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Women Education

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Introduction Significance of Women Education Women Education and Islam Locus and State of Women Education in Pakistan o Census of 1951 to 2009 o Present 2013 Barriers to Women Education • Poverty as a Barrier • Girl Child as Second Mother • Bonded Labour System • Cast System as a Barrier • Dowry as Cordon • Child Labour Practice • Female Age at Marriage • The Lower Enrolment • Higher Dropout Rate among Girls from Schools • Inadequate School Facilities • Lack of Qualified Female Teachers • Lack of Transport Facilities • Lack of Hostel Facilities for Girls • Fear of Sexual Harassment • Fixed Schooling Hours • Inferiority, Subservience and Domesticity • Ineffective Law Enforcing Machinery • Demographic Factors • Poor Political Will and Conviction Effects and Impacts of Women Education Advantages Disadvantages Recommendations for Refining the Literacy Level of Women in Pakistan: Senior management commitment to gender issues Career development programs for women Exposure of women to top management Leadership development programs for women Job rotation for women Recruitment of women at senior-level positions Regular surveys of women to assess job satisfaction Mentoring programs for women Child care facilities at work Conclusion

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Prepared by: Muhammad Faisal ul Islam Cell: 03336587420 EE-mail: mfaisalulislam@yahoo.com

“Man and woman are like the two sides of a coin. as it is incorporated in every Five-year plans as the major programme for the development of women. they can solve all the problems of their houses. Domestic works were their only education. progress and prosperity can easily be established by educating women hence someone has rightly said. Prepared by: Muhammad Faisal ul Islam Cell: 03336587420 EE-mail: mfaisalulislam@yahoo. raising number of schools and colleges of arts . girls hostels. and professional for girls. the future generations will be uneducated. Women can work as teachers. To meet this exigency women should be educated. They help each other in every sphere. I shall give you a heroic race.com . So education should be given to both man and woman. the real problems are faced first by women and then the same problems are conveyed to men for solution. Without one. science. During the British rule in India some noble social thinkers of the time paid their attention to the education of woman in our country. Very often. education of women can be helpful in eradicating many social evils such as dowry problem. women did not receive any education at all. the working men of some families become handicapped in unfortunate accidents. enrolment and retention of girls in the schools. If women are uneducated. "No nation can rise to the height of glory unless your women are side by side with you. If the women are educated. It is a crime against humanity that our women are shut up within the four walls of the houses as prisoners.” In day to day life. In that situation." – Napoleon Pakistan is the sixth largest country in the world so far as population is concerned.Women Education "Give me a few educated mothers. But so far as education is concerned it is a backward country. Moreover. women are the mothers of the future generation. Social peace. Further. Educated women are good mothers. unemployment problem. the complete burden of the family rests on the women of the families. doctors. In past. Universalization of elementary education. There is no sanction anywhere for the deplorable condition in which our women have to live. We are victims of evil customs. etc. multipurpose institutions and adult education programmes are some of the steps being taken by both central and state governments in Pakistan to boost-up women's education. Women' education has assumed special significance in the context of Pakistan's planned development.” One of the recommendations of National Policy on Education (2009) by the Government of Pakistan is to promote empowerment of women through the agency of education and it is considered to be a land mark in the approach to women's education of illiterate. lawyers and administrators. They should be employed in different spheres. politechniques. promotion of crutches. the other cannot exist. He put forth a very strong argument. Quaid-e-Azam the founder of Pakistan was the famous reformer who gave emphasis on the education of women. They were not allowed to come out of the four walls of their houses.

