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TUNGSTEN CARBIDE TOOLS

Training Manual for Boring

Drilling

Preface 1. 2. 3. 4. Definitions Drilling methods Parameters Wear and negative influencing factors

Vorwort 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.5 1.6 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3 Definitions Cutting speed Feed Tool life Cutting force Specific cutting force Section of Cut Feed force Power Power from the cutting force Torque Power from the cut volume

2. 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2

Drilling methods Drilling from solid Drilling from solid with one-piece tools Drilling from solid with replaceable inserts

2.1.2.1 Indexable Insert Drills - Position of the cutting edges 2.1.2.2 Section of the drill 2.1.2.3 Indexable insert 2.1.2.4 Diameter Accuracy 2.1.2.5 Range of application 2.1.2.6 Eccentric position - Eccentric sleeve 2.1.2.7 Comparison of system 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 Trepanning Definition trepanning Tool concept/trepanning Counterboring Boring and counterboring - Theory Counterboring tools for stepped counterbores Back Counterboring Boring Boring with rotating tools Cutting cartridges for boring tools

2.4.3 2.4.4 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 2.5.5 2.5.6 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12

Boring strategies Special tools for counterboring and boring Precision boring Precision boring with system tools for smaller diameters Precision boring with system tools for medium diameters Precision boring with system tools - Bridge-type tools Special tools for precision boring Diameter tolerances for precision boring Tool presetting accuracy with regards to the measured diameter Boring and precision boring on lathes Clamping lengths Chip shapes Idexable inserts shapes Cutting edge configurations Chip breaking ranges Recommended cutting parameters

3 3.1 3.2 3.3

Parameters Quality of surface Hole tolerance Coolant pressure and volume

4. 4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.5 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.4 4.5.5

Wear and negative influencing factors Wear Causes Mechanical wear Diffusion Thermal tension cracks Comb-shaped cracks Types of wear Flank wear Cutting face Wear Crater wear Problems and solutions for drilling from solid with indexable insert drills Chip related problems Wear Machine related conditions Machining conditions Exit of through bore Clamping Interrupted cut Step bores Application on lathes

Preface This manual is intended to help you with drilling terminology, to give you a better understanding of the chip removal processes and will enable you to make simple calculations regarding capacity parameters of tools and machines. This knowledge is very important for an efficient and economic application of modern high-capacity drilling tools and to optimise the performing potentials of the tools.

Cutting speed
vc = f (rx)

Drilling from solid

Boring

1. 1.1

Definitions Cutting speed

The cutting speed vc is the peripheral speed of the tool at a particular cutting edge point.

vc = D x x n In practice, we use diameter D (mm) to calculate the cutting speed in m/min. (vc value must be in the same dimension as D value i e mm)

Dn v c = ------------------------1000

D [mm] n [1/min] vc [m/min]

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Cutting speed
vc = f (rx)

Drilling from solid

Boring

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The number of revolutions calculated from the cutting speed results in:

v c 1000 n = -------------------------D

[1/min]

Drilling from solid results in a cutting speed of 0 in the centre seen from the insert. The speed continoususly increases towards the outer cutting edge until reaching the maximum speed calculated. For boring tools (single flute or twin flute), we calculate using the average cutting speed vcm. This one results from the defined diameter D and from the core-hole d. . (D + d) n v cm = ---------------------------------------2 1000

[m/min]

For precision boring tools, the depth of cut is so small, that it is possible to calculate with the maximum cutting speed.

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Feed
f = fz x z vf = f x n

Drilling from solid

Boring

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1.2

Feed

The feed f is the feed movement per revolution in mm. The feed per cutting edge fz is the feed travel between two concurrent cut surface. This gives: f = fz x z [mm]

For drilling with insert-type drills, z = 1 is generally valid. For drilling with helical drills (HSS, cemented carbide) z = 2 usually applies. The effective number of teeth determines how many cutting edges cover the complete cutting section. Insert-type drills have only one complete cutting edge, since the cutting diameter of the internal insert is smaller that that of the outer insert. Helical drills usually have two cutting edges. The feed f and the number of revolution n give the feed rate vf. vf = f x n [mm/min]

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Tool life

i lf - [m] L f = -----------1000

Lf = Tool travel [m] lf = Drilling depth [mm] i = Number of bores produced

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1.3

Tool life

A tool cutting edge is not normally run to destruction. Once it has reached a predefined tool life i.e. a measure of flank or crater wear, the cutting edge is removed from the machining process. For drilling, a flank wear of more than .3mm generally dictates the end of tool life. The wear has a direct influence on the achievable quality of surface finish and workpiece tolerance The tool life is given as a travelled feed distance Lf, which is determined by the number of bores produced i and of the drilling depth Lf,. This is different to turning which usually defines tool life as time. . i lf L f = -----------1000

[m]

The cutting speed has a decisive influence on the tool life. As previously stated the cutting speed increases from the centre to the diameter. The flank wear also increases towards the diameter with the largest flank wear appearing at the place of highest cutting speed - the nose radius of the outer indexable insert.

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Cutting Force Fc

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1.4

Cutting force

The cutting force Fc is the perpendicular force applied on the cutting edge and generated by the cutting movement.

Influencing factors on the cutting force: Width of cut h or depth of cut ap Thickness of cut b or feed f (fz) Workpiece material (material constants kc1.1, mc) Cutting speed vc Angles on the tool cutting edge , , ,.. Chip removal method (milling, turning, boring) Cooling, lubrication (dry, wet, emulsion, oil, minimal quantity lubrication, etc.)

The main factors come from the material to be machined and from the section of cut A.

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Section of cut

A = f x ap = b x h

Drilling from solid

Boring

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1.4.1

Section of cut

For drilling from solid, the width of cut ap must always be defined as equal to half the diameter of the bore to be produced ie radius. For precision boring and boring, ap, just like in turning, is half the difference between the starting diameter d and finished diameter D. The width of cut b can be calculated from the depth of cut ap, taking into account the approach angle . Section of cut

A = f ap = b h
Drilling from solid

D b = ---------------2 sin Boring ap Dd - = -----------b = ---------------2 sin sin

[mm]

[mm]

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Section of cut

A = f x ap = b x h

Drilling from solid

Boring

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The thickness of cut h results from the feed f, the number of teeth z and the approach angle . Drilling from solid with indexable inserts, precision boring, boring h = fz x sin f sin h = -------------------z [mm]

[mm]

The section of cut A for a given cutting edge is given as follows: A = ap x fz = b x h [mm2]

For WALTER tools with indexable inserts for drilling from solid, the particular shape and position of the indexable inserts generate an almost flat bottom. By approximation, it is thus possible to calculate with a setting angle of 90. sin 90 equals 1 which means that in this case, the width of cut b and the thickness of cut h are equal to the cutting parameters ap and f. Solid carbide tools for drilling from solid generally work with a point angle of 140, which corresponds to a setting angle of 70 (sin 70 = .94). In this case, the influence of must be taken into account.

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Section of cut

A = f x ap = b x h

Drilling from solid

Boring

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Section of cut A = b x h, where the thickness of cut h and the width of cut b can be derived from the parameters feed f, depth of cut ap and approach angle .

ap b = -----------sin

and

h = f z sin

The Victor-Kienzle formula is used for calculating the cutting force Fc accordidng to the section of cut.

Fc = b x h1-mc x kc1.1

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1.4.2

Specific cutting force

The material factor kc1.1 is the specific cutting force. It is defined as the force which is necessary in order to remove a chip section of one square millimetre (section of cut 1 mm wide and 1 mm long) with a tool orthogonal rake of 0 in a given material. The technical literature gives the specific cutting force kc1.1 and the material growth value mc for many workpiece materials. The specific cutting force largely depends on the selected feed f . The specific cutting force increases when the feed is reduced. This relationship is taken into account by the growth value mc.

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Section of cut and cutting force

A = f x ap = b x h

Drilling from solid

Boring

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Example:

Calculate the cutting force on the cutting edge of a twin flute boring tool, where diameter D 50 mm: core-hole diameter d 40 mm: the component material is grey cast iron GG 25 (kc1.1 = 1160 N/mm2, mc = .26): the setting angle is 80: the cutting speed vc 100 m/min: the feed per tooth fz 0.4 mm.

The width of cut b is calculated from ap b = -----------sin Dd 50 40 - = -----------------a p = ------------- mm = 5 mm 2 2

with

it results

5mm 5mm - = 5, 077 mm - = --------------b = ----------------0, 985 sin 80

The thickness of cut h is calculated in the same way h = f z sin = 0, 4 mm 0, 985 = 0, 394 mm The cutting force at a cutting edge results from the formula Fc = b h 1 mc

k c1.1 = 5, 077 mm 0, 394

1 0, 26

1160 N/mm = 2956 N.

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Standard values for drilling with NOVEX-STARDRILL


Feed force diagram
Steel: Tenacity: Feed force Ck 60 Rm = 600-700 N/mm2

Feed

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1.5

Feed force

The feed force Ff is the force applied onto the tool in the direction of the feed. For drilling, the feed force normally acts in the tool rotation axis. The feed force is important for the definition of the feed drives. The feed force is calculated using the same formulae as for the cutting force Fc except that a different material factor must be applied for the feed force Ff. This material factor is the specific feed force kf1.1 and the growth factor mf. By approximation, the feed force can be defined as a percentage of the cutting force. For drilling tools with indexable inserts, this value lies between 50 to 70 % of the cutting force (average value 60 %). 1 mf

Ff = b h Approximation formula:

k f 1.1

[N]

Ff = 0,6 x Fc

[N]

1.6.2

Power from the cutting force

The calculation of the power is decisive for the definition of the drives of the machine or to check the machines to be used.

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Standard values for drilling with NOVEX-STARDRILL


Torque diagram
Mc [Nm]

Torque

1000,0 800,0 630,0 500,0 400,0 310,0 250,0 200,0 160,0 125,0 100,0 80,0 63,0 50,0 40,0 31,5 25,0 20,0 16,0 12,5 10,0 8,0 6,3 5,0 4,0 3,2 2,5 2,0 1,6 1,25 1,0 0.063 0.08 0.1 0.125 0.16 0.20

120 100 80

60 50 40

Steel: Tenacity:

Ck 60 Rm = 600-700 N/mm2

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25 20

16

12 10

f [mm/U]
0.25

B-057

Feed

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1.6 1.6.1.

