Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
2004, 43, 4243-4252
Fed-Batch Reactor Temperature Control Using Lag Compensation and Gain Scheduling
William L. Luyben†
Process Modeling and Control Center, Department of Chemical Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015
This paper studies the control of a fed-batch reactor in which the optimum operation is to maximize the feed flow rate, as limited by jacket heat transfer. The volume in the reactor increases with time, as does the heat-transfer area. Therefore, the feed rate also increases with time, which acts as a load disturbance to the reactor temperature controller. A conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller exhibits an offset from the desired setpoint (“droop”) because of the constantly changing load. A lag-compensated PI controller is shown to provide effective temperature control. In addition, because the process gain between the temperature and feed flow rate decreases during the batch as a result of the increase in volume, increasing the controller gain directly with volume (gain scheduling) improves the performance. Significant decreases in batch times are achieved, resulting in higher productivity. In addition, when there are competing undesirable reactions, higher yields are achieved because the reactor temperature is held closer to the optimum.
1. Introduction The interest in the control of batch reactors has increased in recent years because of the expansion of small-volume specialty chemicals. In the biotechnology area, batch reactors are used on both small- and largescale fermenters because of the inherent superiority of batch fermentation over continuous fermentation in most systems. Many of these batch reactors are “semibatch” or “fedbatch” reactors in which an initial amount of material is placed in the reactor, the liquid is heated to the desired temperature, and then additional feed of fresh reactant is gradually added to the vessel. The result is a time-varying process with variable volume. If heating and/or cooling is achieved by heat transfer from the vessel liquid into a heating/cooling medium in a surrounding jacket, the time-varying volume means that the heat-transfer area is also changing with time. The optimum operation of many fed-batch reactors is an operating strategy that minimized the batch time. This corresponds to feeding the fresh feed into the reactor as quickly as possible. The feed rate is often limited by heat transfer. If the reaction is exothermic, heat must be removed. The rate of heat transfer depends on three factors: 1. The temperature difference between the reaction liquid and the jacket coolant. The latter depends on the coolant flow rate, the inlet coolant temperature, and the heat-transfer rate. 2. The overall heat-transfer coefficient U, which depends on agitator mixing in the vessel and the flow rate of coolant in the jacket. 3. The heat-transfer area. If jacket cooling is used, the effective heat-transfer area in a fed-batch reactor varies during the course of the batch directly with the volume of liquid in the vessel. Of course, it also depends on the diameter of the vessel and the aspect ratio (length/diameter). It should be noted that if the fed†
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batch reactor uses an external heat exchanger with process liquid pumped and recycled back into the reactor, the heat-transfer area will not depend on the volume of liquid in the reactor. This is one of the advantages of an external pumparound system. The literature contains a number of papers that discuss the control of batch reactors, with most in the biotechnology area related to batch fermentation control. Some early papers1,2 studied various types of controllers, optimum batch temperature trajectories, and several heat-removal schemes. The state-of-the-art schemes up to 1986 were reviewed by Juba and Hamer.3 Many papers4-10 dealing with various aspects of fedbatch reactors have appeared in the intervening years, with many of them studying complex adaptive, nonlinear, or model-predictive control. Some recent papers11,12 have discussed the dynamic simulation and control of fed-batch systems. In particular, Wassick et al.11 recently presented a study of an industrial fed-batch polymerization reactor in which a complex nonlinear model predictive controller (MPC) is used to adjust cooling water and feed flows. The objective is to minimize the batch time. Experimental plant data are presented. No comparisons between MPC and a simple proportional-integral (PI) temperature controller are given. The most practical discussion of fed-batch reactor control is given by Shinskey.13 Comparisons are given of the performance of various control modes for ramp setpoint startups. The use of valve position control for synchronizing the manipulation of feed and coolant flows is discussed. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that effective control of fed-batch reactors is achievable with the use of a simple PI controller with lag compensation to reduce offset in the face of feed flow rate changes during the batch cycle. In addition, gain scheduling is used to account for the change in the process gain during the batch. The effect of the feed flow rate on temperature (the process steady-state gain) varies inversely with the
10.1021/ie0308792 CCC: $27.50 © 2004 American Chemical Society Published on Web 06/22/2004
When the reactor temperature is low. so cooling water in the jacket is perfectly mixed at temperature TJ. Thus. Chem. The first has a setpoint of 120 °F and drives the two split-ranged water valves. so the feed valve size is adjusted for each case. and the reactor sits for an additional period of 1 h to consume any unreacted A. The volume of the jacket is the circumferential area of the vessel times the width of the jacket.
