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TITLE: Finding the formula of hydrated copper (ll) sulphate.

AIM: To identify the formula of a hydrate copper (II) sulphate. INTRODUCTION : Solid chemical compounds, when exposed to the atmosphere, often contain water. In most cases, the water is absorbed on the surface of the crystals and the amount is quite small. This water can easily be removed by gentle heating. Other compounds, water are absorbed in greater amounts and is more tightly bound to the crystal. Materials that gain water to this extent are called hygroscopic. The compounds that readily gain water is usually Ionic salts the water is generally bound to the cation, the positively charged metal ion. Example of these salts is CuSO4 . Some anhydrous compounds so strongly absorb water from the atmosphere that they can be used to dry liquids and gases. Removal of water from hygroscopic compounds is difficult. They must be heated vigorously. Some hydrated compounds, on the other hand lose water spontaneously to the atmosphere. In this experiment, you will be observing the loss of the waters of hydration from a number of substances and determining the actual number of waters of hydration of an unknown. The waters of hydration are the number of moles of water in the hydrate per mole of the anhydrous salt. I will determine the mole ratio of a hydrate decomposition reaction by removing a mass of water in a sample of solid hydrate. The water comes out of the gypsum as steam. We are going to do this type of reaction in this experiment. We will carefully heat the hydrate in a crucible and drive off the molecules of water to form either another hydrate with less water or totally pushes the crystal to its anhydrous form. Our objective is to determine the hydrate formulas of one copper (II) sulfate : CuSO4XH2O (s) 1 CuSO4 (s) + X H2O (g) Blue APPARATUS: Crucible, pipe clay triangle, tripod, Bunsen burner, electronic balance, crucible tongs, glass rod, heat resistant mat. Material/ chemical: Hydrated blue copper (ll) sulphate. White

PROCEDURE : 1) The empty crucible was weighed ,and the mass of the hydrated copper (ll) sulphate was weight into it between 2g and 3g. All the weighing was recorded accurately to the nearest 0.01g. 2) The crucible was supported securely in the pipe-clay triangle on the tripod over the Bunsen burner.

3) The crucible and contents were heated, gently at first, over a medium Bunsen flame, so that the water of crystallisation is driven off steadily. Then, the blue colour of the hydrate compound was gradually fading to the greyish-white of anhydrous copper (ll) sulfate. 4) To avoid over-heating, which may cause further decomposition, and if the colour starts to blacken, the heating is stopped immediately .If over-heated, toxic or corrosive fumes may be evolved. A total heating time of about 10 minutes should be enough. 5) The crucible and contents was allowed to cool. The tongs were used to move the hot crucible from the hot pipe-clay triangle onto the heat resistant mat where it should cool more rapidly. 6) The crucible and contents were re-weighed once it is cold. 7) The appropriate results were recorded in a table.

DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING Qualitative Data : 1. The colour of the hydrated copper (II) sulfate is blue. The blue colour turns to white when heating. After 4 minutes, the colour of hydrated copper (II) sulfate turns to greyish-white of anhydrous copper (II) sulfate. 2. The colour of the flame used while heating the hydrated copper (II) sulfate is blue. Quantitative Data : Table 1 : Table of mass of crucible, mass of crucible and hydrated copper (II) sulfate before heating & mass of crucible and copper sulfate after heating.

Mass ,m (g) 0.01 Mass of crucible, m (g) 0.01

Trial 1 42.02

Trial 2 42.03

Trial 3 42.01

Average 42.02

Mass of crucible and hydrated copper (II) sulfate before heating, m (g) 0.01 Mass of crucible and anhydrous copper (II) sulfate after heating, m(g) 0.01