Torque and Power Torque

Usually, the maximum power is only reached when running the machine at a certain speed (no.of revolutions). On the other hand, the torque decreases with the increase of speed n as soon as the maximum power of machine is reached. It happens that the machine power is good for larger diameters of tools, but the torque is insufficient.

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Standard values for drilling with NOVEX-STARDRILL


Power diagram

Cutting performance

Steel: Tenacity: Cutting speed:

Ck 60 Rm = 600-700 N/mm2 vc = 100 m/min

With a double cutting speed, the power consumption doubles too, this means that the power consumption is directly proportional to the cutting speed. For steel grades with a higher tenacity, i.e. 1000 N/mm2, the power consumption and the necessary torque are approx. 15 % higher and the feed force 25 % higher.

Feed

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The cutting power requirement of a tool is calculated from the cutting force Fc and the average cutting speed vcm (cf. chapter 1.1). F c v cm P c = -------------------------60 1000

[kW]

This power is the net power consumed by the tool. During the working life of the tool cutting edge, the cutting force increases as does the cutting power. In practice, usual values for the wear factor kv are from 1.25 to 1.4. Each machine has a certain efficiency due to friction influences and as a consequence the power Pmot required is greater increases. Usual efficiency rates for machinetools are between .7 and .85.

P mot

kv Pc = ---------------------

[kW]

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Standard values for drilling with NOVEX-STARDRILL


Power diagram
Cutting performance

Steel: Tenacity: Cutting speed:

Ck 60 Rm = 600-700 N/mm2 vc = 100 m/min

With a double cutting speed, the power consumption doubles too, this means that the power consumption is directly proportional to the cutting speed. For steel grades with a higher tenacity, i.e. 1000 N/mm2, the power consumption and the necessary torque are approx. 15 % higher and the feed force 25 % higher.

Feed

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1.6.3

Power from the cut volume

The cutting power Pc can also be calculated using the chip volume per time unit Z (rate of metal removal). For this purpose, it is necessary to calculate the volume removed in one minute. For drilling from solid, this is a cylinder consisting of the circular surface Ak and the distance which the tool travels in one minute (corresponds to the rate of feed vf). For boring, the circular surface becomes a ring surface AKR.

Drilling from solid 2 D Z = A K v f = -----------------------nf 4 1000

[cm3/min]

Boring

(D d ) Z = A KR v f = ---------------------------------------nf 4 1000

[cm3/min]

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Standard values for drilling with NOVEX-STARDRILL


Power diagram
Cutting performance

Steel: Tenacity: Cutting speed:

Ck 60 Rm = 600-700 N/mm2 vc = 100 m/min

With a double cutting speed, the power consumption doubles too, this means that the power consumption is directly proportional to the cutting speed. For steel grades with a higher tenacity, i.e. 1000 N/mm2, the power consumption and the necessary torque are approx. 15 % higher and the feed force 25 % higher.

Feed

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The required cutting power can be calculated from the rate of metal removal Z and from the specific cutting force for a given feed kc.

Z kc P c = -------------------------60 1000

[kW]

The kc value is determined from the kc1.1 value, the growth value mc and the thickness of cut h, with the formula mc

kc = h

k c1.1

[N/mm2]

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Standard values for drilling with NOVEX-STARDRILL


Power diagram
Cutting performance

Steel: Tenacity: Cutting speed:

Ck 60 Rm = 600-700 N/mm2 vc = 100 m/min

With a double cutting speed, the power consumption doubles too, this means that the power consumption is directly proportional to the cutting speed. For steel grades with a higher tenacity, i.e. 1000 N/mm2, the power consumption and the necessary torque are approx. 15 % higher and the feed force 25 % higher.

Feed

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Example: calculate the motor power Pmot for an insert-type drill with D = 20mm, for a cutting speed vc of 200 m/min and a feed f of .1 mm in 42CrMo4 steel (kc1.1 = 2400 N/mm2, mc = .26). We first calculate the cutting power Pc. Formula: F c v cm P c = -------------------------60 1000 Fc = b h 1 mc [kW]

k c 1.1 = 10 mm = 0, 1 0, 26 mm 2400 N/mm


= 4367 N

vc 200 m/min - = 100 m/min v cm = ------ = ---------------------------2 2 The practical application of this formula gives: F c v cm 4367 N 100 m/min kNm P c = -------------------------- = 7, 3 kW - = ------------------------------------------------------------ = 7, 3 ------------s 60 1000 60 s/min 1000 N/kN The efficiency of the machine-tools which can be used for this machining operation is given by .75. Due to the wear, the cutting force increases by 35 % (kv = 1.35). kv Pc 1, 35 7, 3kW P mot = --------------------- = --------------------------------------- = 13, 1 kW 0, 75

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Driling

Spot facing

Circular drilling

Helical drilling

Profile drilling

Non-circular drilling

Manual drilling

Face chamfering
Face coun tersinking

Drilling with helical drill with insert-type drill with singlelip drill according to B.T.A. drill

Core drilling

Boring

Reaming with multiple-cutter reamer with single-cutter reamer

Tapping

Profile drilling Profile facing Profile drilling from solid Profile boring Profile reaming

Multipleedge drilling

Manufacturing methods Drilling DIN 8589 part 2

...

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2.

Drilling methods

For drilling, we distinguish according to DIN 8589 part 2, between the drilling, boring, core boring, profile drilling, tapping and multiple-edge drilling methods as well as the reaming and countersinking operations. Precision boring is, in a strict sense, not a method which can be attributed to the boring domain. The drilling domain usually means drilling form solid and comprises also the insert-type drilling tools. The following pages handle the main drilling operations, drilling from solid, core boring, boring and precision boring.

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Application ranges for drills from the WALTER programme


Drilling depth L/Dc

Range of solid carbide

Range of indexable inserts

Diameter Dc [mm]

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2.1

Drilling from solid

Drilling from solid aims at producing a hole in a workpiece in preparation for further operations such as countersinking, chamfering, tapping, boring, precision boring or reaming. For drilling from solid, we use single-piece tools such as HSS, solid carbide, ( so-called helical drills), brazed helical drills (multiple material tools) and indexable drills (assembled tools). Today, carbide drilling tools are becoming more popular due to the improving carbide cutting grades. HSS, although less important than in the past, as a cutting material still has its place for application where its high tenacity and bending strengths are required. Tools with smaller diameters are made as one-piece tools due to their dimensions. The upper economic limit for solid carbide tools is between 16 and 20 mm. Above this limit, the production of carbide blanks is too expensive. The smallest drilling tools with adjustable cutting edges, ie with indexable inserts, start, depending upon the respective manufacturer, between 10 and 17 mm. For the user, this means that he can chose between two drilling philosophies in the diameter range between 10 and 20 mm.

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Solid Carbide Drills


Standardised tool dimensions according to DIN Cylindrical shanks with and without clamping surface coated and non coated Different carbide grades with and without internal coolant supply (IS)
without IS 3 x d helical straight flute with IS with IS
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rounded R

chamfered rounded

with IS 3 x d

with IS 5 x d
CrNi steel Al, titanium, cast iron General steel machining

Length of drills
helical

straight flute

without IS

Step drill without IS

2.1.1

Drilling from solid with one-piece tools

Like all tools for drilling from solid, the HSS or solid carbide drill must withstand the full range of cutting speeds, from zero in the centre, up to the maximum at the diameter. Generally, it is difficult to cope with one-piece tools, to the different requirements resulting from this. For the central area of the drill, a cutting grade with a high tenacity would be advantageous because there is almost no shearing process on the workpiece material but a non-cutting forming. The more we move along the cutting edge to the outside of the tool, the harder and more wear-resistant the cutting material should be. The cutting material must have acceptable properties for both requirements. For these reasons, multiple-range carbides in the ISO range M15 to M30 are mainly used for solid carbide drills. With a coating with TiN, Ti(C, N), Ti(Al, N) or with combinations of them, the working life can be considerably increased compared to uncoated tools.

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Solid carbide drills


Standardised tool dimensions according to DIN Cylindrical shanks with and without clamping surface Coated and non.coated Different carbide grades with and without internal coolant supply (IS) Configuration of the cutting edges
rounded R chamfered rounded with IS 3 x d without IS 3 x d helical straight flute with IS with

with IS 5 x d
CrNi steel Al, Titanium,cast iron General steel machining

Length of drills
helical

straight flut

without

Step drill without IS

IS

IS
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One-piece tools are usually twin flute tools, thus enabling high feeds per revolution. A transversal cutting edge, as is usual for HSS drills, should be avoided if possible on cemented carbide drills due to the low fracture toughness of cemented carbide. This is possible by point-thinning the drill core. A further characteristic of this type of drill are the secondary cutting edges or the guiding chamfers, which ensure optimal guiding of the tool along the bore wall. Thanks to this guiding and to their symmetric construction, these tools achieve a high accuracy ((IT7 and higher) with a good quality of surface finish. The angle of twist of the helix and the different configuration of the cutting edges ensure success on different workpiece materials. Steel materials require a twist angle of approx. 20 whereas it is possible to eliminate the twist completely for cast materials. For materials with a tendency to sticking (formation of a built-up edge), we work with a sharp cutting edge. The straight-flute tools for chip removal in cast iron can be designed for much higher l/d ratios, i.e tools up to 12 x nominal diameter are available. For twisted tools, the upper limit is approx. 7 x d. An essential characteristic of good helical drills is an unobstructed chip clearance. This is achieved with cleverly designed flutes which are reinforced with internal coolant supply through the tool (IS). For this, it is necessary to work with high coolant pressures (up to 50 bars) in order to overcome the flow resistance of the small coolant channels.