Figure 1. which results in the volume increasing more and more rapidly with time. the reaction begins to produce heat. 43. Heat transfer occurs through the circumferential wall area to a jacket surrounding the vertical walls of the vessel.. where z is the mole fraction of the reactant in the reactor) is placed in the reactor. the feed flow rate to the reactor is initially small but becomes larger and larger during the batch. Because the volume is increasing with time. specific reaction rate. which is assumed to be 4 in. and the feed is cut off. exothermic liquid-phase reaction A f B occurring in a fed-batch reactor. The other is cold water at 90 °F. As shown in Figure 1. It should be noted that manipulating the feed to control the reactor temperature has the potential to introduce some interesting dynamics. The jacket temperature controller is only used to initially add hot water to heat the reactor and to switch to maximum cold water flow during the rest of the batch. In the base case. Eng. The setpoint of this controller is initially set at 90 °F and is ramped up to 140 °F over a period of time. As the reactor temperature approaches the setpoint. This ramp time is one of the control parameters that can be adjusted.5 is used in this controller with a temperature transmitter span of 50 °F. 2. No. the initial effect of increasing the feed flow rate can be a decrease in the reactor temperature because of sensible heat effects. As illustrated in Figure 1. a heat of reaction of -20 000 Btu/lb‚mol is assumed. Vol. The second temperature controller is a PI controller that manipulates the feed flow rate. Process Studied The primary process considered features the irreversible. 2004
Table 1. Parameter and Design Values for the Base Case activation energy (Btu/lb‚mol) ) 30 000 heat of reaction (Btu/lb‚mol of A reacted) ) -20 000 density of the process liquid ) 50 lb/ft3 molecular weight of A and B ) 50 lb/lb‚mol heat capacity of the process liquid ) 0. and reactor size). The maximum flow rate of each is specified to give a residence time in the jacket of 5 min. the reactor is 95% full. 15. Notice that the feed flow rate is almost a ramp function. Feed is fed to the system until the volume reaches 95% of the total vessel volume. A 50 °F temperature transmitter span is used in the temperature loop. In the base case. An aspect ratio (L/D) of 2 is used for the reactor vessel. As the reactor temperature approaches the desired value.75 Btu/lb‚°F density of the coolant liquid ) 62. a 5-ft-diameter reactor is assumed. the feed flow rate is limited by heat transfer. circulating jacket cooling water. Split-ranged valves on the hot and cold water are used to set their flows FCW and FHW (ft3/h).
