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Physics- Energy and Electricity

Heat energy is transferred from high to low temperature. Heat transfer takes place in three ways: 1) Radiation is energy carried by electromagnetic waves The sun gives out radiation in all parts of EM waves. Fortunately for us, the Earths atmosphere blocks most of the radiation such as UV rays. But it doesnt block thermal radiation from the sun. 2) Conduction happens in solids, liquids and gases Metals are good conductors of heats Poor conductors such as wood and plastic are called thermal insulator. Conduction in a metal is due to free electrons transferring energy inside the metal. Materials such as fibreglass are good insulators because they contain pocket of trapped air. 3) Convection only happens in liquids and gases. Heat Transfers by design Heating a liquid or a gas makes it less dense. Small objects lose heat more easily Convection is due to a hot liquid or gas rising. than large objects. Convection currents are all about changes in density. Why do fluids rise when heated? Most fluids expand when heated. This is because the particles move about more, taking up more space. Therefore the density decreases because the same mass of fluid occupies a bigger volume. So heating part of a fluid makes it less dense and it therefore rises.
Radiators have large surface areas so they can lose heat easily

The thermos Flask The glass bottle is double-walled with a vacuum between the two walls. This stops all conduction and convection through the sides. The walls either side of the vacuum are silvered to keep heat loss by radiation The bottle is supported using insulating foam. This minimised heat conduction to and from the outer glass bottle. The stopper is made of plastic and filled with cork or foam to reduce any heat conduction through it.
Loft insulation such as fibreglass reduces heat loss through the roof. Air between the fibres help to reduce heat loss by conduction Cavity wall insulation reduces heat loss through the walls. We place insulation between the two layers of brick that make up the walls of a house

A double glazed window has two glass panes with dry air or vacuum between the panes. Dry air is a good insulator so it cuts down heat conduction. A vacuum cuts out heat transfer by convection as well Draught- proofing- strips of foam and plastic around doors and windows stop draughts of cold air blowing in. They reduce heat loss due to convection.

Energy Transfer
Energy exists in different forms Energy can change from one form into another form Energy cannot be created or destroyed Nine types of Energy Electrical Energy- whenever a current flows Light energy- From the Sun, light bulbs, etc. Sound energy- energy released by vibrating objects Kinetic energy-is the energy of a moving object Nuclear energy- release only from nuclear reactions Thermal energy-flows from hot objects to colder objects Gravitational Potential energy-possessed by anything that falls Elastic Potential energy-is the energy stored in a spring object when we stretch or squash it Chemical Energy-is energy stored in fuel e.g. food, batteries The efficiency of any device is defined as: Efficiency= Useful Energy output Total Energy input
Weights is measured in Newton (N).The weight of a 1 kilogram object on earths surface is about 10N Energy is measured in joules (J). The energy needed to lift a weight of 1N by a height of 1metre is equal to 1 joule

What is the wasted and useful energy of a Light Bulb?

Useful - Light Wasted- Heat

Electrical heater

Useful - Thermal energy to the surroundings wasted - light from the glowing element. Useful - thermal energy of bread wasted - thermal energy of toaster case and air around it. Useful - heat energy of air flowing past the heater filament and kinetic energy of air driven by fan

Electrical toaster


electric motor

useful- kinetic energy of object driven by motor.and potential energy of objects lifted with motor wasted - thermal and sound energy of motor

personal stereo

useful -kinetic energy of object sound wasted - thermal energy of motor. useful - energy stored in magnetic dots on disc wasted - thermal and sound energy of the motor that drives the disc.

computer disc drive

Energy Power
1 watts is a rate of transfer of energy per second supplied to it 1 kilowatts is equal to 1000 watts Power (in watts) rate of transfer of energy

Example A motor transfer 10000J of energy in 25s. What is its power? Power = 10 000J = 400W 25s The cost of Elctricity Kilowatt-hours (kWh) are units of energy A kilowatt-hour is the amount of electrical energy used by 1kW appliance left on for 1 hour The equation below shows the relationship between energy transferred, power and time: energy transferred (kWh) = power (kW) time (h) Note that power is measured in kilowatts here instead of the more usual watts. To convert from W to kW you must divide by 1000. For example, 2000W = 2000 1000 = 2kW. Also note that time is measured in hours here, instead of the more usual seconds. To convert from seconds to hours you must divide by 3600. For example, 1800s = 1800 3600 = 0.5 hours. The cost Electricity meters measure the number of units of electricity used in a home or other building. The more units used, the greater the cost. The cost of the electricity used is calculated using this equation: total cost = number of units cost per unit For example, if 5 units of electricity are used at a cost of 8p per unit, the total cost will be 5 8 = 40p.