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Indexable insert drills: Position of the cutting edges, bottom of the hole

Central cutting edge

Peripheral cutting edge

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2.1.2

Drilling from solid with replaceable cutting inserts

2.1.2.1 Indexable-insert drills - Position of the cutting edges At the end of the 70s, the first tools for drilling from solid with replaceable indexable inserts appeared on the market. They represented a revolution in the market which was previously dominated by HSS and brazed carbide drills. Drills producing the bore with two indexable inserts which cut different areas of the bore, prevailed. One indexable insert is positioned at the periphery of the tool (peripheral cutting edge) and produces the bore diameter. The other one is in the middle of the drill (central cutting edge) . For this reason, the indexable-insert drill is a single-tooth tool although it has two cutting insets. On the contrary to the double-cut helical drills which present a fully balanced force relation, insert-type drills have an unbalanced force relation. This creates transversal forces which must be absorbed by the machine spindle. The dimensions of these forces is influenced by The tool diameter The size and the configuration of the indexable inserts The mounting position of the indexable insert The cutting edge geometry of the indexable insert The material to be machined by chip removal The cutting conditions

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Deflection of Indexable Insert Drills

A-A

Helix Chip clearance Reduced Deflection

Straight Short chip clearance distance High radial rigidity High rigidity against torsion
B-B

without partial helix

with partial helix

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A suited design of the tools enables to direct the transversal force practically in any direction or even to reduce it to zero. In the effective design, the transversal force is not reduced to zero but conceived so that the drill deflects towards the outside. The advantage is that the tool works in a good stable balance, comes back to its central starting position at the end of the drilling operation and does not leave any stria when withdrawing from the bore. In addition, modern drills with indexable inserts have a partial helix in the front section. The position of the indexable insert compared to the straight part of the flute is twisted. On the one hand, this allows a quick chip clearance from the engagement area, on the other hand the partial helix ensures that the transverse and the radial forces are directed towards the thicker section tool body. This also reduces the deflection of the tool in the chip removal process.

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Cross section of Indexable Insert Drills

External chip Flute Improved chip clearance The chips remains inside High section modulus Internal chip

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2.1.2.2 Section of the drill The rigidity of the tool is determined by the tool section. For optimum rigidity, a perfectly cylindrical section would be ideal. The problem is the chip evacuation. The chips need space as large as possible within the drill shank. Therefore, the section of a drilling tool is always a compromise between rigidity and chip clearance. With drills with indexable inserts, this compromise is achieved by the accumulation of as much material as possible in the outside section areas. An area, as large as possible, is available for the flowing chip inside the section. The section is like an " I " which presents a high section modulus against deflection. In addition, the tool has a very stable drill core which reduces the tendency to fracture. The flute is adapted to the characteristic chips of the central insert and of the peripheral inserts. The central chip with long-chipping workpiece materials looks like a Christmas tree and has a circular section. The peripheral chip looks like a truncated cone. The radial angle at which the flute exits at the drill periphery is slightly positive in order to hold the chips inside the chip clearance space when the tool is rotating and to avoid jamming and scoring between the bore wall and the drill shank.

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Stability of indexable Insert Drills

Stability of STARDRILL

% 100 80 60 40 20 0 2 x Dc

Deflection
3 FL f = --------------------3E

3 x Dc

4 x Dc

5 x Dc

Length of Tool

B-047-2

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The transverse force applied on the drill, as described above, is responsible for the tool deflection. With short tools (2 x d) this is relatively unimportant. However, with an increasing tool length, the deflection on the outside cutting edge (which determined the diameter), increases disproportionally. Doubling the tool length increases the cutting edge deflection by a factor of 8. For this reason, an optimum rigidity of the drill shank has a decisive importance for the quality of the bore to be machined.

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Examples of the STARDRILL indexable insert drill programme


Indexable insert size LCMX

Cylindrical shank, right-hand rotation Cylindrical shank, right-hand rotation Cylindrical shank, left-hand rotation

Lc = 2 x Dc , Lc = 5 x Dc , Lc = 2 x Dc

3 x Dc , 4 x Dc SEMI only (> 16 mm)

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Insert-type drill programmes for boring from solid comprise tools from diameter 10 mm up to about 60 mm, with lengths of mainly 2 and 3 x d, and partly 4 and 5 x d. The same types and sizes of indexable inserts are used over defined ranges of diameters. For applications on slant bed NC lathes and favoured left-hand rotation, left-hand cutting insert-type drills are also available.

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Indexable insert range for insert-type drills for drilling from solid
Type Periphery Accuracy Conditions Workpiece materials Steel, cast iron Cutting edge Chamfered and rounded Rounded Chamfered and rounded Chamfered and rounded rounded

P 28467

High

P 28469

High

Steel, al.

P 28475

Average

+ +

Steel, cast iron

P 28477

Average

Steel, cast iron

P 28479

Average

Steel, tough

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2.1.2.3 Insert Professor Taylor recognised at the beginning of the century: "Money is earned at the cutting edge". This sentence is more valid today than ever because in fact, what use is the best tool without a cutting edge which can utilise the potential of the tool and machine. For drilling from solid from diameter 16 mm and above, the indexable inserts with a square basic shape and their four effective cutting edges bring high profitability because the costs per cutting edge can be kept at a low level. Different choice of cutting edge and different chipbreakers ensure optimum chip formation in the most diverse workpiece materials. It is possible to choose between the range with sintered periphery and precision-ground periphery. Indexable inserts with a sintered periphery give particularly inexpensive cutting edges, but they have a larger tolerance band. For indexable inserts with an arrow edge and a point angle of 172 (from size 3 on), we achieve a self-centring. In addition, this leads to a more stable nose area with a nose angle of 96. The indexable inserts in the sizes 1 and 2 have a clearance angle of 14, the sizes 3 to 7 a double clearance angle of 11 to 15. Two edged indexable inserts are used in tools with smaller diameters, from 10 to 18 mm. The indexable insert types P28467, P28475 and P28477 are geometries which can be used universally for chip removal operations in steel and cast iron, even under unfavourable conditions. They are characterised by a chamfered and rounded cutting edge and the different chipbreakers ensure optimum chip breaking for machining steel and cast iron. If with regards to the machine and tool the given conditions are good to optimum, it is possible to work with indexable inserts of the P28469 / 79 type. Types P28469 and P28479 are mainly suitable for low-carbon steel grades, but also for stainless steels with a tendency to longchipping, thanks to their cutting edge which is only rounded and to their waved shape.

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Overview Drilling from solid -LCMX.. geometries

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Comparable indexable insert geometries exist for the small two edged indexable inserts in the geometries B57, D57 and E57 as sintered version. Comparable indexable insert types Stardrill 16 to 58 mm Stardrill 10 to 18 mm P28469 / 79 B57 P28467 / 77 D57 P28475 E57

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Accuracy of bores
Geometry influence Influence of the tool length

Short tool

Long tool

large overlap

small overlap

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2.1.2.4 Diameter accuracy Different cutting edge executions and indexable insert geometries lead to differing diameters. As we already indicated, the diameter slightly increases with increased feed, due to the higher resultant cutting forces. The indexable insert execution P28469 generally produces larger bores than the P28475 execution. In addition P28475 reacts less with feed increases. The length of the drill also has an influence upon the accuracy of the diameter. Short tools have sufficient stability and react only slightly to feed increase. If the tool length increases, the existing resultant cutting forces lead to tool deflections and thus to larger bores. In addition, the respective overlapping of both indexable inserts has an influence upon the achieved diameter deviation. If we consider an indexable insert size, it is used for a defined diameter range, i.e. size 5 from diameter 37 to 42 mm. For the smaller diameter, 37 mm, the area which must be machined by the peripheral cutting edge compared with the central cutting edge, is clearly smaller than for diameter 42 mm. For this reason, the cutting force of the central cutting edge is dominating - a greater transverse force is generated, which leads to a greater deflection. Altogether overlapping diameter deviations which can be between .05 and .3 mm, for the reasons described above. An additional difficulty comes from the tool construction or from the machine. If we use modular tools, it is possible to counter circumstances dictated by the workpiece or the clamping. However, additional elements lead to a reduction of the overall stability of the machine/ tool system. It is also necessary to ensure a sufficient self-stability of the machine-tool itself.

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Cemented carbide grades Drilling from Solid

Wear resistance

Toughness

65

2.1.2.5 Range of application In principle, an insert-type drilling tool can be used for almost any workpiece material. However, it is necessary to select the suitable indexable insert geometry and the appropriate cutting grade with regards to the different requirements set by the workpiece material, the tool, the machine, the workpiece and the technological environment. There exist a comprehensive range of cutting grades covering a large range of applications. If we want to use the same types of indexable inserts as central cutting edge and as peripheral cutting edge within an insert-type drill, (meaning use the same cutting grade) a universal cutting grade such as WAP35 is the first choice. It combines a high toughness with a good wear resistance for machining steel and cast iron. In the cases where the toughness of the central cutting edge is not sufficient, for example with tools with a long overhang, it is necessary to use the cutting grade WXP45. This grade is also particularly suitable for chip removal operation in CrNi steels. When very high cutting speed and a good wear resistance is required, it is possible to use WAP20 for the outer insert. For machining cast iron, WAK15, based on a K cemented carbide, is particularly appropriate. We can also select the best cutting grade combinations i.e if we use WAP20 for the peripheral cutting edge and WXP45 for the inner cutting edge.

66

Drilling with X offset on lathes


Adjusment range

Adjustment direction

Zone 1 Size of the indexable insert 1 Dc [mm] 16 17 18 19 20 Xmax [mm] 1,0 0,8 0,7 0,5 0,3 Dmax [mm] 18,0 18,6 19,4 20,0 20,6 Xmax [mm] 1,8 1,5 1,3 1,0 0,8

Zone 2 Dmax [mm] 19,6 20,0 20,6 21,0 21,6

Zone 1: Zone 2:

Possibility of an adjusting move under normal conditions Possibility of an adjusting move achievable only under optimum conditions

67

2.1.2.6 Eccentric position - Eccentric sleeve The tools are designed as rotating tools for boring machines or machining centres or as stationary tools for use on lathes. If the tool is mounted on the lathe in the tool turret or compound slide, the tool diameter can be adjusted within a certain limit. It is however important not to exceed the given upper limit. For drills using the same size insert, we can offset the drill more in the small diameters than the larger diameters. This is due to the overlap of the indexable inserts. If the machine and the tool as well as the workpiece present very stable conditions, it is possible to implement a larger diameter adjustment (optimum conditions, zone 2). Longer tools, unstable workpieces, unstable tool clamping etc. allow only an adjustment within the zone 1. On the lathe, an insert-type drill can also be used as a boring bar. Preliminary drilled holes can be bored, chamfered or stepped with these tools. If we reverse the direction of rotation of the machine it is also possible to execute an outer machining operation on the workpiece with such tools. For left-hand rotating lathes, there are left-hand cutting insert-type drills. However, it is also possible to use right-hand cutting tools if we reverse the direction of rotation.