They can contribute in the development of the country in the same way as men do. Women have been given a position of pride in every religion. From education they become fully matured in all the fields of life. Educated women are well aware of their duties and rights. good wives and good mothers. We must give up our conservative outlook and create an atmosphere in which not a single woman remains uneducated. we educate a man only. "Sura-i-Nisa" is devoted for the role. There is no doubt about the fact that men and women are equal. Our opinion too must not differ from Napoleon. They have to discharge their duties as good daughters. rights and duties of the women.Significance of Women Education: It is said that “If we educate a man. The Holy Quran holds learning as priceless and tells that only the learned can understand the Prepared by: Muhammad Faisal ul Islam Cell: 03336587420 EE-mail: mfaisalulislam@yahoo. Islam teaches that education of men and women is of equal importance. Napoleon was once asked. but if we educate a woman. Women have three major roles to perform in the course of their life. Women are the foundation of a family. It is a fact that women are the first teachers of their children. Apart from these important duties. about half of the people will be ignorant. but women have a vital role in the over-all development of the society and the nation. No student of the comparative religious philosophy can fail to observe that at the fountain of every spiritual faith and at the basic fabric of every civilized society. what the great need of France was. Women Education and Islam: Empowerment of the women is an essential component of the political and social development of society. they can play an important role in shaping and moulding of their sons and daughters. Their education should be such as may enable them to discharge their duties in a proper way. In the Holy Quran a complete Sura. it is necessary to give women a different kind of education from the one given to boys. stands a woman whose sympathy blesses the work of infusing a new life into humanity. Hence. Hinduism and other religions they are respected and due importance is given to their role and rights. Hence.com . In Islam. Christianity. welfare. society and finally the Nation.” This highlights the importance of female education. It is in their lap that the children receive the very first lessons. If the women of my country are not educated. The growth and development of a community or civil society depends upon the growth and development of its individuals in general and the women in particular. community and society. He simply answers "Nation's progress is impossible without trained and educated mothers. Women are equal partners in the overall growth and development of the family." Such was the opinion of Napoleon about educating the women-folk. if mothers are well-educated. they have to prove themselves as good citizens of a free democracy. we educate the whole family.

0% 32. the United Nation's enormous pressure with regard to the uplift of the plight of women in terms education is still in the state of an enigma in Pakistan for several reasons. Year of Census 1951 1961 Male 19. The growth is Prepared by: Muhammad Faisal ul Islam Cell: 03336587420 EE-mail: mfaisalulislam@yahoo.8% 66. feminist critics.e.The growth of women's education in rural areas is very slow. the weak.75% 45% 21.4% 16. and come close to Him.a) was highly learned and he is reported to have said to his companions: Learn half of the faith from Ayesha.2% 26.9% Female 12.25% 69% 11. After the death of the Holy prophet his companions frequently asked her for guidance in matters on which there was a difference of opinion and she was considered an authority on many vital issues and a large number of authentic traditions were narrated by her.3% Definition of Being "Literate" One who can read a clear print in any language One who is able to read with understanding a simple letter in any language One who is able to read and write in some language with understanding One who can read newspaper and write a simple letter One who can read a newspaper and write a simple letter.6% 16. This obviously means that still large womenfolk of our country are illiterate. in any language 1972 1981 1998 2004 2009 30. Hazrat Ayesha (r.2% Total 16.2% 43. 58% . constitutional guarantees.9% 54% 57% According to the above said figures.2% 35.0% 41.7% 26. Moreover education is also not available to all equally. The 2009 Census report indicates that literacy among women as only 45 percent It is virtually disheartening to observe that the literacy rate of women Pakistan is even much lower to national average i.signs of Allah and His wisdom.2% 8.1% 54. surprisingly the female literacy rate has increased at a faster pace than the male literacy during the decade 1961 -2013. protecting laws and sincere efforts by the state governments and central government through various schemes and programmes over the last 65 years and above all. backward and exploited. His own wife. Locus and State of Women Education in Pakistan: In spite of the forceful intervention by a bastion of female privilege." The Holy prophet had keen interest in the education of women.com . The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) has said: "It is the duty of every Muslim man and woman to seek knowledge. Gender inequality is reinforced in education which is proved by the fact that the literacy rate for the women is only 45% against 57% of men as per 2009 Census.