The National Grid The National Grid is a network of cables and transformers.

There are four main stages: 1. the fuel is burned to boil water to make steam 2. the steam makes a turbine spin 3. the spinning turbine turns a generator which produces electricity 4. the electricity goes to the transformers to produce the correct voltage The energy needed to boil the water comes from fossil fuels or nuclear fuels. Renewable energy resources such as wind and wave power may drive the generators directly.

We use step-up transformers to step up power stations voltages to the grid voltage. We use step-down transformers to step-down for use in our homes. A high grid voltage reduces energy loss and makes the system more efficient. This is because less current passes through the cable (for the same power delivered) do its heating effect is less. It is much cheaper to boost the voltage up really high and to keep the current very low. Electricity is a very convenient form of energy that can be generated using different energy resources. Some of these resources are renewable and some are non-renewable. Each resource has advantages and disadvantages. Fossil fuels Fossil fuels for power stations Energy transfer for the generation of electricity from a fossil fuel The fossil fuels are coal, oil and natural gas. They are fuels because they release heat energy when they are burned. They are fossil fuels because they were formed from the remains of living organisms millions of years ago.

About three-quarters of the electricity generated in the UK come from power stations fuelled by fossil fuels. To the right is an energy transfer diagram for the generation of electricity from a fossil fuel such as coal. Disadvantages of using fossil fuels Fossil fuels are non-renewable energy resources. Their supply is limited and they will eventually run out. Fossil fuels do not renew themselves, while fuels such as wood can be renewed endlessly. Fossil fuels release carbon dioxide when they burn, which adds to the greenhouse effect and increases global warming. Of the three fossil fuels, for a given amount of energy released, coal produces the most carbon dioxide and natural gas produces the least. Coal and oil release sulfur dioxide gas when they burn, which causes breathing problems for living creatures and contributes to acid rain.

Nuclear Power
Nuclear energy is energy in the nucleus (core) of an atom. Atoms are tiny particles that make up every object in the universe. There is enormous energy in the bonds that hold atoms together. In nuclear fission, atoms are split apart to form smaller atoms, releasing energy. Nuclear power plants use this energy to produce electricity. In nuclear fusion, energy is released when atoms are combined or fused together to form a larger atom. This is how the sun produces energy. Fusion is the subject of ongoing research, but it is not yet clear that it will ever be a commercially viable technology for electricity generation. Uranium The fuel most widely used by nuclear plants for nuclear fission is uranium. Uranium is nonrenewable, though it is a common metal found in rocks all over the world. This kind of uranium is used as fuel because its atoms are easily split apart.

Energy from Wind And Wave

A wind turbine is an electricity generator on top of a tall tower

Advantages -renewable -No fuel cost -No harmful pollution gases produced

Disadvantages -noisy -Not attractive -Not very efficient

A wave generator is a floating generator turning by the waves

Advantages -renewable -No fuel cost -No harmful pollution gases produced

Disadvantages -could destroy sea animals -unpredictable

Hydroelectricity generators are turned by water running downhill

Advantages -renewable -No fuel cost -No harmful pollution gases produced -reliable and can be turned on quickly Advantages -renewable -No fuel cost -No harmful pollution gases produced -reliable and can be turned on quickly

Disadvantages -expensive to build -Hydroelectric dams flood farmland and push people from their homes

A tidal power station traps each high tide and uses it to turn generators

Disadvantages -expensive to build -Tidal barrages destroy the habitat of estuary species, including wading birds. Disadvantages -expensive and inefficient -costs of electricity are high -dont work at night

We can convert solar energy into electricity using solar cells or use it to heat water directly in solar heating panels

Advantages -renewable -No fuel cost -No harmful pollution gases produced -reliable and can be turned on quickly Advantages -renewable -No fuel cost -No harmful pollution gases produced -no environmental problems

Geothermal energy comes from the Energy released by radioactive Substance deep inside the Earth

Disadvantages -Many areas dont have suitable area to build this.