68

adjustment with eccentric sleeve


Adjustment range in the (see table

+ -

Adjustment range in the


Designation FS 1207 FS 1208 FS 722 FS 723 FS 724 Diameter sleeve inner/outer D = 16 / 20 D = 25 / 32 D = 25 / 32 D = 32 / 40 D = 40 / 50 Adjusting range Attachment DIN 1835 A170.EX A170.EX A170.EX A170.EX

D = -0,08 / +0,24 D = -0,1 / +0,3 D = -0,2 / +0,55 D = -0,2 / +0,55 D = -0,2 / +0,55

69

Unlike on the lathe, it is not possible to modify the drill diameter on a machining centre by using the machine features. In the machining centre, the diameter adjustment must be achieved by using an eccentric sleeve. The eccentric sleeve enables, a range of adjustment of .2 mm in the negative direction (meaning a reduction of the diameter), or of .55 mm in the positive direction, (meaning a diameter increase). With eccentric sleeves for smaller drills, this range is limited to .08 in the negative direction and to .24 mm in the positive direction. The eccentric sleeve is in fact not provided for drilling larger or smaller holes but for compensating tolerances in the tool production.

70

Tool diameter tolerance STARDRILL

Tolerance body + indexable insert

Precision body Standard body

Body using:

master insert

sintered insert

ground insert

Tolerance body + indexable insert

Tolerance body

71

All elements which are combined within a tool have tolerances. This includes the attachment of the tool to the machine, the drill body, the seat of the insert and the insert itself. In extreme cases, this can lead to a diameter variation of .4 mm (+/- .2 mm), not taking into account the additional deflection due to transverse forces. If we want to produce holes with a very precise diameter, the eccentric sleeve allows compensation for such tolerances as well as the deflection effect which remains almost steady for constant machining parameters. Under favourable conditions, a hole tolerance IT8 to IT9 can be achieved.

72

STARDRILL diameter 10 - 18 mm
System comparison
Drill with indexable inserts
- vc high - f low - poor hole - no regrinding - constant length - constant serviceable life - cutting grade more easily adaptable

Solid carbide drill


- vc low - f high - higher diameter accuracy - better quality of surface - regrinding of the cutting edges - high handling expenditure - high stockkeeping costs - high start and run out distance

B-053

73

2.1.2.7 Comparison of System The insert type drilling tool and the solid carbide drill differ in many aspects. Whereas tools with indexable inserts work with a high cutting speed and a low feed, the solid carbide drill works with a low cutting speed and a high feed. For the economic consideration of both methods, the achieved drilling time, resulting from the cutting speed, the feed and the necessary drilling distance, is decisive. The small cutting speed of the solid carbide drill is due to its configuration with a secondary cutting edge or guiding chamfer. The high friction on the periphery and the resulting higher values lead to excessive wear. If a solid carbide tool is worn, it must be reground - the drill length becomes shorter. This means modified parameters for programming NC machines. In the insert-type drills, the cutting edges are replaced - the length remains constant. In addition the tool life remains the same, whereas, it considerably reduces after the regrinding operation for solid carbide drills. The cutting grade in the insert-type version can be adapted to different cases. It is even possible to use super-hard materials such as CBN, silicon nitride Si3N4 and PCD. The advantage of the solid carbide drill lies in the better diameter accuracy (which can be less than IT7) as well as the better quality of surface.

74

Trepanning

Machining principle Tool

75

2.2 2.2.1

Trepanning Definition of Trepanning

Trepanning is drilling from solid where the tool performs an annular chip removing operation. The core of the hole remains static. 2.2.2 Tool concept - Trepanning

For trepanning with indexable inserts, an annular section must be machined by several cutting edges which are arranged on the tool periphery. For example, cutting edges arranged at approx 120 and a transverse cutting section which remains almost constant, enable almost without transverse force. The difficulties with such a tool lie in the more difficult chip evacuation conditions as well as in the problematic removal of the remaining core in the case of a through hole in the workpiece. The core is separated from the rest of the workpiece and wobbles inside the core drill. This can destroy the inner cutting insert. Depending upon the dimension of the tool, this core can weight several kilograms and can damage the tool cutting edge as well as the machine. Core drills are used for machining large holes on low-powered machines or to remove samples on large-size workpieces.

76

Boring and counterboring

77

2.3

Counterboring

To produce accurate holes meeting the technical requirements such as shape, position and precision, from premachined holes subsequent operations are usually required. 2.3.1 Boring and counterboring - Theory

The force progression in boring and counterboring operations is similar to that when drilling from solid with double tooth tools such as helical drills or solid carbide drills. The tool transmits the shearing force Fz to be applied for this chip removal operation, from the machine to the workpiece. If the workpiece material is homogeneous, the cutting edges evenly distributed and the machining operation uniform, the passive force mutually cancel out in tools with multiple cutting edges. This means that the forces are limited to the rotatory force Fc and to the axial force Ft [N]. The rotatory force is used to surmount the resistance in the direction of the rotation, the axial force is used to overcome the feed resistance. The machining parameters for counterboring operations are usually 30 - 50 % less than those for normal drilling operations. A sufficient cooling lubricant supply (internal cooling) must be ensured. It is necessary to ensure that the coolant channel does not exit parallel to the axis but goes towards the hole wall. If this is not the case, the chips can be pressed in the already existing hole, possibly leading to chip clearance problems or even to a tool breakage. The tolerances which can be achieved for counterboring are within H11 - H13.

78

Counterboring tools for multiple steps

79

2.3.2

Counterboring tools for stepped counterbores

For holes with multiple diameters and shoulders, we look for tools offering complete machining boring and counterboring. This saves a considerable part of the production costs because otherwise it would be necessary to use a separate tool for each step / shoulder. As well as standardised tools such as standard centre drills, it is also possible to use tools which are specially designed for specific applications. Such tools enable a combine all machining operations, drilling from solid, stepped boring, boring, multiple-step counterbores, chamfering, form chamfering, and even simple deburing. As a general rule, chamfering and counterboring as opposed to the hole production, are not precision machining operations. The tool manufacturers propose different system or special tools for the different applications. Apart from of standardised counterboring tools (i.e. for counterbores for screws), there are special tools which are specifically defined, designed and produced for the respective machining operation.

80

Back counter boring tool

81

2.3.3

Back counterboring

There are instances when the workpieces have areas which cannot be machined from the front face. Very often, bolt seats and bearings surfaces must be machined and a back machining operation is thus necessary. Circular milling is often not possible due to the limited space and unfavourable diameter conditions. A machining operation with back counterboring tools is thus necessary. Counterboring tools are usually one tooth tools and designed similar to a boring bar. Their shank is not entirely circular but adapted to the diameter conditions. The access hole in the component can be quite small in diameter, while the counterboring diameter can be quite large Back counterboring tools are equipped with brazed carbide cutting edges or with indexable inserts.

82

Back counterboring tool

83

Procedure for back counterboring: 1. It is only possible to feed the tool through the hole by firstly moving the tool off centre. The maximum diameter is then fed through the hole until the cutting edges pass the back side of the bore. 2. The tool is then moved back onto hole centre. 3. The spindle is then rotated enabling back boring to begin. 4. The backboring tool is then removed by reversing this procedure. If such a tool construction is not possible due to very narrow diameters conditions, backcounter boring tools with swing-out cutting cartridges are used. The cutting cartridges are in a closed or open position depending on the direction of rotation. One rotation direction closed the cartridge (enabling the tool to pass through the hole) the opposite tool rotation opens the cartridge exposing the cutting edge and enabling machining to commence . Due to their complicated mechanism, such tools must be handled very carefully and can only be submitted to low stresses. They can be used for holes from 6 mm diameter and above.

84

Boring

85

2.4

Boring

Because of the similarity between counterboring and boring operations, the theoretical principles for both procedures are the same. Boring operations usually apply to existing holes, such as pre drilled, cast, forged, punched, or pressed. Boring aims at producing a hole as quickly and economically as possible, to set requirements such as dimensional accuracy, axial precision, parallelism of the axes and the quality of surface finish. The boring operation is also use to correct, tolerance deviations caused by drilling from solid, prior to the precision boring operation. Compared with drilling, the boring speed is increased by about 20%.

86

Modular boring tools

87

2.4.1

Boring with rotating tools

Larger diameter tools are usually proposed as modular tools. These tools can utilise modular extension pieces to suit the depth of the hole to be machined and adapted to the machine conditions with appropriate adapters. The target is to always achieve maximum rigidity.

88

Cutting cartridges

89

2.4.2

Cutting cartridges for boring tools

Multiple-edge system boring tools are usually equipped with a rough diameter adjustment in order to be used not only for one diameter but over a defined range of diameters. The tool setting is achieved by the means of marks on the tools or on the presetting equipment. Normally, cutting cartridges are used for holding the indexable insert. The guiding of the cutting cartridges on the tool basic body is possible by means of high-precision trapezoidal grooves or similar positive-locking connections. It is necessary to make sure that the cutting cartridge cannot be lifted by radial forces and that the construction is stable

90

Cutting cartridges

91

A main advantage of the Cutting cartridge is in the possibility to offer variations in the approach angle and cutting geometries in an inexpensive solution. The following criteria have an influence: Workpiece material Cutting conditions (interrupted cut, cross hole, conditions of entry and exit) Oversize ( stock removal ) Overhang / Depth of the hole What is the shape of the bottom of the hole? For the selection of the cutting cartridge, it is necessary to also take into account, that setting angles of less than 90 generate radial forces. The resultant cutting forces can have a negative influence on the chip removal when there is an uneven cut or long overhang.

92

Boring strategies

93

2.4.3

Boring strategies

Rotationally symmetrical boring (z = 2) With this boring method, the cutting edges are set at the same axial and radial height. The tool has in this way two cutting edges and achieves an optimum concentricity and a very high chip production. Boring with offset cutting edges (z = 1) This method was developed for a high metal removal and machine care. The cutting edges are set on the same axial height but cut different diameters. This method requires improved tool and machine stability. How far this method can be used mainly depends on the available machine power and stability. It must be noticed that the width of cut of the inner cutting edge is slightly superior to the one of the outer cutting edge. For this reason, the outer cutting edge, which generates the hole diameter, is slightly relieved and achieves in this way a better quality of surface finish.