volume of liquid in the vessel. The objective is to minimize the batch time so as to maximize the production rate. 2. After about 14 h. where maintaining the optimum temperature profile suppresses the undesirable reaction. This is achieved by running with maximum cold water flow and feeding in fresh feed as fast as possible while holding the reactor temperature at its desired value. A circulating jacket water system is assumed. The valve on the feed has a maximum capacity such that the vessel could be filled in 2 h if the maximum flow were introduced. Figure 2 gives typical time trajectories of the variables during a batch cycle. two temperature controllers are used. The performance of the control structure to parametric variability is explored by changing a number of operating parameters over wide ranges (heat-transfer coefficient. feed is introduced into the vessel.1. One is hot water at 140 °F. giving a total volume of 1470 gal. Other reactor sizes are explored later in this paper. Different reactor sizes are explored. Res. Fed-batch reactor. 2. the heattransfer area is also increasing with time. two sources of water are used during the batch. which is used to cool the reactor to remove the exothermic heat of reaction once the reaction lights off. The feed valve is sized so that the reactor could be filled in 5 h if the feed flow rate is at its maximum. An initial “heel” that contains no reactant (z ) 0 at t ) 0. Significant improvements in the yield can also be achieved by the use of lag compensation and gain scheduling in systems with competing reactions. Results for various ramp times and controller tuning constants are presented in a later section of this paper. hot water is added to the circulating jacket water loop. The specific reaction rate is 5 h-1 at 140 °F. Thus. Batch Operation. A proportional temperature control with a gain KC1 ) 2. Control Structure. If the feed temperature is lower than the reactor temperature. as the reactant concentration
. The feed is pure reactant A (zo ) 1) with a temperature of 90 °F and a flow rate of F(t) (lb‚mol/h). the hot water valve closes and the cold water valve opens.4244 Ind. in which the desired product is B.2. Then the feed is stopped. Table 1 gives details
of the kinetic and physical parameters used.3 lb/ft3 heat capacity of the coolant liquid ) 1 Btu/lb‚°F overall heat-transfer coefficient ) 100 Btu/h‚ft2‚°F jacket thickness ) 4 in. The desired operating temperature of the reactor TR is 140 °F. A later section of this paper considers a more complex chemical system with competing reactions A f B and A f C. The temperature of the reaction liquid is initially 90 °F. which is used to initially heat up the heel to temperatures where the reaction begins when reactant is fed. It is assumed that the vessel is 10% full at the beginning of the batch cycle. heat of reaction. However. As the concentration of the reactant in the liquid builds up.
UA(TR . The problem is analogous to the classic servomechanism case where a ramp change in the setpoint produces a constant offset between the setpoint and the controlled variable for a lag process. The problem can be described mathematically by showing that a ramp input (1/s) produces a constant error if a PI controller is used (which has only one s in the denominator). Vol. Conventional PI.Ind. Eng. As we will demonstrate. and k is the specific reaction rate (h-1)
k ) Re-E/RT
where E is the activation energy (30 000 Btu/lb‚mol). Chem.kz(F/M)VR dt
where F is the mass density (50 lb/ft3).e. Similar problems occur in plantwide processes when a unit sees a disturbance entering over a long period of time.λkz(F/M)VR .75 Btu/lb‚°F). Gain scheduling is a practical nonlinear control method that
has been successfully applied to many real industrial problems. This case was studied by Belanger and Luyben. Then “lag-compensated” linear controllers are explored.. the use of gain scheduling is an obvious aspect to evaluate. Reactor Energy Balance:
d(VRTR) ) ToFFcp .14 who recommended the use of a lag compensator. 43. A volumetric balance can be used because the density is assumed constant. an energy balance. the reaction rate increases. and eventually the reactor temperature increases.
builds up in the reactor. The performances of several types of controllers are compared.13 3. Res.
. Thus. Finally the use of nonlinear gain-scheduled controllers is examined. No. plus an energy balance on the jacket water. the performance of a PID controller suffers from “droop” problems. Reactor Component Balance:
d(zVR) ) zoFF/M . 15. the reactor temperature is not driven to the setpoint value. which is limited by closed-loop stability considerations. which is the increasing feed flow rate.3. there can be an “inverse response” in this feed-totemperature loop. λ is the heat of reaction (-20 000 Btu/lb‚mol).TJ) dt (4)
where cp is the heat capacity of the process liquid (0. These ideas are developed in a later section of this paper. This “steady-state” offset occurs because the system is seeing a persistent load change.. M is the molecular weight (50 lb/lb‚mol). and a component balance on the liquid in the reactor. The magnitude of the error varies inversely with the controller gain. Mathematical Model of a Fed-Batch Reactor The nonlinear model of a fed-batch reactor involves a dynamic total mass balance. 2004 4245
Figure 2. The value of the preexponential factor R is calculated to give a specific reaction rate ko at 140 °F of 5 h-1 at the base-case conditions. 2. Because this batch process is nonlinear. Reactor Total Balance:
dVR/dt ) F
where VR has units of ft3 and F of ft3/h. Simple linear PI and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers are studied first. Controller Types. The basic idea is to have a high gain at low frequencies (which reduces the offset for a ramp input) while reducing the gain at frequencies near the ultimate frequency (or near the resonant frequency) so that closed-loop stability is maintained. ZN tuning. i.
