As a special case of the solution (4.4), let us consider a time-harmonic eigenstrain. Thus we set = -", (5.1)

where co denotes an angular frequency. Substituting (5.1) and (3.24.6) into (4.4), and performing the integration, we obtain ui(x,t) = ui(x)e-ia", where ui(x) = R^j1(kx)hi{ka), u,(x) = Rji (kafh^kx), x with 1+v , co R = ifcaV, k =- . (5.4) 1v a Here v is the Poisson ratio, and jx and /ij are spherical Bessel functions. Note that (5.2) coincides with the result obtained by Mikata and Nemat-Nasser (see (9,(31)). xeQ, (5.3) x e R 2, (5.2)

291

Let us now consider a suddenly transformed spherical inclusion with an arbitrary eigenstrain. Thus we set = H(t), (6.1)

where H{t) is the Heaviside step function. Substituting (3.26) and (6.1) into (3.3), and after fairly lengthy but straightforward calculations, we finally arrive at " ( ( x , 0 = C m i u A V i m ,(x,r), where (i) t^-\a-x\, a J i m n (x,t) = 0; (6.3.1) (6.2)

(6.3.2) (iii) -\a-x\^tK-(

- x\,

16(2/1

]^}C(BUI];

(iv) max \-(a + x),-|a - x\ \ ^ t ^ -{a + x), L P ) P

(6.3.4)

292 and

Y. MIKATA

Uz)= - - + z(x2+a2),

R(z) = 4a3z2,

As a special case of the solution (6.2), let us consider the dilatational eigenstrain ef,, given by (4.1). Substituting (2.4) and (4.1) into (6.2), we have

U((x,t)

= (2/i + 3A)e*JiBM(x)t). C ^ = 0.

(7.1) (7.2)

Using (3.28) and (6.4), we have PimmW = 4xx,L(z), Substituting (6.3) along with (7.2) into (7.1), we obtain (i) < - | a - x | , a u,(x,t) = 0, (7.3.1)

(ii) - | a - x | s t s : - ( a + x), a a

4(2,

whose radial component coincides with Willis's solution (see (10, (44)). It should be pointed out here that the solution (7.3) can also be readily obtained from (4.4) by setting f(t) = H(t).

8. Eshelby tensor

Equation (6.2) represents the transient displacement field due to a suddenly transformed spherical inclusion. Thus for a given point in space, after a

293

sufficiently long time, the elastic field at that point is expected to become a static elastic field due to the transformed spherical inclusion. This static elastic field is given by (6.2) and (6.3.6). In this section, let us consider only the elastic field inside the inclusion. Substituting (6.4) into (6.3.6), we have ,t) = =^ (v) t>Ua + x), Jbm(x,t) ^-- ll O x A m - T - ^ - ^ - l , *< P 30L 1-v J By using (6.2) and (8.1), the strain field is obtained as (v) where t>-(a P + x), e,j(x, t) = StJkletb x < a, (8.2)

(8-1)

Y-J

2\5XJ

+-J

3x, /

\c

( 8 3 )

Thus we have recovered the static Eshelby tensor SIJkl (Eshelby (12), Mura ( 11 )). 9. Numerical results and discussion Numerical results are given for a suddenly transformed spherical inclusion, which was treated in section 6. Let us consider three cases with the following eigenstrains easel: case 2: case 3: e*, = e*2 = e*2 = e*, e*x = l-5e*, ef3 = e*, e*2 = e*, ej = 0 33 = 0-5e*, (</;), e,* = 0 (1 ^ _/), (otherwise),

efj = 0

where e* is a reference strain magnitude, which is arbitrary. In all of the above cases, Poisson's ratio v is taken as ^. In the subsequent figures, ux and uz stand for Uj and u3, respectively. In Fig. 6, the non-dimensional displacement ujae* is shown for case 1 as a function of non-dimensional time at/a at (a) x = (0-5a,0,0), (b) x = (a,0,0) and (c) x = (15a,0,0). It is seen from Fig. 6 that the largest displacement is experienced at the boundary of the spherical inclusion. In Figs 7 and 8, the non-dimensional displacements ujae* and ujae* are shown for cases 2 and 3, respectively, as a function of at/a at (a) x = (005a,0,0), (b) x = (0-5a,0,0), (c) x = (a,0,0) and (d) x = (1-5a,0,0). It is seen from Figs 7 and 8 that the largest displacement is also experienced at the boundary of the spherical inclusion. It is also noticed from Figs 7(a) and 8(a) that there exist two peaks for the respective non-dimensional displacement at at/a = 1 and 2. The first peak at at/a = 1 corresponds to the arrival of the

