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NOR ASHIKIN BINTI ISMAIL | A2863

Title : Effect of temperature on reaction rate. Aim : To investigates the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulfate solution and hydrochloric acid solution. Apparatus : Conical flasks, measuring cylinders, test tubes, beakers, bunsen burner, tripod stand, gauze mat, thermometer, stop clock, white paper. Materials : 0.25M sodium thiosulfate solution, 2M hydrochloric acid and distilled water. Introduction : It takes certain time for a reaction to happen. Some chemical reactions happen fast, while others happen slower under the same conditions. Every reaction is conditioned by the collisions of particles. In order for some reaction to happen, its molecules, atoms and ions, must come closer together - collide. Only those collisions that have a certain amount of energy can cause a reaction. Energy which particles of the reactants must have so that they, during their collisions, cause a reaction is called the activation energy. Rate of reaction is influenced by many factors. One of them is temperature. According to the collision theory for a chemical reaction to occur, the reacting species must collide with the proper orientation and the collision must be energetic enough so that the electron clouds of the colliding particles interpenetrate with each other. At this moment the particles are forming an activated complex: they have reached the transition state (the most energetic possible state). After this, two species separate that can be either the original particles or two completely new particles with different properties. Chemical bonds have been re-located and a chemical change has occurred. Generally, we cannot control the orientation of the colliding particles (although in some cases we orient the particles to react as we wish) but we can promote the number of collisions per second and the energy of the colliding species. We can do so, increasing the concentration (number of particles per unit volume) of the reactants, increasing the contact area when the reactants are in two different phases, or increasing the temperature (i. e. a solid and a liquid or two immiscible liquids). An increase in temperature will increase the number of collisions but the most important fact is that collisions will be more energetic because the kinetic energy of the reacting particles increases. All these facts contribute to an increase of successful collisions and as a consequence the reaction will go faster. Obviously we can act in the opposite direction and force the reaction to proceed at a slower pace. In these experiments I will study the effect of changing the temperature on the rate of reaction.
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NOR ASHIKIN BINTI ISMAIL | A2863

Procedure : 1) 15 mL of 0.25M NaSO and 30 mL of water was placed into 100 mL conical flask. 2) 5 mL 0f 2M HCL was measured in a test tube. 3) The flask was put over a cross marked on a piece of white paper and the acid was added to the thiosulfate solution . The stop clock was started at the moment of addition. 4) The time taken was noted for the cross to disappear and the average temperature during the reaction was recorded. 5) The procedure was repeated for temperatures of about 40C, 50C, 60C and 70C.

6) The solutions was heated separately in a water bath until the desired temperature is achieved. The average temperature for the reaction was measured in each case. 7) A table was constructed to show the temperatures, time taken for the cross to disappear and 1/time.

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NOR ASHIKIN BINTI ISMAIL | A2863

Results : Initial temperature of the mixture in the flask/C final temperature of the mixture in the flask/C Average temperature of the mixture in the flask/C 30 40 50 60 70 29 37 48 52 64 30 39 49 56 67 29.56 25.16 14.16 11.90 6.69 0.0338 0.0398 0.0706 0.0933 0.1494 time taken for the cross to disappear (s) 1/time taken (s)

Calculation : 1) Example calculation for average temperature of the mixture in the flask : Initial temperature : 30C Final temperature : 29C Average temperature = = = 30C 2) Example calculation for rate of reaction : = = = 0.0338 s

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NOR ASHIKIN BINTI ISMAIL | A2863

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Graph of 1/time(rate) against average temperature

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1/time (s)

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0.06

0.04

0.02

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Average temperature (C)

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NOR ASHIKIN BINTI ISMAIL | A2863

Disscussion : On reaction between NaSO and HCl, a yellow cream precipitate is observed in the conical flask. It disappear the cross mark beneath the conical flask after a period of time. The yellow cream precipitate is actually sulphur. The chemical equation for the experiment is: Na2S2O3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + SO2(aq) +H2O(aq) +S(s)

But the reaction used for the investigation of the effect of temperature is between thiosulfate ions and hydrogen ions. S2O3-2(aq) + 2H+ SO2 + H2O(aq) + S(s)