As discussed earlier. ZieglerNichols settings and a 0. 2004
Figure 3. Notice that the jacket temperature climbs to about 135 °F.5 h to ramp from 90 to 140 °F).6 h. There are several issues in setting up the temperature controller that manipulates the feed. The 0. and τI is the controller integral time (hours). For a PID controller.2 h). The most interesting feature is the offset in temperature. No. Figure 2 gives results for a PI controller.2. Vol.3 lb/ft3.2. Figure 4 shows that a slow ramp increases the time it takes to get close to the setpoint. and the jacket heat-transfer area is 157 ft2. In later cases with small specific reaction rates.
. As we show later. For a ramp load disturbance.15 h. and U is the overall heattransfer coefficient (100 Btu/h‚°F‚ft2). The lag-compensated PI controller discussed in the next section reduces the batch time to 13. higher concentrations are required. which
never gets up to the desired setpoint.
Figure 4. Res. PV is the process variable. Figure 5 gives results for a linear PID controller using Ziegler-Nichols settings. First. The total batch time with this conventional linear PI controller is 14. SP is the setpoint. Two 1-min first-order lags are used in the temperature controller loop so that realistic tuning is obtained.TJ) (5)
where cJ and FJ are the heat capacity and density of the water (1 Btu/lb‚°F and 62. and τD ) 0. this is due to the load change in the feed flow rate.3% increase in capacity). respectively). E is the error (SP PV).5 h ramp are used. Lag-Compensated PI Controller. Then cold water is brought into the jacket and climbs to near its maximum value. using proportional temperature controllers with various gains (KC2).4246 Ind.96 h. If temperature signals are not too noisy.273 and τI ) 1 h.5 h ramp is selected. Then different ramp rates are tested. Figure 3 shows the approach taken.40 h. The result is a smaller batch time (13. Hot water is used for only a short period of time. The resulting Ziegler-Nichols settings for a PI controller are KC ) 0. Results 4. 43.61 h).1. The second is the ramp rate for the setpoint. Lag compensation introduces a lag/lead in the controller
τIs + 1 τLCs + 1 OP(s) ) KC τIs RLCτLCs + 1 E(s)
where τLC is the lag time constant and RLC equals 10.6 produces very oscillatory behavior. and the temperature approached the setpoint more quickly. the length is 10 ft. 4. The transfer function of a PI controller is
τIs + 1 OP(s) ) KC τIs E(s)
where OP is the controller output. We assume that this is the ultimate gain and the period of the oscillations is the ultimate period (Ku ) 0. this controller produces an offset. The offset can be significantly reduced by using lag compensation.. Volumes and Areas:
total volume ) π(DR)2LR/4 total heat . Notice that the concentration of the reactant in the reactor z is quite small (5 mol %) for the base-case specific reaction rate. This occurs because the heat-transfer area is increasing.353. Eng. then drops to about 90 °F. compared to the PI controller (14. Conventional PI and PID Controllers. The first is the tuning question. the use of derivative action can improve control.61 h for the base-case conditions. while a fast ramp rate produces more overshoot and more oscillatory response.transfer area ) πDRLR A(t) ) VR(t) (total area)/(total volume) (6)
In the base case.78 h) for the PID controller.6 and Pu ) 1.
