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TITLE : Electrical conductivity of ionic and covalent molecular substances.

AIM : To identify the electrical conductivity of ionic and covalent molecular substances. INTRODUCTION : Chemical compounds are combinations of atoms held together by chemical bonds. These chemical bonds are of two basic types. Which is ionic and covalent. Ionic bonds result when one or more electrons from one atom or group of atoms are transferred to another atom. Positive and negative ions are formed. In covalent compounds the electrons are shared by the bonded atoms. A compound is defined as a chemical combination of two or more elements. A chemical bond is the glue holding together the atoms of different elements. Two types of bonds are ionic and covalent. Ionic bonds generally occur between a metallic atom and a nonmetallic atom. The bond results from the transfer of one or more electrons from the metallic atom in the nonmetallic atom, resulting in a charge difference. The positively charged metal ion is then attracted to the negatively charged nonmetallic ion. Covalent bonding generally occurs between two or more nonmetallic atoms. Covalent bonding involves the sharing of electrons. Properties such as melting point, boiling point, solubility, electrical conductivity, color, and odor can help you distinguish ionic from covalent compounds. As in many areas of chemistry, the distinctions are not always clear, nor make the distinctions apply to all compounds. The salt and sugar on your kitchen table both dissolve easily in water, but the solutions they form have an important difference. One of those kind of white crystals is an ionic compound, and when it dissolves, it dissociates, or breaks up into ions. The ions are free to move in the solution, and that solution, therefore, conducts electricity. The more ions in solution, the better it conducts electricity. If something produces a large amount of ions it is called a strong electrolyte. If something produces a small amount of ions, it is called a weak electrolyte. The other kind of crystal, however, is a molecular compound, and its molecules remain whole when they dissolve. With no ions, that solution does not conduct electricity. If something produces no ions, it is called a nonelectrolyte. In this experiment I will conduct tests on the properties and compile data enabling you to classify compounds as ionic or covalent.

APPARATUS : 6 V D.C supply, ammeter, electrodes, Bunsen burner, wire electrode system, crucible, pipe clay triangle, tripod, 100mL beaker, filter paper, paper towel (to dry electrode), tongs. MATERIALS/CHEMICAL : NaOH pellets, silver nitrate, candle wax, naphthalene, 50mL kerosene, 50mL ethanol, 50mL distilled water, 50 ml of 0.1M sucrose, 50 ml of 0.1M NaCl, 50 ml of 0.1M NaOH, 50 ml of 0.1M HCL.

PROCEDURE : A : Electrical conductivity of some Molten Substances 1. 6 V D.C supply, ammeter and electrodes was connected in a series as shown in the figure.

2. Some NaOH pellets were placed in a crucible to a depth of about 0.5cm. The crucible was placed in a pipe clay triangle supported by a tripod. 3. The crucible was gently heat until the NaOH melts. The crucible cannot be heat excessively. Enough heat was applied to keep the sodium hydroxide just molting. 4. The electrodes were placed into the melt and the conductivity in terms of the ammeter reading. Gentle is heating the crucible was continued as there will be some more solidification around the electrodes. 5. The electrodes were removed and cleaned thoroughly with some paper towel. 6. The procedure was repeated using candle wax and naphthalene. The results were recorded in a suitable table. B : Electrical Conductivity of some Liquids and Aqueous solutions 1. 6 V D.C supply, ammeter and electrodes was connected in a series. 2. 50 mL of kerosene was placed into a 100 mL beaker. The electrodes was placed into the liquid and the conductivity was noted in terms of the ammeter reading.The results was recorded. 3. The electrodes were removed and dried with a piece of filter paper. 4. The procedure was repeated using ethanol, distilled water, 0.1 M sucrose, 0.1 M NaCl, 0.1M NaOH and 0.1M HCL. The results were tabulated.