94

95

2.4.4

Special tools for counterboring and boring

There are many possible applications for boring operations with regards to dimensions, form and precision. If standard tools do not provide a solution, special tools are used. In order to obtain the most economic and quick solution possible, the DIN/ISO cartridges prevail. The cartridges, are in effect, shortened turning tool-holders which are radially and axially adjustable. If special tools are used for counterboring and boring, normally it is possible to group several machining operations in one single tool.

The following advantages are thus achievable: Reduction of the essential operating time Reduction of the non-productive time because of fewer tool changes Reduction of the tool inventory Reduction of the centre offsets (concentricity) of the different steps to each otherr

96

Precision boring

97

2.5

Precision boring

In most cases precision boring is one of the last machining operations on the workpiece. This means that a high cost / time expenditure is already completed in the workpiece. As a consequence, an error during this operation could incur high losses. Precision boring tools must thus meet high requirements: High diameter accuracy Easy and backlash-free diameter adjustment Distortion-free clamping Clearly visible graduation which can be read exactly (without parallax), even on machines with difficult access conditions Diameter adjustment only in the radial direction Stable, compact construction, designed also for high r.p.m. A comprehensive choice of cutting cartridges, tool-holders and basic bodies ensures an optimum tool application. To obtain the greatest possible utilisation ratio, the precision boring tools are provided with a setting mechanism. The precision boring tools are designed as one-tooth tools in order to enable a better fine adjustment. From a technical point of view, it is not practical to realise all required diameters with one single tool. Generally, the precision boring tools have very fine adjustment which ensures high repeatability due to the backlash free construction. Compared with drilling, the precision boring speed is increased by about 40%.

98

Precision boring with system tools in small diameters, example of the B3230
2 - 45 mm

9 - 18 mm

18 - 45 mm 2 - 6 mm 6 - 9 mm

99

2.5.1

Precision boring with system tools for smaller diameters

To cover the range of the small diameters various boring bars are used in conjunction with one basic body. This basic body is provided with a fine adjustment device which can be adjusted in .01 mm increments. The boring bars are aligned using precise graduations ensuring the adjustment range of the boring bar is as close as possible to the centre. This is necessary because for the small diameters, high r.p.m. are required in order to reach the necessary cutting speed, and very important imbalances are created when the boring bar is in an eccentric position. The following one tooth precision boring tools are used within the small diameter range: Up to a boring diameter of 6 mm, solid carbide boring tools are mounted in the boring bar From diameter 6 mm and above the boring bars use indexable inserts From diameter 9 mm and above the boring bar is threaded for mounting the cutting cartridge with the indexable insert In this way, different cutting cartridges can be used on the same boring bar to produce different diameters. For longer overhangs, in addition to steel bars, solid carbide boring bars are also available.

100

Precision boring with system tools of medium diameter, e.g. B3230

101

2.5.2

Precision boring with system tools for medium diameters

The range of the medium diameters for precision boring tools falls between approx. 20 mm and 150 mm. In this range, the precision adjustment unit in the basic body is directly connected to a cartridge on which the indexable insert is mounted. Different insert shapes, geometries, cutting grades and coatings enable an ideal adaptation of the tool to the workpiece material. Each basic body is designed to cover a certain range of diameters. In the ideal case, the ranges of diameters and lengths correspond to the two flute boring programme. This reduces the need for reprogramming, simplifies the collision check process and considerably increases the machining security and reliability of the whole process.

102

Precision boring with large diamter system tools, e.g. B3230

103

2.5.3

Precision boring with system tools- Bridge-type tools

For diameters of approx. 150 mm and above, the precision boring tools utilise bridge-type tools. Cartridge holders with a precision adjustment device are mounted onto the basic body with the bridge. The existing unbalanced mass is compensated by a compensating weight in order to avoid vibration and to increase the quality of surface finish, the dimensional accuracy and the tool life. In the ideal case, the basic bodies and the bridges are identical with the twin flute boring tools. By replacing both boring cartridges with an adjustable precision boring cartridge and a compensating weight, a boring tool is transformed into a precision boring tool for the range of large diameters.

104

Special tools for precision boring

105

2.5.4

Special tools for precision boring

In the precision boring field special solutions are also necessary. A typical solution may minimise the eccentricity between the different diameters, reduce the cycle and non productive time by applying a combination (or multi function ) tool For this purpose, so-called finebore cartridges are built-in in the tools. They are adjusted by the means of a graduated collar against a spring assembly.

106

Diameter tolerances

Drilling from solid solid carbide Drilling from solid Indexable inserts Boring indexable inserts Precision boring Reaming

107

2.5.5

Diameter tolerances for precision boring

The achievable diameter tolerances are mainly determined by the adjustment accuracy of the tool. However, the tool attachments play an important part and for this reason, when using modular tools, it is important to ensure cleanliness for the assembly and storage of the different modules. The clamping of the different elements must be as rigid as possible. Of course the guiding slides and the spindle bearing arrangements of the machines have a great influence on the accuracy for the production of holes. On production machines which are also used for roughing operations and for finishing operations, bore qualities of IT6 can be achieved. On machines which are exclusively used for finishing operation, bore qualities of IT5 - IT4 are possible.

108

Tool presetting accuracy


1 Workpiece 2 Indexable insert 3 Measuring probe - Setting equipment 4 Measuring arbour - Measuring device DE = preset diameter Dl = diameter of the turned bore

109

2.5.6

Tool presetting accuracy with regards to the measured diameter

A hole with a diameter 30 H6 (range of tolerance .016 mm) must be produced. The precision boring tool is set on mid-tolerance (30.008 mm). The question is to know whether this solutions gives a satisfactory result and which possible sources of errors must be taken into account.

Which are the possible sources of errors? Radial cutting pressure Nominal/effective dimensional imperfection on the presetting equipment Concentricity difference between the tool attachments on the presetting equipment and on the machine Relation feed/radius of the indexable insert Which is the impact of the relation between the feed and the radius of the indexable inserts onto the required diameter? The difference between the diameter as measured on the presetting equipment and the result taken over by the measuring arbour of the measuring device amounts to:

110

Depth of the feed line


Rt r f = depth of the feed line = nose radius in mm = feed in mm

2 f R t = ------------ 1000 8r

[m]

111

On the component, this means a deviation of the set diameter compared to the measured diameter of .006 mm. If we now add the further possible sources of errors, we can assume that the bore 30 H6 will not be produced within the tolerances, unless the sources of errors compensate each other. In reality, this means that, when presetting the tool, we should deliberately set the diameter of the precision boring tools some hundredth of millimetre under the required hole. After a short check cut, the hole is measured and the necessary correction on the tool is carried out on the machine. In the subsequent cut, the hole is machined according to the tolerance.

112

Drilling operations on lathes, e.g. STARDRILL, diameters 10-18 mm


Drilling with X offset Drill: stationary Workpiece: rotating Adjustment range Xmax.

Adjustment direction + X

D = Dc + 2x -0,1 X +0,2
D

allowable D = 10-18:

= -0,2 - +0,4

113

2.6

Drilling operations on lathes

The indexable insert drill is specially recommended for drilling on lathes. It allows for eccentric drilling operations (bore diameter superior or slightly inferior to the nominal size). In addition, the indexable insert drill is suitable for boring operations. Boring operations are not only performed with rotating spindles but also with a stationary tool on lathes. Normally, boring and precision boring operations are performed on lathes with boring bars i.e meaning one tooth operation. It must be taken into account that an optimum application of a boring bar on the lathe can only be given if the cutting edge is exactly on the middle of the hole and the boring bar is not deflected during the operation. The positioning on the centre line of the workpiece is a function of the machine-tool. This means that the vertical distance from the tool-holder to the longitudinal median line of the machine-tool must be identical with the shank height. The cutting forces generate a deflection of the boring bar which unfortunately cannot be entirely avoided. There are however, some fundamental measures and techniques which reduce the deflection to a minimum.

114

Deflection
Clamping length p Deflection depending clamping section A upon the

3 FL = --------------------3E

= modulus of elasticity [N/mm 4 = ------------------ [mm ] 64

D4

115

2.7

Clamping lengths

The clamping length p of a boring bar must be equal or ideally greater than 4 x d. In order to obtain optimum results, tool attachments, workpiece clamping and machine must be very stable to avoid vibration. Deflection In order to minimise deflection the overhang must be kept to a minimum. The length of the overhang represents the basic problem and is expressed by the following formula. 3 FL = ----------------------3E

As this formula indicates, modifications of the overhang length L dramatically reduces the degree of deflection because the length is entered into the calculation with the power L3. In addition, this formula shows that an increase of the modulus of elasticity (E) of the shank material causes a reduction in deflection.

116

Chip shapes
Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Type 5 Type 6 Type 7

Ribbon chip

Nest chip

Flat helical chip

Fragmental helical chip R

Spiral fragmental chips R

Spiral chip fragments R

Chip fragments

90

90

50

25

UNFAVOURABLE TYPE OF CHIPS

QUALIFIED FAVOURABLE TYPE OF CHIPS

FAVOURABLE TYPE OF CHIPS

VERY FAVOURABLE TYPE OF CHIPS

SATISFACTORY

removed volume Chip volume factor R = ----------------------------------------------------------non-removed volume

117

2.8

Chip shapes

The criteria for the formation and the breaking of the chips are comparable for countersinking, boring and internal turning operations, because these are similar types of operations. With short-chipping materials such as grey cast iron or bronze, the chip formation is generally not a problem to be considered when machining. Long-chipping materials are on the contrary often problematic. The tougher the workpiece, the lesser tendency of the chip to break. Long chips or chip curls are extremely critical for internal machining operations. There is no general recipe to avoid long chips and to achieve chip breaking. Only the right combination of cutting speed, feed/tooth, depth of cut and cutting edge geometry finally brings an optimum result with regards to the chip breaking. However, it is not always possible to get really short chips. The chips of the types 4 - 6 are best. Finding the longest acceptable chip form means to modify the cutting force. Optimal chip evacuation ensures optimum tool life and profitability.