A is the jacket area (ft2). 4. Determining Ku and Pu. which is a 8. Chem. In these tests the controller is proportionalonly with a gain KC2 ) 0. the reactor diameter is 5 ft. the settings are KC ) 0. A gain of about 0. the additional use of gain scheduling reduces the batch time to 12. and gradually increases over the course of the batch to 100 °F.3% reduction in time (or a 8. a ramp rate is specified (0. despite the fact that the heat-transfer rate Q is increasing. 15. The higher gain gives less offset. τI ) 0. Jacket Energy Balance:
dTJ ) TCWFCWFJcJ + THWFHWFJcJ dt (FCW + FHW)FJcJTJ + UA(TR . Setpoint ramps. KC is the controller gain.
1.Ind. Chem. used for derivative action. No. where RLC equals 0. at higher frequencies near the resonant frequency (about 7 rad/h). Figure 6 gives Bode plots for the two controller transfer functions: eqs 7 and 8. ZN tuning. the magnitudes and phase angles are almost the same.. Conventional PID.
Figure 6. Belanger and Luyben14 recommend the following:
τLC ) 3. Figure 7 shows the results for several values of τLC. 43. Res. Open-loop Bode plots of controllers: PI and LCPI. 2004 4247
Figure 5. Vol.2 h. the suggested value of τLC is 4. 15. Lag compensation is used to provide higher gains at low frequencies where it helps to reduce the offset in the face of a ramp disturbance. The low-frequency magnitude of the lag-compensated controller is clearly shown to be much higher than that of the PI controller. Derivative action is used to provide phase angle advance so that the dynamic performance at high frequencies (near the resonant frequency) is improved. Eng.4 h.64Pu
Using Pu ) 1. A value of 4 h gives results that are not too sluggish and
This is the reverse of a lead/lag element. The best value of the lag time constant τLC should be used.
The reaction of 1 mol of A produces a fixed amount of heat.
Figure 8. This means the controller gain increases by a factor of 5 over the course of the batch. Table 2.Vmin R R
base (Kmax C2 . leading to a shorter batch time. 43. Chem. 5.96 PID batch time (h) 13. the effect of the feed flow rate on the temperature becomes smaller. The effect of the feed flow rate on the temperature (the process gain) is larger during the early period of the batch when the volume is small.40 13. Res. batch
VR .52 12. As the volume increases.07 13. Vol. The controller used in these runs is PI with Ziegler-Nichols settings. τLC ) 4. A simple way to change the controller gain is to make it a linear function of the reactor volume. the maximum gain is set equal to 5 times the Ziegler-Nichols values. The larger the volume. Lag-compensated PI. This suggests that a “gain-scheduling” nonlinear controller should be used to improve the performance of the system.
. Lag compensation helps the PI controller more than the PID controller. 2004
times are reduced. Table 2 summarizes the results for different controller types. and the minimum is 10% of the total.4248 Ind.88
produce little overshoot. In both cases.31 12.KC2 )
is the Ziegler-Nichols value. Figure 8 gives the time trajectories of the batch reactor when a lag-compensated PI controller is used. For both the PI and PID controllers. Eng. Effect of τLC on lag-compensated PI. The offset is significantly reduced. This means that the process gain (TR/F) decreases with volume.
Figure 7. This is due to the nonlinear character of the batch reactor.78 13. However. the less the temperature will change for a given quantity of reactant fed. Figure 9 shows a direct comparison of conventional versus lag-compensated controllers.. a close look at the results for any of the controllers (see Figure 9) reveals a slight increase in the offset during the later stages of the batch cycle when using any of the controllers. which heats the liquid in the reactor.61 13. Results for both PI and PID controllers are shown. Gain Scheduling The results presented above demonstrate a significant improvement in performance when lag compensation is used. Batch Times for Lag-Compensated PI and PID PI batch time (h) conventional lag compensated gain scheduled combined lag compensation and gain scheduling 14. No.Vmin R Vmax . the maxiwhere Kbase C2 mum reactor volume is 95% of the total. 15.
compared to a batch time for a simple PI controller of 14.
Figure 10. It is worth noting that that there is very little improvement in using PID control over PI control when
both lag compensation and gain scheduling are used.