Barriers to Women Education in Pakistan: Women education is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. This higher rate of illiteracy of women is undoubtedly attributing for women dependence on men and to play a subordinate role. scheduled caste and scheduled tribes. cultural. collecting firewood. Thus promoting education among women is of great important in empowering them to accomplish their goals in par with men in different spheres of life. especially among females. educational. In rural Pakistan especially in poor families this traditional sex role makes girl child handicapped and conditioned by the attitude of mother and the family and discourages girl child to go school as it becomes secondary. While that is certainly true.almost 6 times e.2 % in 1961 and 45 % in 2009.com . Bonded Labour System: This social evil is a quite discouraging phenomena which stand as barrier for girl's education in rural areas for the underprivileged families of washer men and agricultural labour. demographic. From this analysis. 8. The lack of education is the root cause for women' exploitation and negligence. No single factor or cause can be held responsible for very low literacy rate of women in Pakistan. as of January 2013. fetching water. In many families especially poor and down-trodden Prepared by: Muhammad Faisal ul Islam Cell: 03336587420 EE-mail: mfaisalulislam@yahoo. our literacy rate is 58% and the ratio of the literacy rate of women is 46% as compared to 69% of men. bringing fodder for cattle. Poverty as a Barrier: The conventional view of illiteracy is that it is closely linked to poverty. Dowry as Cordon: Dowry system and other social practices act as main causes of the neglect of the girl child and discrimination against girl child including the deprivation of right of education. Moreover. Subsequently it is associated with combination of many factors including social. cleaning and cooking etc. The following are the some of the important factors which could be attributed for the present poor state of affairs of womenfolk in education. political and administrative and so on. Cast System as a Barrier: Children belonging to low caste families are forced to learn skills and work ways and not encouraged to go to school due to various factors in the sphere of strict instruction/threat from high caste communities for their selfish motives of keeping them as domestic servants and child labourers in the farms or factory. economic. one can infer that still the female literacy rate (only half of the female population are literates) is wadding behind male literacy rate (three fourth of the male population are literates). there are numerous other factors responsible for the low levels of literacy. Girl Child as Second Mother: In many families girl children play the role of second mother by shouldering the responsibilities of household work such as looking after the sibling. The rate of school dropouts is also found to be comparatively higher in case of women. and it is only by understanding the impact of these other factors that significant and meaningful increases in illiteracy can be achieved. Only literacy can help women to understand Pakistan’s constitutional and legislative provisions that are made to strengthen them.g.

thus actively focusing and participating in the learning process. tribal and slums areas seem to be quite high. Pakistan’s last survey of child labour took place in 1996. parents especially in rural areas . The Lower Enrolment: The lower enrolment of girls in schools is one of the foundational factors which stand as stumbling block for women empowerment in Pakistan. showing the country has three million child labourers. bricks. Lack of Qualified Female Teachers: Girls are more likely to attend schools if they have female teachers. construction etc. the Child and Adolescent Protection Specialist with UNICEF. quarrying . coir industry. Prepared by: Muhammad Faisal ul Islam Cell: 03336587420 EE-mail: mfaisalulislam@yahoo. they have to accumulate more assets and properties to provide as dowry in large proportion at the time of marriage. Reliable sources indicate that more than 50 % of the Non-Starters (those who have never been to school) are girls. Zari. Higher Dropout Rate among Girls from Schools: The incidence and prevalence of dropouts among girls especially in rural. According to available sources.handloom works. match and fireworks. as many as 10 million children could be working in Pakistan indulged in carpet making .glass. Female Age at Marriage: There is high association of female literacy with female age at marriage.com . The methods of teaching are mostly outdated. improper building. bangles. mining .are hesitant to send their girls to schools that have only male teachers. Girls are more comfortable and more vocal with lady teachers. domestic works. This obnoxious practice discourages female children to continue their schooling and higher education as they enter into family life at the early age which is not advisable from the physical and mental health point of view and also of social development. rigid and uninteresting. The subjects taught in schools are also not related to the environment of girl children. According to the latest statistics.think that if their daughters are educated more. occurrence of drop-out and stagnation amongst girls is nearly twice that of boys all over Pakistan. gem polishing . latrine and toilet facilities. Also. There are still hundreds of schools with poor basic amenities such as drinking water. This prevails more in underprivileged families and communities Child Labour Practice: A large segment of child population in Pakistan is engaged in child labour practices. By and large the female age at marriage of 16 as prescribed by various legislations not at all followed in Pakistan. Inadequate School Facilities: In general the school environment for girls in Pakistan is not really interesting and encouraging. so prefer rather to either stop their children with average education and so on but never higher education. 5 out of every ten girls in the age group of 6-11 are still not enrolled in schools. In most of these industries girl children are preferred for high productivity and low cost. But the poverty created in the wake of disasters like the 2005 earthquake and 2010 floods have undoubtedly driven many more children to work. It is very much ignored and neglected by the families of parents with low literacy and illiteracy background. Nearly all committees and commissions that have looked into illiteracy have recommended increased recruitment of women teachers. According to Mannan Rana. embroidery. and inadequate number of teachers' especially female teachers preferable for any parents for safety of their girl children from different types of exploitation and abuse.