118

Indexable insert Shapes

SCMT 90 SNMG

WCMT 80 WNMG

TCMT 60 TNMG

CCMT 80 CNMG

Indexable inserts with a positive basic shape Included angle Indexable inserts with a negative basic shape

Increasing cutting edge costs

SCMT 90 SNMG

WCMT 80 WNMG

CCMT 80 CNMG

TCMT 60 TNMG

Indexable inserts with a positive basic shape Included angle Indexable inserts with a negative basic shape

Increasing cutting edge stability

119

2.9

Indexable insert Shapes

Another important aspect for optimum result is the selection of the correct indexable insert shape. It determines the number of usable cutting edges, and stability of the corner facets. The basic shape of the indexable insert can be positive as well as negative, a larger included angle increases the stability of the cutting edge.

120

Cutting edge configurations

121

2.10

Cutting edge configurations

Selection of the ideal cutting edge is decisive in determining the best tool life, and chip formation etc Cutting edge configuration Range of application Disadvantages

sharp

For high quality surface Susceptible to breakage For finishing operations on interrupted cuts For smooth and tough workpiece Possible cutting edge breakages materials due to chip shocks For non-ferrous metals For turning and grooving in "stainless" For unstable workpieces/clamping Interrupted cut Rough machining High cutting forces Higher temperatures Limited use for finishing

B C D

rounded

chamfered

For roughing Feed must be greater than width For extremely interrupted cuts of chamfer For hardened steel and chilled casting High cutting forces High temperature generation The most stable cutting edge configuration Heaviest rough machining Extremely interrupted cuts Changing depths of cut Tendency to vibrations High temperature generation High cutting forces

chamfered and rounded

122

Chip breaking ranges for indexable insert with positive basic shape

123

2.11

Chip breaking ranges

Each indexable insert has a defined range in which the cutting edge geometry generates ideal chips i.e the chip breaking range. In order to classify the indexable inserts into chip breaking ranges, diagrams with depth of cut and feed are generated. The chip breaking range of an insert indicates for which applications this insert is suitable and whether we can expect ideal chips.

124

WALTER SELECT for Indexable Inserts, e.g. precision boring


WALTER SELECT the fast road to the best insert
WALTER SELECT the easily understood selection system helps you find the right idexable inserts for your individual machining application. Three faces stand for the different machining conditions:

good machining conditions

moderate machining conditions

unfavourable machining conditions

Taking into account all other criteria required for your machining operation you are systematically led to the optimal insert. It is very simple: Follow the way to the right WALTER indexable insert step by step.

125

2.12

Recommended cutting parameters

Often, the cause of unsatisfactory results are wrongly applied feeds and cutting speeds, even when the correct cemented carbide grades and chip breaking range have been selected.

126

WALTER SELECT for Indexable Inserts, e.g. precision boring


1st step

Group of materials to be machined Unalloyed and alloyed steel high-alloy steel stainless steel, ferritic, martensitic Stainless Steel and austenitic Cast Steel: ferritic-austenitic Malleable cast iron, grey cast iron Cast iron: spheroidal graphite cast iron Aluminium and other non-ferrous NF Metals: metals, non-metallic materials Heat-resistent special alloys with a nickel or cobalt basis, Difficult cutting Materials: titanium and titanium alloys, high-alloy steels with poor cutting qualities Hardened steel, hardened cast iron Hard Materials: materials and gravity die cast metals, manganese steel Steel:

Code

Machining group

define the code of the workpiece material group.

P M K N S

1 - 13 14 15 - 20 21 - 30 31 - 37

38 - 41

127

2.12

Recommended cutting parameters

Often, the cause of unsatisfactory results are wrongly applied feeds and cutting speeds, even when the correct cemented carbide grades and chip breaking range have been selected.

128

WALTER SELECT for Indexable Inserts, e.g. precision boring

2nd step

Select the face symbol to suit the existing machining conditions

Type of machining operations Smooth cutting action level entry or exit surfaces

Machining conditions

WALTER SELECT Selection System


under this name we offer a comprehensive selection system based on the following symbols: good machining conditions moderate machining conditions unfavourable machining conditions

Laminate bores inclined cast and forged surfaces < 5 Bores with interrupted cuts casting and forging skins > 5

q q q

Main application Further application

129

2.12

Recommended cutting parameters

Often, the cause of unsatisfactory results are wrongly applied feeds and cutting speeds, even when the correct cemented carbide grades and chip breaking range have been selected.

130

WALTER SELECT for Indexable Insert, e.g. precision boring

3rd step
Workpiece material group Machining group ISO classification range

Extension length < 3 x Dc PS 4 PS 4 PS 4 / WCGW PM 2 PM 2 / PS 4 PM 2 / WCGW PM 2 / PS 4 WCGW < 5 x Dc X 5 / X 15 X 5 / X 15 X5/ WCGW X 25 X 25 / X 15 X 25 / WCGW X 5 / X 15 WCGW < 6 x Dc P 2922. P 2922. P 2922. / WCGW X 25 X 25 / X 15 X 25 / WCGW X 5 / X 15 WCGW

The suitable geometry is chosen by means of the defined workpiece material group and the definition of extension length.

P M K

1 - 13 14 15 - 20 21 - 25

A A A A A A A A

26 - 28 29 - 30

S H

31 - 37 38 - 41

131

2.12

Recommended cutting parameters

Often, the cause of unsatisfactory results are wrongly applied feeds and cutting speeds, even when the correct cemented carbide grades and chip breaking range have been selected.

132

WALTER SELECT for Indexable Inserts, e.g. precision boring


Workpiece material group Machining group WALTER Chipbreaker code PS 4 X 5 / X 15 P 2922. PS 4

4th step

WAP 20 WAK 15 WTL 82 WAM 20 WAK 15 WTL 82 WAK 10 WTP 35 WCB 80

WAP 20 WTP 35 WTL 82 WAM 20 WTP 35 / WXM 15 WTL 82 WAM 20 WTP 35 WCB 80

WAP 20 WTP 35 WP 1 WAM 20 WTP 35 / WXM 15 WP 1 WAP 20 WTP 35 WCB 80 WK 1 WXK 10 / WTP 35 WAP 20 WTP 35 WCD 10 WK 1 WCD 10 WAP 20 WK 1 WCB 50

The correct cutting grade is chosen by means of the parameters defined in terms of workpiece material group, machining conditions and geometry.

1 - 13

14

X 5 / X 15 P 2922. PS 4 X 5 / X 15 WCGW P 2922.

15 - 20 21 - 25 26 - 27

PM 2 PS 4 X 15 WCGW X 25 WCGW PM 2 / PS 4

WTL 82 WK 1 WXK 10 / WK WXK 10 / WK 1 1 WAK 10 WAM 20 WTP 35 WCD 10 WK 1 WCD 10 WAK 10 WXK 10 / WK 1 WCB 50 WTP 35 WCD 10 WK 1 WCD 10 WAM 20 WK 1 WCB 50

28 29 - 30

S H

31 - 37 38 - 41

X 5 / X 15 WCGW

133

2.12

Recommended cutting parameters

Often, the cause of unsatisfactory results are wrongly applied feeds and cutting speeds, even when the correct cemented carbide grades and chip breaking range have been selected.

134

WALTER SELECT for Indexable Inserts, e.g. precision boring

5th step:

Using the graph on the right side, select the nose radius r and the depth of cut ap.

The largest nose radius in relation with the relevant length/diameter ratio (L/D) must be preferred. The optimum depths of cut ap are 2/3 of the given maximum ap values.

135

2.12

Recommended cutting parameters

Often, the cause of unsatisfactory results are wrongly applied feeds and cutting speeds, even when the correct cemented carbide grades and chip breaking range have been selected.

136

WALTER SELECT for Indexable Inserts, e.g. precision boring

6th step:

Nose radius indexable inserts 0,03 r [mm] 0,2 0,4 0,8 Rmax 0,56 0,28 0,14 Ra 0,14 0,07 0,04 0,06 Rmax 2,26 1,13 0,56

Roughness depth [m] max. feed f [mm/U] 0,09 Ra 0,58 0,29 0,14 Rmax 5,13 2,54 1,27 Ra 1,32 0,65 0,33 0,12 Rmax 9,21 4,53 2,25 Ra 3,38 1,16 0,58 0,15 Rmax 14,60 7,09 3,52 Ra 3,79 1,83 0,90

Select the maximum feed depending upon the given quality of surface of the workpiece and on the selected nose radius of the indexable insert according to step 5.

137

2.12

Recommended cutting parameters

Often, the cause of unsatisfactory results are wrongly applied feeds and cutting speeds, even when the correct cemented carbide grades and chip breaking range have been selected.

138

Cutting Data, e.g. precision boring


Main metal.cutting grades Material group Brinell hardness HB

Breakdown of main material groupings and code letter

Start data for cutting speed vc [m/min] HC = coated grades WAM 20 WAP 20 / WAK 15 WTP 35 / WXM 15
3 x Dc 4 x Dc 6 x Dc 3 x Dc 4 x Dc 6 x Dc 3 x Dc 4 x Dc 6 x Dc 280 260 240 220 200 260 240 220 200 220 180 220 180 220 220 160 200 180 220 160 170 180 130 160 140 180 130 110 110 80 100 90 110 80 220 160 200 180 220 160 180 130 160 140 180 130 110 80 100 90 110 80 230 210 190 170 160 210 190 170 160 160 150 170 140 140 130 120 110 100 130 120 110 100 110 90 110 90 260 220 200 180 140 220 200 180 160 180 160 160 130 200 200 160 180 160 200 160 210 180 160 140 110 170 160 150 130 150 130 130 100 160 160 130 140 130 160 130 130 110 100 90 70 110 100 90 80 90 80 80 70 100 100 80 90 80 100 80

Workpiece material
approx. 0,15% C approx. 0,45% C Unalloyed steel approx. 0,45% C approx.0,75% C approx. 0,75% C annealed annealed annealed tempered annealed tempered

125 190 250 270 300 180 275 300 350 200 325 200 240 180 180 260 160 250 130 230

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Low-alloyed steel

tempered tempered tempered annealed hardened by tempering ferritic / martensitic, annealed martensitic, tempered austenitisch, retained pearlitic / ferritic pearlitic (martensitic) ferritic pearlitic ferritic pearlitic

High-alloyed steel and high-alloyed tool steel Stainless steel

M K

Stainless steel Grey cast iron Cast iron with spheroidal graphite Malleable cast iron

139

2.12

Recommended cutting parameters

Often, the cause of unsatisfactory results are wrongly applied feeds and cutting speeds, even when the correct cemented carbide grades and chip breaking range have been selected.