Figure 10 demonstrates the effectiveness of gain scheduling for several cases.88 h. These results are for a lag-compensated PI controller.Ind.61 h.
. 43. 15. The PI batch time for the combined control is 12. The PID batch time for the combined control is 12. Vol. The top graph gives the results for a simple PI controller and a lag-compensated PI controller. Offsets are reduced. each with gain scheduling. This means that there will be little sacrifice in the performance even though temperature signal noise prevents the use of derivative action. No. a number of other cases are explored.96 h. Parametric Variations The results presented above demonstrate a significant improvement in the performance when lag compensation and gain scheduling are used. using ZieglerNichols settings with gain scheduling. and batch times are shorter. Chem.78 h. Conventional and lag compensation. 2004 4249
Figure 9. Conventional and lag compensation with gain scheduling. compared to a batch time for a PID controller of 13.. Eng. To see if these controllers can handle changes in process parameters. The bottom graph gives the corresponding results for PID controllers. Res. 6.
the longer the batch time because the feed must be fed at a slower rate. the higher the heat of reaction. Controller retuning should be done for this very large change (50% increase) in the heat of reaction. The base-case overall heat-transfer coefficient is 100 Btu/h‚°F‚ft2. Figure 12 gives the results without any retuning of the temperature controller. The preexponential factor was changed to give the desired value of k at 140 °F. As expected. the larger the value of U. As expected. Larger and smaller values (-15 000 and -30 000 Btu/lb‚mol) were studied. but the higher heat of reaction case is quite oscillatory. Specific Reaction Rate. Values of 4 and 6 h-1 were studied. the concentration of the reactant in the vessel must increase to provide the required reaction rate. The temperature controller becomes more oscillatory as the specific reaction rate decreases. Stable temperature control is obtained. and the temperature controller would require tuning to achieve lower closed-loop damping coefficients. The lower graph in Figure 11 illustrates this point.3.
. 6. The base-case heat of reaction is -20 000 Btu/lb‚mol.. Values of 80 and 120 Btu/h‚°F‚ft2 were studied. Figure 11 compares the three cases. Chem. while the ko ) 4 case has a higher concentration of A (5-9 mol %). Vol. the effect of the sensible heat of the cold feed becomes more significant. Eng.1. As the heat of reaction gets smaller. The tuning of the temperature controller is not changed from those used in the base case. Lag-compensated PI with gain scheduling.
Figure 12. This is due to the higher reactant concentration. Heat-Transfer Coefficient. The batch time is much shorter. 2004
Figure 11. Lag-compensated PI with gain scheduling. Res. which increases the process gain. The ko ) 10 case has a low concentration of A (2-3 mol %). the shorter the batch time. 43. and the results are shown in Figure 13.
Figure 13. ko ) 4/5/10. U ) 80/ 120. λ ) -15 000/-30 000. Reducing the specific reaction rate has a strong effect.4250 Ind. Heat of Reaction. No. The base-case specific reaction rate is 5 h-1 at 140 °F. 15.
6.2. Lag-compensated PI with gain scheduling. As the specifc reaction rate is reduced.
This is because of the smaller areato-volume ratio in the larger reactor. Temperature control is still stable. 43. 15. Res. These new dimensions do not. however. Chem. Raising the temperature increases the specific reaction rate of the desirable more than the undesirable reaction because of the large activation energy of the first reaction. temperature control can affect the amount of C produced. which is 1/10 of the specific reaction rate k of the desired reaction.
The tuning of the temperature controller is not changed from what was used in the base case. The base-case reactor diameter is 5 ft. The tuning of the temperature controller is not changed from that used in the base case. a second process is considered in which there are two reactions:
Product B is the desired product. No.
d(zAVR)/dt ) zoF . The 6 ft reactor batch time is 15. there has been a single reaction A f B. The 4 ft reactor batch time is 10. The reactor energy must be modified to account for the two reactions.Ind.(k1 + k2)zAVR d(zCVR)/dt ) +k2zAVR
where zA is the mole fraction of A and where zC is the mole fraction of C in the liquid in the reactor. Temperature control is still stable. Process with Competing Reactions In the process considered up to this point.