therefore. of our country have neither political will nor conviction for the empowerment of women in general. also attribute immensely for the poor literacy level of women and girls in Pakistan Poor Political Will and Conviction: Government officials. Subservience and Domesticity: The female child in Pakistan’s culture especially in rural. Necessarily. Fixed Schooling Hours: Fixed schooling hours do not suit girls in rural areas. Girls. Fear of Sexual Harassment: Parents often complain about insecurity for girls attending schools. subservience and domesticity which place sever limitations on her education and development Ineffective Law Enforcing Machinery: Pakistan’s constitution and various legislations pertaining to education to children assure free and compulsory education for all children of this nation but unfortunately the enforcement machinery fail to discharge its duties and responsibilities to the satisfaction of the public interest and welfare of women Demographic Factors: The high population growth rate. tribal and poor families is expected to develop the qualities of inferiority. policy makers. rapid urbanisation. thereafter they remain bound to their homes.Lack of Transport Facilities: Particularly in rural areas. This perverse assumption must be discarded. parents are hesitant to send their girls to schools that have only male teachers. transportation is needed for girls to attend middle and secondary schools. Inferiority. and equal numbers of schools at all levels must be established. but secondary education facilities assume that children will drop out as they age. which are often far away from their homes. politicians etc. and therefore fewer schools are established to cater to older children. migration etc. Hence. these schools tend to be inaccessibly far away from many school-age girls. Lack of Hostel Facilities for Girls: Many girls desirous of pursuing education above middle level. as they are needed for domestic work at home or in farms and fields during these hours. This is one of the causes of lower participation rates of girls in education. The enrolment rates of girls and their retention can be improved if educational facilities are made available to girls during periods suitable to them when they are free from domestic chores. particularly those belonging to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes would continue their education at middle and above levels if they could find free or inexpensive residential facilities nearer the educational institution. Prepared by: Muhammad Faisal ul Islam Cell: 03336587420 EE-mail: mfaisalulislam@yahoo. facilities for which are available away from their homes. Instances of abduction. Nearly all committees and commissions that have looked into illiteracy have recommended increased recruitment of women teachers.com . Primary education is often accessible much closer. cannot avail themselves of these facilities due to lack of hostel arrangements. rape and molestation of girls dampen the enthusiasm of parents and girl students in pursuing education beyond a certain age.

The enrolment can Prepared by: Muhammad Faisal ul Islam Cell: 03336587420 EE-mail: mfaisalulislam@yahoo. Recommendations for Refining the Literacy Level of Women in Pakistan: The following measures can be considered for bringing phenomenal change in the plight women's education and empowerment in Pakistan Since the prevailing situation of poor or less enrolment of girls in schools closes the doors for development and prosperity of future generation of women. Education especially of women has a major impact on health and nutrition as an instrument of developing a sustainable strategy for population control. we cannot decry the women-folk in our country. Indeed the different organs of the United Nations and experts on women‘s liberation argue for women's education as the basic step to attain equality with men. Moreover educated women can play an equally important role as men in nation building. more out of their disgust than for any other reason. Hence. There are women scientists. If the mothers be ignorant. So. They leave them in the nursery. It is found in Europe and America that the educated women do not want to bear children. Advantages: The female education is highly necessary for the society. Thus there is no denying fact that education empowers women. concerted efforts must be initiated jointly by the government. the news agents.Effects and Impacts of Women Education: Education is a potent tool in the emancipation and empowerment of women. the sales agents the commercial solicitors are mostly women. Disadvantages: But the female education has some disadvantages too. So. The defect lies in the curriculums. parents and civil society to achieve universal enrolment for girls without any compromise. driving cars and aero-planes. if the females will be ignorant the society will lose the services of a powerful part of our society. The women are in no way inferior to men. Hence. Because mothers are the first teachers of the children. positive self-esteem.com . The typewriters. In western countries the women are writing books. They cannot infuse good qualities in them. female education is quite necessary for the girls. women officers and women writers. It is indispensable that education enables women not only to gain more knowledge about the world outside of her hearth and home but helps her to get status. They are the first teachers of the future citizens of the country. they cannot take proper care of the children. They do not like their children. necessary courage and inner strength to face challenges in life. and self-confidence . If they learn what the males learn then naturally they will like to be like males. The greatest single factor which can incredibly improve the status of women in any society is education. separate courses of study should be prepared for the females. But the defect does not lie in education as a principle. Though it is apparent that education facilitates women to procure a job and supplement the income of family and achieve social status. the very foundation of our people will remain weak. running banks and big business firms and doing research in the laboratory.