140

Cutting Data, e.g. precision boring


Material group Main metalcutting grades Brinell hardness HB

Breakdown of main material groupings and code letter

Start data for cutting speed vc [m/min] CBN PKD WCB 50 WCB 80 WCD 10
3 x Dc 4 x Dc 6 x Dc 3 x Dc 4 x Dc 6 x Dc 3 x Dc 4 x Dc 6 x Dc

Workpiece material
approx. 0,15% C approx. 0,45% C Unalloyed steel approx. 0,45% C approx.0,75% C approx. 0,75% C annealed annealed annealed tempered annealed tempered

125 190 250 270 300 180 275 300 350 200 325 200 240 180 180 260 160 250 130 230

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1000 900 800 700 800 700 900 800 700 600 700 600 800 700 600 500 600 500

Low-alloyed steel

tempered tempered tempered annealed hardened by tempering ferritic / martensitic, annealed martensitic, tempered austenitisch, retained pearlitic / ferritic pearlitic (martensitic) ferritic pearlitic ferritic pearlitic

High-alloyed steel and high-alloyed tool steel Stainless steel

M K

Stainless steel Grey cast iron Cast iron with spheroidal graphite Malleable cast iron

141

2.12

Recommended cutting parameters

Often, the cause of unsatisfactory results are wrongly applied feeds and cutting speeds, even when the correct cemented carbide grades and chip breaking range have been selected.

142

Cutting Data, e.g. precision boring


Material group Main metalcutting grades Brinell hardness HB

Breakdown of main material groupings and code letter

Start data for cutting speed vc [m/min] HC = coated grades WAM 20 WAP 20 / WAK 15 WTP 35 / WXM 15
3 x Dc 4 x Dc 6 x Dc 3 x Dc 4 x Dc 6 x Dc 3 x Dc 4 x Dc 6 x Dc 600 500 500 400 300 300 250 240 200 300 250 240 200 350 280 180 480 400 400 320 250 330 280 280 220 200

Workpiece material
Aluminium malleable alloys Aluminium cast alloys non-age-hardenable age-hardenable, age-hardened 12% Si, non-age-hardenable 12% Si, age-hardenable, -hardened >12% Si, non-age-hardenable Free cutting alloys, Pb >1% Copper and copper alloys (Bronze/brass) Brass, red brass Bronze, unleaded copper and electrolytic copper Duroplasts, fibre-reinforced plastics Hard rubber Fe basis Heat-resistant alloys Ni or Co basis annealed age-hardened annealed age-hardened cast Titanium alloys Pure titanium Alpha + Beta alloys age-hardened hardened by tempering hardened by tempering cast hardened by tempering

60 100 75 90 130 110 90 100

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Non-metallic materials

200 280 250 350 320 400 1050 55 60 400 55

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41

80 70 70 50 50

60 50 50 40 40

40 35 35 25 25

80 70 70 50 50

60 50 50 40 40

40 35 35 25 25

50

40

30

Hardened steel

Chill cast iron Hardened cast iron

143

2.12

Recommended cutting parameters

Often, the cause of unsatisfactory results are wrongly applied feeds and cutting speeds, even when the correct cemented carbide grades and chip breaking range have been selected.

144

Cutting Data, e.g. precision boring


Material group Main metalcutting grades Brinell hardness HB

Breakdown of main material groupings and code letter

Start data for cutting speed vc [m/min] CBN PKD WCB 50 WCB 80 WCD 10
3 x Dc 4 x Dc 6 x Dc 3 x Dc 4 x Dc 6 x Dc 3 x Dc 4 x Dc 6 x Dc 1000 1000 1000 800 700 800 700 800 600 700 1000 1000 900 700 600 700 600 700 500 600 1000 1000 800 600 500 600 500 600 400 500

Workpiece material
Aluminium malleable alloys Aluminium cast alloys non-age-hardenable age-hardenable, age-hardened 12% Si, non-age-hardenable 12% Si, age-hardenable, -hardened >12% Si, non-age-hardenable Free cutting alloys, Pb >1% Copper and copper alloys (Bronze/brass) Brass, red brass Bronze, unleaded copper and electrolytic copper Duroplasts, fibre-reinforced plastics Hard rubber Fe basis Heat-resistant alloys Ni or Co basis annealed age-hardened annealed age-hardened cast Titanium alloys Pure titanium Alpha + Beta alloys age-hardened hardened by tempering hardened by tempering cast hardened by tempering

60 100 75 90 130 110 90 100

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Non-metallic materials

200 280 250 350 320 400 1050 55 60 400 55

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 300 200 100 250 250 150 60 200 200 100 40 100

Hardened steel

Chill cast iron Hardened cast iron

145

2.12

Recommended cutting parameters

Often, the cause of unsatisfactory results are wrongly applied feeds and cutting speeds, even when the correct cemented carbide grades and chip breaking range have been selected.

146

Surfaces
Direction of the machining stries

Roughness
Topics
Terminology Measured variables for roughness Drawing indication Visual checking Measurement Analysis Surface characteristic Function

Longitudinal profile Transversal profile Vertical profile sections

Standards/Directives
DIN 4760, DIN 4761 DIN 4762, DIN 4768, DIN 4771 VDI/VDE 2601, ISO R 468-1966, ISO DIS 4287/1-1980 DIN ISO 1302, DIN 3141 DIN 4769 DIN 4768, DIN 4775, ISO 3274-1975, VDI/VDE 2602 DIN 4775, SN 258250 DIN 4761 VDI/VDE 2601

Surface profile

Roughness

Waviness

Form error

147

3.

Parameters

After the machining operation, the workpieces have a defined form. We distinguish in this respect between rough form and fine form. Dimensions, forms and position belong to the rough form, waviness and roughness to the fine form. 3.1 Quality of surface

Roughness is the "short wave" form errors which are repeated evenly or unevenly. The wave length is about five to 50 times superior to their length. Waviness is mainly composed of periodically appearing "long wave" form errors. The wave length is approx. 100 to 1000 times superior to their depth. In order to appreciate the quality of surface, we mainly use the roughness. Roughness occurs due to the direct action of the tool cutting edge, due to the tool geometry and kinetics but also due to the type of the chip formation (tearing chip, shearing chip, built-up edge...). In addition, chemical actions and the workpiece material itself have an influence upon the roughness of a surface.

148

Surface roughness

Profile like sharp comb teeth Reference profile Effective profile Average profile

Profile like round comb teeth

Basic profile Effective profile with vertical exaggeration Rp Z Ie = = = Effective profile with vertical exaggeration Smoothing depth Im = Individual roughness depth Rp = Individual measuring distance Rmax = Total measured distance Smoothing depth Maximum depth of roughness

149

The theoretical quality of surface finish is also determined by the selection of the machining parameters and is calculated with the formula

2 f R t = ------------ 1000 [mm] 8r f feed in mm r nose radius in mm The brush analyser method gives a particularly expressive linear diagram for the effective surface profile. Most roughness dimensions are defined on the effective profile and handled in standards and in directives. The main measured values for the roughness are: Rz the average roughness depth Rmax the maximum roughness depth Ra the average arithmetic roughness Rp the smoothing roughness tp the percentage contact area of the profile

150

Determination of the average roughness depth


Z1 + Z2 + Z3 + Z4 + Z5 R z = ------------------------------------------------------------5 Interval c

Determination of the percentage contact area


Profile

Effective profile with vertical exaggeration lv Preliminary distance lm le Individual measured Rmax distance Rz Total measured distance Maximum depth of roughness Average depth of roughness zi Individual depth of roughness

Reference distance I

ln Run-out distance

Reference profile Effective profile Average profile Interval c


Arithmetical mean of the actual profile Percentage contact area like sharp comb t eeth

Basic profile

lm = Total measured distance

1 R a = -n

0 yi
n

Determination of the arithmetric depth of roughness


151

To determine the average depth of roughness Rz, the measured distance is divided into five partial distances, and the respective maximum roughness values Z are determined. Rz is the arithmetic average from the five maximum values. The maximum depth of roughness Rmax is the maximum value of the five individual maxima, i.e. the distance between the highest mountain and the lowest valley. The average roughness value Ra is defined as the arithmetic value of the intervals of the effective profile with regards to the average profile. Ra has only a limited scattering within a surface and it is not particularly descriptive. As guideline value between Ra and Rz applies that Ra x 5 Rz The smoothing depth Rp indicates the differences between the profiles as sharp comb teeth and the ones as round comb teeth. If we place a parallel cut through a surface profile, with the interval c, compared to the reference profile, a percentage of the intersection line will run trough the material and the rest of it in the "air". This relation is defined as the percentage of contact area tp. If this is carried out for all intervals c, it results in Abbott's contact area curve. This curve highlights the differences between the profile curves. The achievable quality of surface for drilling from solid with indexable inserts lies between 10 and 20 m Rz, and with solid carbide drills it is approx. 5 m.

152

For gauges

For fits

As rough tolerances i.e. for working up without cutting

Basic tolerances [m]


Range of tolerance IT 01 0 1 : : 6 7 8 9 10 11 6 10 14 25 40 60 8 12 18 30 48 75 9 15 22 36 58 90 11 18 27 43 70 110 13 21 33 52 84 130 16 25 39 62 100 160 19 30 46 74 120 190 22 35 54 87 140 220 25 40 63 100 160 250 29 46 72 115 185 290 32 52 81 130 210 320 36 57 89 140 230 360 40 63 97 155 250 400 Range of nominal dimensions in [mm] 13 36 610 1018 1830 3050 5080 80 120 1 1,5 2,5 120 180 1,2 2 3,5 180 250 2 3 4,5 250 315 2,5 4 6 315 400 3 5 7 400 500 4 6 8

0,3 0,5 0,8

0,4 0,6 1

0,4 0,6 1

0,5 0,8 1,2

0,6 1 1,5

0,6 1 1,5

0,8 1,2 2

Preferred application of the ISO basic tolerances DIN 7151

153

3.2

Hole tolerances

Every tool has a manufacturing tolerance which is partially responsible for variations on the workpiece to be machined. With solid carbide tools, thanks to the accurate manufacturing processes (the tools are finish ground in one setting), it is possible to achieve a high dimensional accuracy (IT6 - IT8). With tools with indexable inserts, several factors are to be taken into account which reduce the accuracy of the holes to be machined. On one hand, the indexable inserts and on the other the insert seats are produced with manufacturing tolerances. Unfavourable accumulation of such tolerances can lead to high deviations for the effective dimension. Given this aspect, it is necessary to allow for dimensional imperfection with tools for indexable inserts. The possible diameter accuracy is in the area IT10 to IT13. In addition, drills with indexable inserts are designed to produce a hole (when drilling from solid) which is slightly larger than measured on the presetting device. This concept enables the elimination of a feed line when the tool exits the hole, thus, protects the cutting edge and giving longer tool live. To produce more accurate holes, from solid, with indexable insert drills you need to provide adjustment possibilities. This is very simple on lathes (in a stationary application.) Thanks to a simple correction in the X direction, the diameter can be corrected within defined limits. For a rotating tool, it is only possible through the tool attachment or a direct cutting edge adjustment.