. If the temperature is too low (below the setpoint). both reaction rates are small. Vol. Improved control can have a much more pronounced effect when the product yield is impacted by holding the reactor temperature closer to the optimum. Vessels with diameters of 4 ft (752 gal) and 6 ft (2538 gal) were also studied. Component C is an undesirable side product. There are now two component balances. which we assume to have the same heat of reaction λ. The specific reaction rate of the second reaction is
k2 ) R2e-E2/RT
Figure 14. Reactor Energy Balance. which halve and double the reactor holdup. 2004 4251
control resulted in shorter batch times.4. despite the very large change in volume. Reactor Component Balances. i. halve and double the heat-transfer area. To illustrate this point.. Lag-compensated PI with gain scheduling.86 h. but the smaller heat-transfer coefficient produces more overshoot and more oscillation. Figure 14 gives the results. the batch times change with the reactor size. so the undesirable reaction is less sensitive to temperature. The equations describing the system must be modified to handle the ternary system. 6. DR ) 4/6.. but the larger reactor is more oscillatory.
Figure 15. The value of the preexponential factor R2 is calculated to give a specific reaction rate k2o at 140 °F of 0. Thus.12 h. and the improvement in
where the activation energy (E2 ) 10 000 Btu/lb‚mol) is lower than that of the desired reaction. Therefore.e. Reactor Size. These 20% changes in U should be accompanied by some controller retuning. Eng. can affect the yield of B. Competing reactions. The feed is pure A. giving a vessel with a total volume of 1470 gal. 7.5 h-1.
Dev.5%. Ind.. (4) Cuthrell. Eng. M. Ind. (3) Juba. 1997. Luyben. W.. Hamer.. Chovan.67 h.8%... J. In Nonlinear Predictive Control Theory and Practice. J. 55-65.. Bachmann. Simultaneous optimization and solution methods for batch reactor control. This difference in yield can impact the profitability of the fed-batch process. Nougues. Leuchtenberger. V. R.. L. 1988. the batch time is only 13. 2004 Accepted May 14. 8. Process Des.. M. Match your process constraints using dynamic simulation. Ind. 383-392. Process ControlsCPC II 1986. (11) Wassick. 1995.. Bioeng. 599606. 476.. 64... J. G. (10) Grau. the batch time with the PI controller is 14. Progress and challenges in batch process control. D. Eng. S. Eng. Eng. 2001.. Process dynamics and temperature control of fed-batch reactors. P. Doyle.. A case study of adaptive nonlinear regulation of fed-batch biological reactors. 43. the concentration of the undesired component C builds up to only 8. Kouvaritakis. E. S. Results demonstrate significant improvements in the performance. 8. J.