Electromagnetic Waves
Electromagnetic waves are electric and magnetic disturbances that transfer energy from one place to another

Wavelength is the distance from one peak to the next. Frequency is how many complete waves. Its measured in hertz. (1 Hz is 1 wave length). All electromagnetic waves travel through space at a speed of 300 million m/s. All the different types of electromagnetic wave travel at the same speed in a vacuum. EM waves with high frequency have lower wavelengths.

Wave speed (metre per second) = frequency (hertz) wavelength (metre) For example, a wave with a frequency of 100Hz and a wavelength of 2m travels at 100 2 = 200m/s.

The visible spectrum White light can be split up using a prism to form a spectrum. A prism is a block of glass with a triangular cross-section. The light waves are refracted as they enter and leave the prism. The shorter the wavelength of the light, the more it is refracted. As a result, red light is refracted the least and violet light is refracted the most, causing the coloured light to spread out to form a spectrum. EM radiation can be transmitted, reflected or absorbed. When an EM radiation is absorbed, the substance absorbing and it can set up an alternating current with the same frequency as the EM wave

Radio Waves Radio Waves are longer in wavelength and lower in frequency than microwaves. We use radio waves to carry radio, TV and mobile phone signals. Long-wave radio can be transmitted from London, say and received halfway round the world. Thats because long wavelengths bend around the curved surface of the Earth. Short-wave radio signals (TV and FM radio) can, like long waves, be received at long distance from the Transmitter. Thats because they are reflected from the ionosphere an electrically charged layer in the Earths upper atmosphere.

Microwaves Microwaves are used for satellite communication and heating food in microwaves oven. Microwave radiation has lower frequencies and longer wavelengths than visible light. Microwaves with certain wavelengths are absorbed by water molecules and can be used for cooking. Water in the food absorbs the microwave radiation, which causes the water to heat up and cook the food. The water in living cells can also absorb microwave radiation. As a result, they can be killed or damaged by the heat released. Microwave radiation can also be used to transmit signals such as mobile phone calls. Certain microwave radiation wavelengths pass through the Earth's watery atmosphere and can be used to transmit information to and from satellites in orbit. Microwaves are used to check the weather, monitor oil spill, track the movement of iceberg and to see how much rainforest has been chopped down.

Infrared radiation Infrared radiation is absorbed by the skin and we feel it as heat. It damages or kills skin cells because it heats up the cell. It is used in heaters, toasters and grills. It is used in infrared scanners in medicine to detect hot spots on the body surface, which can mean the underlying tissue is unhealthy. It is also used for television remote controls. When you press a button on the handset, it sends out a sequence of infra-red pulses. Optical fibre communications work by bouncing waves off the sides of a thin inner core glass or plastic. The wave enters one end of the fibre and is reflected repeatedly until it emerges at the other end. Optical fibre works because of total internal reflection- can only happen when a wave travels through a dense substance like glass. Ultraviolet radiation Ultraviolet radiation is found naturally in sunlight. UV radiation is harmful to human eyes and can cause blindness. Too much UV radiation cause sunburns and skin cancer because it damages the DNA in your cells. We cannot see or feel ultraviolet radiation, but our skin responds to it by turning darker.

This happens in an attempt to reduce the amount of ultraviolet radiation that reaches deeper skin tissues. Darker skins absorb more ultraviolet light, so less ultraviolet radiation reaches the deeper tissues. This is important because ultraviolet radiation can cause normal cells to become cancerous. Ultraviolet radiation is used in: sun beds security pens fluorescent lights

X-rays X-rays mostly pass through skin and soft tissue, but they do not easily pass through bone or metal. Radiographers in hospitals take X-rays photographs to help doctors diagnose broken bones, X-rays can cause mutation which lead to cancer. Low doses cause cell mutation and cancerous growth. Radiographers wear lead aprons and stand behind a lead screen or leave the room to minimise their exposure to X-rays. High doses kill living cells. Gamma Rays Gamma radiation cannot be seen or felt. It mostly passes through skin and soft tissue, but some of it is absorbed by cells. Gamma radiation is used, among other things, for the following purposes.

to sterilise surgical instruments to kill harmful bacteria in food to kill cancer cells lower doses of gamma radiation could lead to cells becoming cancerous)

Analogue and Digital signals

Information, such as sounds and pictures, is converted into electric signals before its transmitted. The amplitude and frequency of an analogue signal vary continuously. An analogue signal can take any value in a particular range. Digital signals are coded pulses The voltage level of each pulse is either high (1) or low (0) with no in-between levels. Both digital and analogue signals weaken as they travel, so they need to be amplified along their route. They also pick up interference or noise from electrical disturbances or other signal. Noise is less of a problem with digital signals. If you receive noisy analogue signal, its difficult to know what the original signal would have looked like- digital signals are much higher quality. Digital signals are also easy to process using computers and you can transmit several signals at once using one cable so you can send more information.