DATA : PART A Molten compounds Tested NaOH Silver nitrate Candle wax Naphthalene PART B Liquid samples tested Kerosene Ethanol Distilled water Aqueous compounds Tested 0.1M sucrose 0.1M NaCl 0.1M NaOH 0.1M HCL DISCUSSION : Ammeter reading Yes Yes No No Type of bonding Ionic bond Ionic bond Covalent bond Covalent bond

Ammeter reading No No No Ammeter reading No Yes Yes Yes

Type of bonding Covalent bond Covalent bond Covalent bond Type of bonding Covalent bond Ionic bond Ionic bond Covalent bond

Ionic compounds are brittle and do not conduct electricity when in the solid form. The molten (liquid) form of ionic compounds will conduct an electric current. In a molten sample of an ionic compound the ions are free to move. The cations can move to the negative electrode and acquire electrons. Similarly, the anions can move to the positive electrode and release electrons, thereby causing a flow of electricity in the outer circuit. Covalent compounds do not conduct electricity in the solid form or in the liquid form. Some covalent compounds dissolve in water and some do not. Molecules may be polar molecules which have a charge separation due to the shape of the molecule and the polarity of the bonds between the atoms forming the molecule. These molecules are pictured as having a positive end and a negative end and are said to be dipoles or polar molecules. Other molecules are non-polar molecules. These are molecules that have no charge separation again due to the shape of the molecule and the polarity of the bonds between the atoms forming the molecule. These non-polar molecules are pictured as having no dipole character. During my experiment , maybe some mistakes had occurred. Firstly, the beakers and electrodes used for the experiment were not dry enough after being washed. We need to dry

enough the beaker and clean it using a paper towel. Then, the electrodes must be clean using sand paper. Moreover, the depth of the electrodes in the solutions might not have been the same. We need to use the same beaker with the same volume and that volume is used for every solution throughout the experiment

CONCLUSION : All ionic cannot conduct electricity in solid state but can conduct electricity in molten or aqueous solution because there are freely mobile ions. While covalent compound did not conduct electricity in solid, molten and aqueous state. Just some very polar molecular compounds can be "ripped" into ions by the water molecules. These are said to be "dissociated" into ions by the dipole nature of the water molecules and can conduct electricity like HCl. QUESTIONS :

(1) Which of the pure substances (not the solutions) tested in parts A and conducted an electric current? What can you say about the nature of the bonding present in these substances? List the species which were the charge carriers in each case. -The pure substance (not the solution) tested in part A that conducted an electric current is NaOH and silver nitrate. -The nature of the bonding present in these substances is ionic bonding. -In molten NaOH, the charge carriers are ions because there are freely mobile ions. Which are Na and OH. Then, in silver nitrate the charge carriers are Ag and Cl. (2) List the pure substances tested in the experiment that did not conduct an electric current. What can you say about the type of bonding present in these substances? What species are present in each case? -The pure substances tested in the experiment that did not conduct an electric current are naphthalene, candle wax, kerosene, ethanol, distilled water, and sucrose. -The type of bonding present in these substances is covalent bonding. -The species are present in candle wax, naphthalene and kerosene are carbon ion and hydrogen ion. While in ethanol solution, the species that present are carbon ion, hydrogen ion and oxygen ion. (3) Which of the solutions (sucrose, NaCl, NaOH, and HCl) conducted an electric current? List the species present in each case and state why the solutions are conducting or not. -NaCl, NaOH, and HCL conducted an electric current while sucrose is not conducted.

-In NaCl the species present is Na and Cl. Next, in NaOH the species present is Na and OH. Then, in HCL the species present is H and Cl. The three solutions are conduct electricity because there are freely mobile ions,therefore its can conduct electricity. (4) In the solid state, both NaCl and NaOH are ionic lattices. What happens to these substances when they dissolve in water? - In NaCl, the water molecules will move around the Na and Cl and break the salt apart into ions. The polarity of the water molecule allows this by the more negative oxygen being attracted to the positive Na ions and the positive hydrogen being attracted to the negative chlorine ions. While, in NaOH the water molecules will move around the Na and OH and break it apart into ions. The polarity of the water molecule allows this by the more negative oxygen being attracted to the positive Na ions and the positive hydrogen being attracted to the negative hydroxide ions. (5) Pure HCl is a covalent molecule. What happens to each HCl molecule when it is dissolved in water? - Under the action of water molecules, the atoms are separated with chlorine pulling the bonding pairs to itself creating two charged species: a hydrogen ion and a chloride ion.

REFERENCES : 1. Revised by Dr. Walt Volland, July 8, 2010. Properties of Ionic Compounds [online] http://www.800mainstreet.com/4/0004-004-Properties.html [Accessed 27 February 2013] 2. JRank, 2006. Electrical Conductivity [online] http://www.scienceclarified.com/DiEl/Electrical-Conductivity.html [Accessed 28 February 2013] 3. McClellan, A.L. (Ed.). (1963). Teacher's Guide for Chemistry: An Experimental Science (157-158). San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company.