In this experiment, 1/t is assumed as the rate of reactions. Sodium thiosulfate reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce a solution which slowly becomes cloudy due to the formation of an insoluble product. From the graph above we can see that as the temperature of the sodium thiosulfate solution increases the time taken for the cross to disappear will decreases and therefore the rate of reaction increases. This means that the rate of reaction is inversely proportional to the temperature of the sodium thiosulfate solution. The temperature has such a big effect on the rate of reactions. As the temperature is raised, the particles gain energy and collide together more faster and harder. This means that there will be more chance of reactant particles colliding. There will be more collisions between particles in any given time, and more frequent collisions result in an increased rate of reaction. The increased energy of the particles means that a greater proportion of the collisions in the reacting mixture actually produce a reaction. More collisions happen with enough energy to exceed the activation energy of the reaction. This energy is needed to break the existing bonds so that the particles are free to make new bonds. The higher the temperature, the higher the average speed increases, so a larger proportion of the collision transfer sufficient energy for the particles to react. The faster a particle, the more kinetic energy it has and so the more chance it has of reaching the activation energy in a collision.

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NOR ASHIKIN BINTI ISMAIL | A2863

Some sources of error in this experiment might occur : No 1 Limitation Parallax errors might occur when taking the reading of the temperature using a thermometer. This cause when the observers eye is not perpendicular to the mercury level of the thermometer. 2 Water temperature is not constant as the temperature change during the experiment. Suggestion To reduce the error, make sure that the eye level is perpendicular to the mercury of the thermometer and do not let the thermometer reach the surface of the flask because itll change the temperature. To overcome this error, we need to use electronic water bath to maintain its temperature. 3 The measuring cylinders may not have been properly cleaned between tests and may have contained traces of water or chemicals. This would have affected the precision of my results by changing the concentration of the whole solution because the concentration is a constant variable in this experiment. 4 The stop clock did not simultaneously start when hydrochloric acid is poured in sodium thiosulfate solution. Make sure that the stop clock must start simultaneously when we add the hydrochloric acid into the conical flask containing sodium thiosulfate solution to get accurate results. To overcome this problem, clean the measuring cylinders properly or use another measuring cylinder to prevent cross contamination.

Conclusion : From the experiment, it is proven that temperature also affects the rate of a chemical reaction. the higher the temperature, the higher the rate of reaction. For the average temperature of 30C the rate of reaction is 0.03383 per second. Whereas for the average temperature of 67C the rate of reaction is 0.14950 per second.

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NOR ASHIKIN BINTI ISMAIL | A2863

Questions : 1) Plot a graph of 1/time against temperature.

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Graph of 1/time(rate) against average temperature

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0.12

0.1

1/time (s)

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0 0 10 20

Average temperature (C)

30

40

50

60

70

80

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NOR ASHIKIN BINTI ISMAIL | A2863

2) What effect does increasing the temperature have on the reaction rate. The rate of reaction will increase. 3) Suggest two reasons which contribute to the change in reaction rate with temperature. According to the collision theory , as the temperature increases, the particle will move faster due to the increasing of the kinetic energy. This increases the number of collisions per unit time, then increases the number of successful collisions and hence rate of reaction.

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NOR ASHIKIN BINTI ISMAIL | A2863

References : 1. Geoffrey Neuss, 2007. IB Chemistry Course Companion, Oxford Press. 2. A .Caroline, M. Chris, O. Steve, 2011. Cambridge, Chemistry For The IB Diploma. Cambridge University Press, UK. 3. Crocodile Clips Ltd, 2002. The Effect of Temperature [online] Available at : < http://www.absorblearning.com/chemistry/demo/units/LR1504.html> [Accessed on 4 April 2013] 4. 123HelpMe.com, 2013. Factors that Affect the Rate of a Reaction [online] Available at : <http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=148726> [Accessed on 4 April 2013] 5. Mindtouch Core, 2010. Changing Reaction Rate with Temperature, [online] Available at : http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Physical_Chemistry/Kinetics/Reaction_Rates/Temperature_Dep endence_of_Reaction_Rates/Changing_Reaction_Rates_with_Temperature [Accessed on 4 April 2013]

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