The nucleus contains protons and neutron. It makes up most of the mass of the atom. The electrons are negatively charged and really small. Isotopes are atoms with different numbers of neutrons. E.g. The carbon14 has two more neutrons that normal carbon -12 Usually element only has one or two stable isotopes like carbon -12. The other isotopes tend to be radioactive- the nucleus is unstable, so it decays and emits radiation. Carbon-14 is an unstable isotope of carbon. A radioactive substance contains unstable nuclei. An unstable nucleus becomes stable by emitting radiation. The nuclei of unstable isotopes bread down at random we cannot predict or influence when it will happen. There are three main types of radiation emitted from radioactive atoms. These are alpha, beta and gamma radiation. Nuclear radiation causes ionisation. By bashing into atoms and knocking electrons off them, atoms (which have no charge) are turned into ions (which are charged). The further the radiation can penetrate before hitting an atom and getting stopped, the less damage it will do along the way and so the less ionising it is. Alpha Particles - Alpha particles are big and heavy. Made up of 2 neutrons and 2 protons - They are blocked by paper, skin or a few cm of air. - Because of their size they bash into a lot of atoms and knock electrons off them before they slow down, therefore being the most ionising. - Electrically charged (positive), so they are deflected by electric and magnetic fields. Beta Particles - Beta radiation consists of high energy electrons emitted from the nucleus. They form when a neutron splits into a proton and an electron. - They move quite fast and they are quite small - They are moderately ionising. - Because theyre charged (negative), theyre deflected by electric and magnetic fields - Are stopped by thin metal Gamma rays - They are just energy waves, so no mass or charge - Least ionising they tend to pass through rather than collide with atoms - No charge not deflected. - Gamma rays are blocked by thick lead or very thick concrete.

Half Life
The half-life of a radioactive isotope is the time it takes for the number of nuclei of the isotope in a sample to halve. The number of unstable atoms and the activity decreases to half in one half-life. You can work out the half-life of a sample by using a Geiger counter. Use of Radioactivity The use we can make of a radioactive substance depends on its half-life and the type of radiation it gives out Radioactivity has many uses. For example, doctors use radioactive iodine to find out if a patients kidney is blocked. The radioactive substance flows in and out of a normal kidney. So the detector reading goes up and then down. For a blocked kidney, the reading goes up and stays up. This is because the substance cant flow out of the kidney. Radioactive iodine is used in this test because its half-life is 8 days and it emits gamma rays which can be detected outside the body. It decays into a stable product. It decays into a stable product. Radioactive Dating Carbon Dating is used to find the age of ancient wood. Living wood contains a bit of radioactive carbon (half-life of 5600 years). When a tree dies, it no longer absorbs any carbon. So the amount of radioactive carbon in it decreases. Uranium dating is used to find the age of igneous rocks (half-life of 4500million years). Each uranium atom decays into an atom of lead. Sterilising machines in hospitals use gamma radiation to kill bacteria on medical instruments. Smoke detectors use a weak source of alpha radiation to ionise the air because two electrodes making charged particle which carry a current. If there is a fire, the smoke absorbs the radiation the current stops and the alarm sounds. Beta and gamma radiation will penetrate the skin and other body tissues. This makes them suitable for using as medical tracers. Gamma Radiation will penetrate through a metal pipe, but some of it gets absorbed. If there is a crack in the pipe, the gamma source will collect outside the pipe and your detector will show extra high radioactivity at that point. Only gamma radiation can be detected through any rocks or earth surrounding the pipe.

