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NOR ASHIKIN BINTI ISMAIL | A2863

Title : Effect of catalysis on reaction rate. Aim : To investigate the effect of catalysis on the rate of reaction. Apparatus : (100 mL and 250 mL) beakers, (5 mL, 50 mL and 100 mL) measuring cylinders, Bunsen burner, tripod stand, wire gauze, thermometer, dropper, electronic balance, spatula. Materials : 2M of sulphuric acid solution , distilled water, 0.02M of potassium manganite solution , saturated oxalic acid solution, saturated manganese (II) sulfate solution, 6% fresh hydrogen peroxide solution, manganese (IV) oxide powder, potassium sodium tartrate, 10% cobalt chloride solution. Introduction : The reaction rate or rate of reaction for a reactant or product in any given reaction can be defined as the speed with which a reaction occurs. For example, the oxidation of iron (rusting) is a slow reaction which can take many years, but explosive combustion, such as the ignition of fuel, can take as little as fractions of a second to complete. Catalysts are one of the factors which determine and affect reaction rates . Catalysts help to speed up the reaction by providing an alternate and easier reaction pathway with a lower activation energy . Since the activation energy is lower, more product will be formed in the same amount of time. Chemists used to assume that a catalyst somehow speed up a reaction without being consumed in the reaction. In the chemical industry and the industrial research, catalysis play an important role. The different catalysts are in constant development to fulfill economic, political and environmental demands. When using a catalyst it is possible to replace a polluting chemical reaction with a more environmentally friendly alternative. Today, and in the future this can be vital for the chemical industry. For a company, a new and improved catalyst can be a huge advantage in a competitive manufacturing cost. Its extremely expensive for a company to shut down the plant because of an error in the catalyst, so the correct selection of a catalyst or a new improvement can be the key to industrial success. Catalyst involved in some of Industrial processes such as production of petroleum ( use platinum and rhodium), production of nitric acid from ammonia using catalytic oxidation (oxygen used as a catalyst), and use in food processing such as hydrogenation of fats (using nickel as a catalyst) to produce margarine. In this experiment the effect of catalysts in three different reactions will be observed. The three different reactions are the reaction of permanganate ions with oxalic acid (the permanganate ions will reacts with oxalic acid to produce carbon dioxide and manganese (II) ions) , the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (hydrogen peroxide is unstable and gradually decomposes over the time) , and the reaction of tartrate ions with hydrogen peroxide ( hydrogen peroxide will oxidise tartrate ion to produce carbon dioxide).

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NOR ASHIKIN BINTI ISMAIL | A2863

Procedure : A : Reaction of Permanganate Ion with Oxalic acid 1. 25 mL of 2M HSO , 125 mL of distilled water, 3 mL of 0.02 M KMnO , and 3 mL of the saturated oxalic acid solution was placed in each of two 250 mL beakers. 2. 1 mL of saturated manganese (II) sulfate solution was added to one of the beakers and the observations was recorded. B : Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide 1. 20 mL of 6% hydrogen peroxide solution was placed approximately into each of two 100 mL beakers. There is evidence of reaction. 2. A few grains of manganese (IV) oxide was added into one of the beakers and the observations was recorded. C : Reaction of Tartrate Ion with Hydrogen Peroxide 1. 1 g of potassium sodium tartrate was dissolved in 10 mL of water and 10 mL of 6% hydrogen peroxide was added . 2. The solution was heated to 65C and the Bunsen was removed. There is evidence of reaction. 3. 1 mL of 10% cobalt(II) chloride solution was added and the changes were carefully observed. Results : Table 1 : Table of different reaction, the catalyst involves and the observation of the reaction.. Reaction Reaction of Permanganate Ion with Oxalic acid Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide Catalyst Manganese (II) sulfate solution Manganese (IV) oxide Observation At the starting, the colour of the solution is purple. Then, the purple colour changes to colourless. At the starting, the colour of the solution is colourless. Halfway of reaction, the solution turns to black. After a few second, it turns to grey and the air bubbles were produced. At the starting, the initial colour of the solution is pink. The air bubbles were produced. Then, the colours change from pink to dark green and the pungent smell was produced. Afterward, it turns to light blue and at the end of the reaction, it returns back to pink again.
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Reaction of Tartrate Ion with Hydrogen Peroxide