294

i-u

Y. MIKATA 10

0-8

% "

a

6

/ / / 0-5

/^N

x = (0-5a, 0,0) ;

VI

i . . . .

2-5

30

OL. 0 0-5

2-5

30

0-6

'

0-4 0-2 0 1 , ...

o

3

0-5

2-5

30

FIG. 6. Non-dimensional displacement ujae* for case 1 at (a) x = (0-5a,0,0), (b) x = (a,0,0) and (c) x = (15a,0,0)

longitudinal wave, which is generated at the interface between the spherical inclusion and the surrounding medium. Similarly, the second peak at at/a = 2 corresponds to the arrival of the shear wave, which is also generated at the interface. This type of behaviour is typical for the region sufficiently close to the origin. Amplitudes of these pulses stay finite even at a point very close to the origin. But the width of the pulse becomes thinner and thinner as the observation point x approaches the origin. Therefore, they behave almost like a Dirac delta function in time at that point. At the origin, however, the

I I I I I I ' ' I ' I ' I

295

x = (0-5a, 0, 0)

0-5

2-5

30

0-2

(a. 0,0)

: : -

0 0

3 4 Time atla

0

0

FIG. 7. Non-dimensional displacement ujae* for case 2 at (a) x = (0O5a,0,0), (b) x = (0-5a,0,0), (c) x = (a,0,0) and (d) x = (15a,0,0)

displacement stays always zero. This singular behaviour of the displacement near the origin produces large stresses however small the eigenstrain, which might lead to a possible rupture of the material near the origin. This fact was pointed out first by Willis (10) for a spherically symmetric eigenstrain. Because of the spherical symmetry, however, Willis found only one such peak of the displacement corresponding to the arrival of the longitudinal wave. It is also interesting to note that for case 2, the first peak is larger than the second peak, and for case 3, the second peak is larger than the first peak.

296

Y. MIKATA

u-y

. . . .

1 . . . . 1 . . . . 1 .

'

"

'

'

ti

= e

x = (0-5a, 0,0)

#

0-2 0

0-5

2-5 3 0

...

i . . . . i . . . .

-0-11 0

i.... i 3 4

Time alia FIG. 8. Non-dimensional displacement ujae* for case 3 at (a) x = (0O5a,0,0), (b) x = (O5a,0,0), (c) x = (a,0,0) and (d) x = (15a, 0,0)

REFERENCES

1. I-WEI CHEN and P. E. REYES MOREL, J. Am. ceram. Soc. 69 (1986) 181-189. 2. R. C. GARVTE, R. H. HANNINK and R. T. PASCOE, Nature 258 (1975) 703-704.

3. F. F. LANGE, J. Mater. Sci. 17 (1982) 225-263. 4. D. B. MARSHALL, J. Am. ceram. Soc. 65 (1986) 173-180.

5. B. BUDIANSKY, J. W. HUTCHINSON and J. C. LAMBROPOULOS, Int. J. Sol. Sir. 19 (1983)

TRANSIENT ELASTIC FIELD 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. R. M. MCMEEKING and A. G. EVANS, ibid. 65 (1982) 242-246. Y. MIKATA and S. NEMAT-NASSER, J. appl. Mech. 57 (1990) 845-849. and , J. appl. Phys. 70 (1991) 2071-2078. J. R. WILLIS, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 13 (1965) 377-395. T. MURA, Micromechanics of Defects in Solids (Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague 1987). J. D. ESHELBY, Proc. R. Soc. A252 (1957) 561-569.

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