Hazards of radiation
Radiation and living cells When radiation collides with molecules in living cells it can damage them. If the DNA in the nucleus of a cell is damaged, the cell may become cancerous. The cell then goes out of control, divides rapidly and causes serious health problems. The greater the dose of radiation a cell gets, the greater the chance that the cell will become cancerous. However, very high doses of radiation can kill the cell completely. We use this property of radiation to kill cancer cells, and also harmful bacteria and other microorganisms. The hazard symbol is shown on containers of radioactive substances to warn of the danger. Alpha, beta and gamma radiation The degree to which each different type of radiation is most dangerous to the body depends on whether the source is outside or inside the body. If the radioactive source is inside the body, perhaps after being swallowed or breathed in:

Alpha radiation is the most dangerous because it is easily absorbed by cells. Beta and gamma radiation are not as dangerous because they are less likely to be absorbed by a cell and will usually just pass right through it. If the radioactive source is outside the body:

Alpha radiation is not as dangerous because it is unlikely to reach living cells inside the body. Beta and gamma radiation are the most dangerous sources because they can penetrate the skin and damage the cells inside. Once cancers started, patients are often given radiotherapy to kill the cancer cells and stop them dividing. This involves using high doses of gamma rays, carefully directed to zap the cells in the tumour while minimising the dose to the rest of the body. You should protected yourself in the Laboratory - Never allow skin contact with a source- use tongs - Keep source as far as possible protect yourself lead apron. Photographic film Photographic film goes darker when it absorbs radiation, just like it does when it absorbs visible light. The more radiation the film absorbs, the darker it is when it is developed. People who work with radiation wear film badges. There is a light-proof packet of photographic film inside the badge. The more radiation this absorbs, the darker it becomes when it is developed.

The Origins of the Universe

When we look at light from distant galaxies we find that the frequencies are all slightly lower than they should be theyre shifted towards the red end of the spectrum. This is called the red-shift. The light waves are squashed together if the star or galaxy is moving towards us. We call this a blue shift because the spectrum of light is shifted towards the blue part of the spectrum. The Doppler Effect The sound waves from a stationary car are equally spaced, like this. But for a moving car, the wavelengths seem longer. So the frequency of the sound waves seems to be lower if the car is moving away from you.

The further away a galaxy is, the greater the red-shift. This means that more distant galaxies are moving away from us faster than nearer ones- proving that the Universe is expanding. The big bang theory states that the Universe is expanding after a hot explosion where space, time and matter was created. Oscillating Theory suggests that this universe is one of many - some that have existed in the past, and others that will exist in the future. When the universe contracts in a Big Crunch, a new universe is created in a new Big Bang. The Steady State Theory suggests that as the universe expands new matter is created, so that the overall appearance of the universe never changes. Background microwave radiation It was created as high-energy gamma radiation just after the Big Bang It has been travelling through space since then, As the Universe has expanded, it stretched out to longer and longer wavelengths and is now microwaves radiation. It has been mapped out using microwaves detectors on the ground and on satellites.

The future of the Universe If the density of the universe is less than a certain amount, it will expand forever. The stars will die out. The Universe heads for a Big Yawn. If the density of the Universe is more than a certain amount, it will stop expanding and go into reverse. Everything will head for a big crunch!

Looking into Space

Telescopes Distant stars and galaxies are too far away for us to reach. We cannot go to them to study them. So everything we know about distant stars and galaxies comes from analysing the radiation they produce. Telescopes are devices used to observe the universe. Telescopes are cheaper and easier to maintain Optical telescopes Optical telescopes observe visible light from space. Small ones allow amateurs to view the night sky relatively cheaply but there are very large optical telescopes sited around the world for professional astronomers to use. Optical telescopes on the ground have some disadvantages:

they can only be used at night they cannot be used if the weather is poor or cloudy Other telescopes Radio telescopes detect radio waves coming from space. Although they are usually very large and expensive, these telescopes have an advantage over optical telescopes. They can be used in bad weather because the radio waves are not blocked by clouds as they pass through the atmosphere. Radio telescopes can also be used in the daytime as well as at night. X-rays are partly blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and so X-ray telescopes need to be at high altitude or flown in balloons. Space telescopes Objects in the universe emit other electromagnetic radiation such as infrared, X-rays and gamma rays. These are all blocked by the Earth's atmosphere, but can be detected by telescopes placed in orbit round the Earth. Telescopes in space can observe the whole sky and they can operate both night and day. However, they are difficult and expensive to launch and maintain. If anything goes wrong, only astronauts can fix them.