Cobalt (II) chloride solution

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NOR ASHIKIN BINTI ISMAIL | A2863

Discussion : A. Reaction of Permanganate Ion with Oxalic acid When the catalyst which is manganese (II) sulfate solution was added in the beakers, it will speed up the reaction by providing an alternative and easier reaction pathway with a lower activation energy. It speeds up the reaction without being consumed at the end of the reaction. It means that it does change physically but does not change chemically. Firstly, the colour of the solution is purple because the presence of permanganate ions. Then, its colour turns from purple to colourless. It happens because the presence of the manganese (II) ions in the reaction. In addition, the permanganate ion reacts with oxalic acid to produce carbon dioxide and manganese (II) ion. The equation is : 2MnO(aq) + 5HCO (aq) + 6H (aq) 2Mn (aq) + 10CO (g) + 8HO (l) B. Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide 2HO (aq) 2HO(l) + O(g) Equation above shows the reaction of hydrogen peroxide. At room temperature hydrogen peroxide decomposes very slowly. The presence of a catalyst which is manganese (IV) oxide may cause it to decompose quickly. C. Reaction of Tartrate Ion with Hydrogen Peroxide C4H4O62- (aq) + 3H2O2 (aq) 2CO2 (g) + 2HCO2- (aq) + 4H2O (l)

Equation above shows the reaction of a tartrate ion with hydrogen peroxide. Potassium sodium tartrate is oxidised by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of cobalt (II) ions. When this experiment is conducting some errors might be occurs and can affect the results. Some sources of limitations in this experiment that might occur : No 1 Limitation The measuring cylinders may not have been properly cleaned between tests and may have contained traces of water or chemicals. This would have affected the precision of my results. 2 When taking the observation, there might be an error because the colour changes is observed by different people on each reaction. To minimize this error, try to use the same person to observe the colour changes because different people may have different eye sight. Suggestion To overcome this problem, clean the measuring cylinders properly or use another measuring cylinder to prevent cross contamination.

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NOR ASHIKIN BINTI ISMAIL | A2863

Conclusion : When the catalyst is present it will speed up the reaction. In this experiment, the catalyst that presence in reaction A is manganese (II) sulfate solution, in reaction B is manganese (IV) oxide, while in reaction C is cobalt (II) chloride solution. Catalyst provides an alternate and easier reaction pathway with the lower activation energy. Since the activation energy is lower, more product will be formed in the same amount of time. Questions : 1) What is the function of a catalyst? Catalysts is a substance which helps to speed up the reaction by providing an alternate and easier reaction pathway with a lower activation energy . 2) What species was acting as the catalyst in each reaction? Reaction Reaction of Permanganate Ion with Oxalic acid Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide Reaction of Tartrate Ion with Hydrogen Peroxide Catalyst Manganese (II) sulfate solution Manganese (IV) oxide Cobalt (II) chloride solution

3) In reaction C, what evidence is there that the catalyst took an active part in the reaction? At the end of the experiment, the evidence that the catalyst was not consumed in the reaction is the original pink colour of the solution returned back to its colour. References : 1. Wikipedia, 2013. Industrial Catalysts , [online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_catalysts [Accessed on 7 April 2013] 2. Dr. Colin France, 2012. Rates of Reaction, [online] Available at : < http://www.gcsescience.com/rc13-catalyst-hydrogen-peroxide.htm> [Accessed on 7 April 2013] 3. Royal Society of Chemistry, 2013. Traffic Light [online] Available at : < http://www.rsc.org/Education/EiC/issues/2005July/Exhibitionchemistry.asp> [Accesed on 7 April 2013] 4. John Murray, 1996. ILPAC, 2nd edition, vol 11. A. Lainchbury, London. 5. A .Caroline, M. Chris, O. Steve, 2011. Cambridge, Chemistry For The IB Diploma. Cambridge University Press, UK.

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