subservience and domesticity which place sever limitations on her education and development. NGOs and government agencies. voluntary sector and philanthropic organisations and individuals should come forward to provide free education for poor girls and provide free hostel facilities for girls studying in schools and colleges in every state of Pakistan. Note books . Fee uniforms . underprivileged families must be specially educated with proper social formula to help them to understand the significance of education for their girl children as foundation for empowerment Prepared by: Muhammad Faisal ul Islam Cell: 03336587420 EE-mail: mfaisalulislam@yahoo.com . Every family irrespective its socio-cultural and economic background can take it a challenge to bring up their girl children as dignified human being with empowerment in physical. scholarships Free bus pass and so on as done in the state of Tamil Nadu can be provided in all states and union territories to lift up the literacy level among girls As social evils like dowry. economic and social dimensions of life. Women Universities and other educational institutions in hand with NGOs and social service organisations such as Rotary Clubs . The poverty stricken families can be identified through proper research and necessary poverty alleviation services be provided to strengthen the income thereby to enable the families to send their children to schools and colleges without much financial difficulties Bonded Child labour and Child labour practice must be abolished with strict administrative measures and the relieved children form bondage should be integrated into schools with suitable defence social mechanism. Free bus . women lib organisations associations can work together to improve the educational status of the womenfolk in this country on mutual respect and understanding. caste system and other practices deprive rights of education for children belonging to poor and underprivileged families and communities.be made even mandatory for every girls by the government in the realm of compulsory education. This would help in changing the society’s attitudes towards girls and their roles to treat every girl or woman as human being with self-respect and dignity. they should eliminated through well-designed packages of mass awareness programmes and social welfare measures with full support of public. The parents of children belonging to poor. tribal and slums areas with the serious involvement of voluntary organisations in every locality to realize zero drop-out among girls. mental. Appropriate steps should be taken by the educational authorities with the participation of communities in order to bring the girl children to the main stream of education and development at every level including family and community. This will certainly encourage children of poor families to pursue good and higher education without much impediments The schools of social work. departments of women studies. The Ministry of Education both at Centre and State level should work out strategic steps to stop firmly the ongoing high drop –outs among girls especially in rural. The electronic and print media can play significant role in building a good and positive image about girls and women in general in the society by giving no focus for such advertisements and news fetching commercial gain at the cost of depicting women as an object. child marriage . The Midday meal scheme and other educational supportive services like free text books. The female child in every Pakistani family irrespective of socio-economic status should be moulded to overcome the challenges of inferiority. Government. Free Bicycles. political parties. Lions Clubs .

. The law enforcing machinery should be made really effective with efficient monitoring vigilant system to implement the constitutional and legislative provisions and administrative measures to assure free and compulsory education for all children of this nation without any gender discrimination. religions. It is a good sign that today's women are not considered a weaker sex. Once she is on the move. Government officials. Conclusion: Women are an integral part of our society. The idea of human race can't be conceived without the existence of a woman. policy makers. Although legally and theoretically women are now considered as equal to men yet there are people who refuse to give them their due. Society runs on two wheels.. both the wheels must be equally strong to run smoothly. "In order to awaken the people. Pt. NGOs and public should work hand in hand to implement the minimum age at marriage (21and above) Awareness should be created to institutionalise it as a traditional practice cut crossing castes. They work even in police and tense departments. As a result we see women working in almost every field." Prepared by: Muhammad Faisal ul Islam Cell: 03336587420 EE-mail: mfaisalulislam@yahoo. community etc. Jawaharlal Nehru has justly observed. If we want to make democracy successful. Our constitution grants them equal rights not more rights as compared to men. In a nutshell. Though.. Women in the holy books have been bestowed with a very high status and have been adored with various adjectives. political parties and others should have adequate political will and conviction to empower women in Pakistan without double standard mind. They are being taught properly right from their childhood. Female education is important and all the impediments must be removed from the way of their education. They think that the women are inferior to men and ill treat them and misbehave with them. Women play a vital role in the all-round progress of a country.. They are the real builders of happy homes. All right thinking people should protest against it. women must be educated. She is called as mother of the nation and it is said that education of the mother means education of the entire family.Government. the house hold moves and the country moves and thus we build the India of tomorrow. Women can play a vital role in the social. it is the women. we have to take a view to extend a cooperative attitude in imparting education to the women folk. who has to be awakened. economic and political development of the society provided they are conscious of their rights and responsibilities.com . In this regard. female education is the need of the hour and without educating the women of the country we can't hope for a developed nation. They should try to broaden the outlook of those who have conservative feelings for women.