44.20

44.21

44.21

44.21

43.40

43.40

43.40

43.40

DISCUSSION : The values obtained are very precise. The purpose of this lab was to find the formula for the hydrate of copper (ll) sulphate.The hydrated copper (ll) sulphate that I found is CuSO4.5H2O. Hence, I need to find the mass of hydrated copper(II) sulphate,the mass of anhydrous copper (ll) sulfate and a mass of water. First of all, the mass of the crucible and the mass of the crucible with hydrated copper (ll) sulphate was recorded. Then i heated the crucible and hydrated copper (ll) sulphate to evaporate the water out of it. When the blue colour of hydrated copper (ll) sulphate gradually fades to greyish-white of anhydrous copper (ll) sulphate, thats mean the water had evaporated.In order to find the mass of anhydrous

copper(II) sulphate, I weighed again the crucible and copper (ll) sulphate. Hence, I need to find the mass of anhydrous copper (ll) sulfate by minus the mass of crucible and copper (ll) sulphate after heating with the mass of crucible. Furthermore, to find the mass of water, I took the mass of the hydrated copper (ll) sulphate minus the mass of anhydrous copper(II) sulfate. In addition, to find the formula for hydrated copper (ll) sulphate, I had to determine the number of moles of water by using empirical formula. Table 2 : Table of empirical formula to determine the number of moles of water. Element Mass, m (g) Molar mass , (g/Mol) CuSO 1.38 63.5 + 32.1+ (16.0 x 4) = 159.6 Number of moles =0.008647 =0.045 HO 0.81 (1.0 x 2) + 16.0 = 18

Simplest whole number ratio of mole =1 Ratio 1 =5.2 5

Hence the empirical formula = CuSO.5 HO During my experiment , maybe some mistakes had occurred. Limitations and Weakness : 1. The flame does not fully blue and directly touch the crucible, so it cannot heat the

hydrated copper sulfate strongly and constantly. Make sure the flame is fully blue and use porcelain as a stand for Bunsen burner, so the flame will heat strongly and constantly. 2. The air and wind affected the reading of mass. Close the door or window of the

electronic balance when taking the mass. Therefore, I can get an accurate reading.

3.

The temperature of the room influenced the heating of hydrated copper sulfate. Close

the fans and use a wind shield when heating hydrated copper sulfate, so the hydrated copper sulfate will heat strongly and uniformly. 4. The copper sulfate was falling down when I do the experiment. So I didnt get

accurate mass. I should be careful when doing the experiment , so the mess that I get will accurate. CONCLUSION : The formula of a hydrate copper (ll) sulphate is CuSO. 5HO. The general reaction of heating a hydrate is CuSO. HO CuSO+ HO , and the real equation for this experiment is CuSO. 5HO CuSO+ 5HO, (Cambridge, 2011, page 41). For 1 mole anhydrous copper (ll) sulphate, 5 moles of water had been driven off. The number of water molecules from my experiment is exactly same like the actual or theoretical value in the reference book. QUESTION : 1) Molar masses of HO and CuSO HO = 2 (1.0) + 16.0 =18 g mol CuSO = 63.5 + 32.1 + 4 (16.0) =159. 6 g mol 2) Mass of water driven off and the mass of anhydrous copper (ll) sulphate formed in my experiment : Mass of hydrated copper (II) sulphate : = mass of crucible and hydrated CuSO before heating mass of the crucible = (44.21 -42.02) =2. 19 g

Mass of CuSO = mass of crucible and CuSO after heating mass of the crucible = (43.40-42.02) =1. 38 g Mass of water : = mass of hydrated CuSO - mass of CuSO = 2.19 g- 1.38 g =0. 81 g 3) The number of moles of anhydrous copper (ll) sulphate formed = =

= 0.008647 moles 4) The number of moles of water driven off = =

=0. 045 moles 5) Simplified ratio Copper (ll) sulphate, CuSO Water, H0

=1

=5.2

Hence, 5 moles of water had been driven off when 1 mole of anhydrous copper (ll) sulphate had been formed.

6) The formula for hydrated copper (ll) sulphate is, =CuSO.5HO

REFERENCES : 1. Florida State Collage, 1994. Determining a Mole Ratio [online] Available at : http://www.fccj.us/Lab/HydrateAnalysis.htm [Accessed 24 February 2013] 2. A .Caroline, M. Chris, O. Steve, 2011. Cambridge, Chemistry For The IB Diploma : Cambridge University Press, UK. 3. Nuffield Foundation, 2011. Finding the Formula of Hydrated copper (II) sulfate [online] Available at : http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/practicalchemistry/finding-formula-hydrated-copperii-sulfate [Accessed 25 February 2013]