Received for review December 30. 28. 5339-5347. Skaates.. W. B. 13. Bastin.TJ) (14)
This process was simulated using a simple PI controller and using a PI controller with lag compensation and gain scheduling. Prog. (6) Szeifert. Conclusion The use of lag-compensated and gain-scheduled PI controllers for temperature control of fed-batch reactors has been investigated. This is an 11% reduction. M. Chem. J. B. Hagy. 40.. pp 33-57. 1989. Eds.. which represents a yield of B of 90. Eng.λ(k1 + k2)zA(F/M)VR dt UA(TR . Practical control studies of batch reactors using realistic mathematical models.. A. Puigjaner. B. This represents a yield of B of 88. Sci. Coffey. W. Chem. 1994. Pfefferle. Eng. Biotechnol. Macias-Hernandez. S. 2004 IE0308792
. R. J. W. (13) Shinskey. W. 114-119. (9) Parker. G.. 2003. L. When a lag-compensated PI controller with gain scheduling is used. Gatzke. P. while with the lag-compensated PI controller with gain scheduling. 139-183. Eng. F. Callihan. (7) Chen. Paper presented at the 2003 AIChE Meeting. M. J. Chem... Nomenclature
A ) heat-transfer area of the jacket (ft2) cJ ) heat capacity of the coolant (Btu/lb‚°F) cp ) heat capacity of the process (Btu/lb‚°F) D ) process deadtime (h) DR ) reactor vessel diameter (ft) E ) activation energy (Btu/lb‚mol) F ) fresh feed flow rate (lb‚mol/h) FCW ) cold water flow rate to the jacket (ft3/h) FHW ) hot water flow rate to the jacket (ft3/h) GM ) process open-loop transfer function GPI ) PI controller transfer function GLCPI ) lag-compensated PI controller transfer function k ) specific reaction rate (h-1) KC ) controller gain ko ) specific reaction rate at 140 °F (h-1) KP ) process open-loop steady-state gain Ku ) ultimate controller gain LC ) closed-loop log modulus (dB) LO ) open-loop log modulus (dB) LR ) length of the reactor (ft) LCPI ) lag-compensated PI controller M ) molecular weight (lb/lb‚mol) PI ) proportional-integral controller Pu ) ultimate period (h) Q ) heat-transfer rate to the jacket (Btu/h) s ) Laplace transform variable TCW ) cold water temperature (°F) THW ) hot water temperature (°F) TJ ) jacket temperature (°F)
To ) temperature of the feed (°F) TR ) reactor temperature (°F) Vtotal ) total volume of the reactor vessel (ft3) U ) overall heat-transfer coefficient (Btu/h‚ft2‚°F) VJ ) volume of the jacket (ft3) VR ) volumetric holdup of the reaction liquid in the reactor (ft3) z ) reactant concentration in the reactor (mole fraction A) zo ) reactant concentration in the fresh feed (mole fraction A) R ) kinetic preexponential factor (h-1) RLC ) parameter in the lag compensator λ ) heat of reaction (Btu/lb‚mol) F ) density of the process liquid (lb/ft3) FJ ) density of the coolant (lb/ft3) τLC ) time constant of the lag compensator (h) τM ) measurement lag time (h) τI ) controller integral time (h) ωR ) resonant frequency (rad/h) ωu ) ultimate frequency (rad/h)
(1) King... P. D. Pushpavanam.. Robustness studies illustrate that the controller can tolerate fairly large changes in process parameters. 42-48. W. M.. 49. Comput. Alos. T. 2003 Revised manuscript received May 3. Chem. M. Eng. San Francisco. 2004
d(VRTR) ) ToFFcp . (12) Feliu. T. Nov 2003. S447-S452. Nonlinear MPC of a commercial polymerization semi-batch reactor. (2) Marroquin. In addition. Comput. Chem. J. Cannon. 2001. Mahadevan. 1999. E. Res. Results are given in Figure 15. 993-1003. W. R. Design of low-frequency compensators for improvement of plantwide regulatory performance. M. Luyben. (5) Konnur. Eng. Chem. The concentration of the undesired component C builds up to about 10% when PI control is used. E. Van Breusegem. L.. (8) Schilling. W. 19. Dec. Chem. Special reactor design investigations of mixing time effects in a scaled-down industrial L-lysine fedbatch fermentation process. E. No. Vol. Chem. Obtention of the optimum feeding profile in a fed-batch reactor using genetic algorithms. Grau. R. J.5%. Res.. Process Control Syst. Meadows. and yield improvements are achieved in some chemical systems. L. Two-position control of a batch prepolymerization reactor. L. Res. Batch times are shorter because of the reduction in the temperature offset from the desired setpoint. 15. D. IEE: New York.4252 Ind. (14) Belanger. A. W..0 h. 31. Deckwer.. Biegler. Automatica 1995. Sci. 1969. 1488-1494. Chem. 36. Chem. Dynamics of a fed-batch reactor: the transition from batch to the CSTR. 1973. 49-62. L. F. I.