154

Coolant pressure and volume for NOVEX STARDRILL

Min. coolant pressure for horizontal machining direction

Standard values for the coolant volume for horizontal machining direction

Increases or reductions with regards to the standard values for the coolant volume Q and the coolant pressure P:
Very good chip breaking condition Bad chip breaking condition Vertical machining direction Application of modular tools with internal coolant supply Reduce by 30-40 % Increase up to + 50% Increase by 30-40 % Increase of the pressure by 6 bars

155

3.3

Coolant pressure and volume

Generally, modern drilling tools are provide with internal coolant supply. Apart from cooling the tool cutting edge, a coolant is used as a lubricant, to reduce the cutting forces, torque and driving power as well as assisting chip clearance. The greater the drilling depth the more important the chip evacuation function becomes. As the resistance of the chip increases with the increased drilling depth this must be taken into account by increasing coolant pressure or volume. As an approximate rule the necessary coolant volume can be estimated at about 1 l/min of coolant volume flow (emulsion) for each millimetre of the drill diameter. For smaller drill diameters, it is necessary to work with high coolant pressure because of the small section of the coolant channels. For a drill diameter of 20 mm and above, coolant pressure of 5 bars is enough, but 10 bars or greater is preferred.

156

Wear causes

157

4. 4.1

Wear and negative influencing factors Wear

The wear is defined as the dimension of the abrasion, or rate of bluntness of the engaged cutting edge due to the mechanical and thermal stress. The causes and characteristics of this bluntness or the time it takes to reach this bluntness can be classified in two groups:

Cutting grades in which thermal stress leads to this bluntness; i.e tool steel and high speed steel. Cutting grades in which mechanical stress leads to this bluntness; i.e cemented carbide and cutting ceramics.

In this manual, we will mainly handle the cemented carbide.

158

Cause of wear

159

4.2

Causes

The characteristics which are used for defining the bluntness of a cutting edge differ whether we consider the tool, the workpiece, the effects of the chip removal operation at the engagement area, or on the machine-tool. 4.2.1 Mechanical wear

In cemented carbide, the bluntness progresses gradually. The period in which a tool can be used for chip removal depends on the amount of wear on the cutting edge. This time is defined as maximum allowable, based upon the tool costs, the maintenance costs, the chip removal process, the dimensional accuracy and the quality of surface finish of the workpiece. The socalled wear criteria. 4.2.2 Diffusion

Diffusion signs appear in chip removal operations with cemented carbide, when the alloying elements of the cutting edge dissolve with the workpiece material. This is when the cobalt alloys with steel and releases carbides which are removed by friction, or when the steel removes carbon from the tungsten carbides.

160

Causes of wear

161

4.2.3

Thermal tension cracks

Thermal tension cracks occur in low-tenacity cutting materials, due to uneven temperature rise of the tools or temperature changes at the cutting edge. For carbide tools with a brazed insert, the expansion of the insert is less than the shank; The cutting insert is thus submitted to tensions which can lead to cracks. These cracks are generally in the middle of the cutting insert and run perpendicular to the cutting edge. 4.2.4 Comb-shaped cracks

Comb-shaped cracks mainly happen in chip removal operations with interrupted cuts (milling with cemented carbide tools), with inconsistent depths of cut or irregular cooling. Due to alternate heating and cooling of the contact area between the tool and the workpiece, with interrupted cuts, thermal tension occurs between the surface and the body of the cutting insert, causing the so-called comb-shaped cracks. A reduction of cutting speed, an increase of clearance angle and a regrinding of the edge can delay the comb-shaped cracks.

162

Flank wear
SV

VB

VB = Width of wear land SV = Cutting edge offset SA = Lowering of cutting edge

= clearance angle = wedge angle = rake angle

B-060

163

4.3 4.3.1

Types of wear Flank wear

The flank wear is the removal of cutting material on the flank of the tool cutting edge. Using indexable insert drills VBmax = 0,3 should not be exceeded. Using solid carbide drills VBmax = 0,6 should not be exceeded.

164

Cutting face wear


SV

SA

SV = Cutting edge offset SA = Lowering of cutting edge

= Clearance angle = Wedge angle = Rake angle

B-061

165

4.3.2

Cutting face wear

The wear on the cutting face occurs, when machining grey cast iron and some non-ferrous metals, in a similar way to flank wear.

166

Crater wear

KT = Crater depth KM = Crater mean distance KL = Crater edge width KB = Crater width

= Clearance angle = Wedge angle = Rake angle

B-062

167

4.3.3

Crater wear

Crater wear is the bowl-shaped removal of cutting material from the cutting face. For crater wear, we measure the crater width, the crater depth and the distance from the middle of the crater.

168

Problems and solutions for drilling with indexable insert drills - Chip problems

169

4.4

Problems and solutions for drilling from solid with indexable inserts drills

The following tables aim at helping you to solve problems occurring with insert-type drills for drilling from solid. Depending upon the case, there are several possibilities which you should try from the top to the bottom. If the first measure does not lead to the expected success, carry out the second one, etc. 4.4.1 Chip-related problems Graphics Corrective measures Increase the feed Increase the cutting speed and reduce the feed Adapt the indexable insert geometry Increase the feed Increase the coolant pressure Increase the cutting speed Increase the coolant pressure Increase the cutting speed Reduce the feed

Problem

Flowing chip

1.1

Chip welding

1.2

Chip jamming

1.3

170

Problems and solutions for drilling with indexable insert drills - Wear

171

4.4.2

Wear Graphics Corrective measures Check the spot-drilling conditions, if necessary reduce the feed Select a tougher carbide grade Use an indexable insert geometry for higher feeds Reduce the feed Check the tool clamping Check the clamping on the machine Check the tool conditions, if necessary reduce the feed Use a tougher carbide grade Increase the cutting speed Use a sharper cutting edge Increase the coolant pressure Reduce the cutting speed Increase the coolant pressure Use a more wear-resistant carbide grade

Type of wear

Breakage on the outer cutting edge

2.1

Breakage in the middle (inner cutting edge)

2.2

Built-up edge

2.3

Excessive wear on the outer cutting edge

2.4

172

Problems and solutions for drilling with indexable insert drills - Machine-related conditions

173

4.4.3

Machine-related conditions Graphics Corrective measures Check the clamping of the tool and of the workpiece Increase the feed Increase the cutting speed and reduce the feed Reduce the cutting speed Reduce the feed Select a sharper indexable insert geometry Predrilling with smaller diameter, followed by boring Reduce the cutting speed Reduce the feed Select a sharper indexable insert geometry Predrilling with smaller diameter, followed by boring

Problem

Vibration

3.1

The machine stops due to the torque

3.2

The machine stops due to a lack of power

3.3

174

Exit of through bore

Strong burr formation with a tough workpiece material

Disc

Breakout with cast materials

175

4.5 4.5.1

Machining conditions Exit of through bore

With through bores, the system produces a disc, which is pushed forwards by the tool. It is necessary, particularly on lathes, to take precautionary measures to avoid uncontrolled ejection of this disc. With open machines there is an high risk of injury. Depending upon the workpiece material, the workpiece can be damaged when manufacturing through holes. In one case a high feed can cause the disc to burst in cast materials. The bursting disc detaches material from the hole walls. This can be limited by a reduction of the feed. In another case, with ductile materials a heavy burr is produced at the exit of the hole. The application of sharp cutting edges and the reduction of the feed in this hole area reduce the burr formation.

176

Clamping

Stable clamping

Clamping

Stack drilling

177

4.5.2

Clamping

A basic condition for a good quality hole and satisfactory tool life is stable clamping. Thin workpieces require good support because under feed force the workpiece bends and the cutting edge can be damaged when the drill exits. Standard insert-type drills are usually not suitable for drilling stacked plates because at the hole exit a disc is produced which cannot be ejected or removed from the hole. To drill stacked plates a special tool a "stack or packet drill" is required.

178

Interrupted cut

Inclined exit

Breaking into cross holes

Inclined spot-dilling Chain drilling

Interrupted cut

Spot-dilling on opposed wall

179

4.5.3

Interrupted cut

For an optimum drilling operation, flat surfaces are preferred at the entry and exit of the drill. In the case of uneven surfaces (Inclined spot-drilling and exit of the drill, forged rolls etc.) reduced feeds are recommended. The amount of the reduction depends on the degree of interrupted cut. Inclined surfaces (up to 5) do not require any reduction. Greater inclinations require reduction between 30 and 50 %. Drilling incomplete sections (i.e. longitudinal grooves, chain drilling) also requires a reduction by approx. 50%. By the same rule, entry into existing cross holes and spot-drilling on opposed walls, also requires a 50% reduction.

180

Production of a stepped hole

181

4.5.4

Step bores

Step bores can, in principle, be produced with standard insert-type drills. As opposed to helical drills, it is necessary to drill the largest diameter first and follow with the drilling of the smaller hole.

182

Stationary Tool

Clamping tool Lathes

Workpiece

x axis of the machine

183

4.5.5

Application on lathes

Drills with indexable inserts can be used on lathes. The following conditions must be considered:

Position of the central insert towards the machine axis: The central insert must be arranged so that it does not exceed the machine centre The mounting position of the drill cutting edges must correspond to the X axis of the machine The axis of the machine and the axis of the tool must coincide (avoid an inclined tool) Ensure the correct position of the X axis (X = 0) Perform a correction of the diameter only within the given ranges (see chapter 2.1.2.6).

184