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APPROACH, METHOD & TECHNIQUE

Approach : A set of assumptions, beliefs and theories dealing with the nature of language learning and teaching. Method

: An overall plan for systematic presentation of a language based upon a selected approach.

Technique : Specific activities demonstrated in the classroom that are compatible with a method. As a method is consistent with an approach; the techniques used in the classroom are also in harmony with that approach. It is an umbrella term. It includes everything that teachers and learners do in the classroom. Task : It is a form of technique. It focuses on the authentic use of language for meaningful communicative purposes. : It is a form of technique. It refers to everything students do in classroom. There is a particular objective and a time limit (role-plays, drills, games, gap-filling exercises, discussions). : Technique that focuses on a minimal number of language forms through repetition.

Activity

Drill

CATEGORIZING TECHNIQUES Manipulative to Communicative Techniques Manipulative : The technique is totally controlled by the teacher Requires a predicted response from the student (Choral repetition & cued substitution drills, dictation-listening/writing- , reading aloud) Communicative: The technique is less controlled by the teacher Students responses are completely open-ended and therefore unpredictable Students are free to be creative with their responses and interactions with other students (Story-telling, brain-storming, role-plays) Communication can take place from the very first day of language class. Communicative techniques for beginners involve small chunks of language. On the very first day of class students can be taught to ask and respond to questions such as What is your name? Where do you live? How old are you? Controlled to Free Techniques Controlled: Teacher centered Manipulative Structured (Teacher controls the language that the students are expected to say I would like .) Predicted student responses Pre-planned objectives Set curriculum Dance, songs, jokes, play, role-play, dialog presentation, reading aloud, drills, translation dictation, copying, identification, recognition, testing, meaningful drills Semi-Controlled: Brain-storming, story-telling, cued narrative dialogue, information transfer, information exchange Free : Student centered Communicative Open-ended (Students complete writings in a creative way or dialogs and debates) Unpredictable responses Negotiated objectives (aims to empower the students) Cooperative curriculum (Content of the course is negotiated with the students) Composition, problem solving, drama, interview, discussion

THE DIRECT METHOD


This method is born as a reaction to GTM as GTM could not prepare learners for real life situations in which communication was essential. It is an oral based approach. It is based on the belief that L2 learning should be more like L1 acquisition. It gets its meaning from the fact that meaning should be conveyed directly in the target language through demonstrations and visual aids. The learning process should include spontaneous use of language in a meaningful context, lots of oral interaction, no L1 use, no translation between the languages and no analysis of grammatical rules. This method is also known as the Berlitz Method recognized widely by his foreign language schools in all over the world. Weaknesses: This method did not take well in public education due to the budget limitations, classroom size and time. In addition, this methods success highly relied on the skills and personality of the teacher. Goals of the T: Ts goal is to teach sts. how to think and to communicate in the target language. Role of the T & Sts: T directs the classroom activities but sts. are also active. Characteristics of the teaching/learning process: Sts. should associate meaning with the target language so T conveys the meaning via demonstrations and visual aids using pictures, objects and pantomime. Translation is forbidden. Sts. communicate in the target language as much as possible. T creates real context for them to communicate. Units may include situations like going shopping/at a bank/market/ or topics like weather, money, geography). Grammar is taught inductively. Sts. figure out the rules from the examples given. Sts. practice vocabulary by using new words in sentences. The nature of student-teacher interaction: The interaction is between T-St., St.-T and St.-St. Language & Culture: Language is primarily spoken. Sts. study common, everyday speech in the target language. Sts. also study culture and learn how the speakers of that language live. Language skills emphasized: All of four skills occur from the start but oral communication is seen as basic. Thus, reading and writing exercises are based on what sts. practice orally. Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar. Correct pronunciation is aimed right from the beginning. Error correction: Errors are corrected by various techniques such as guiding sts. to self-correct. The role of the sts native language: L1 is never used. Sample Lesson: Konu US cografyasi. Sinifta harita var. Sts. tek tek okuma parcasindan cumleler okuyor, T onlar okurken harita uzerinden isaret ediyor. 2 sts. anlamadiklari kelimeleri soruyorlar. T tahtaya cizerek ve demonstrate ederek anlatiyor. Sts. sorularini L2 ile soruyor. Sonra, T parca hk. Sorular soruyor, sts. full cumleler icinde cevap veriyor. Sonra sts. birbirlerine soru soruyor. T telaffuz hatasini aninda duzeltiyor, sinifa da tekrarlatiyor. Grammar hatasini ise st.a soru sorarak kendisinin duzeltmesini sagliyor. Sonra prepositions kullanmalari icin cocuklara oturduklari yerler ve esyalari hk. Sorular soruyor. Sts. da birbirlerine soruyor. Sonra, prep. uzerine fill in the blanks alistirmasi yapiyorlar. Sonra, defterlerine yazi yazdiriyor. 3 defa (normal, yavas, phrase phrase) okuyor. Following lessons: US cografya tekrar, paragraph yazma, pronunciation calisma, bir proverb uzerinden sohpet.

THE DIRECT METHOD


PRINCIPLES OBSERVATIONS & TECHNIQUES

Language is primarily speech but also reading skills Sts. start a lesson by reading a passage aloud. Each should develop through practice with speaking. reads a sentence in turns (Reading Aloud) Culture is not only fine arts (Sts also study geography The passage includes information on geography of US. and cultural attitudes). T is also using a map of US. Objects and pictures are used to help sts understand T points to the map while sts are reading the passage. the meaning. L1 is never used in the classroom. T asks if they have any question. Sts. Ask their questions in the target language. Meaning is conveyed through demonstrations and Sts ask questions about the meaning of some words. visual aids. T does not explain or translate. Sts are Ex: between T demonstrates by showing two sts. expected to make direct association between target mountain range T draws on the board. language and meaning. Sts. should learn to think in the target language as T asks questions and sts. answer in full sentences. soon as possible. Vocabulary is learnt better when (Question and answer exercise) learnt in full sentences. New words and grammatical sentences are practiced better in this way. Sts. learn how to communicate in the target language. T invites sts. to ask questions about the map. Learning how to ask questions is also a part of the (Question and answer exercise) process. Pronunciation should be worked on right from the A st. makes a pronunciation mistake while asking a beginning of the instruction. question. T works with the st. and the whole class until he is satisfied. Error correction is through guiding student to self- A student makes a grammatical error and the teacher correct. asks him to make a choice (Is it .. or is it ..?) The st. corrects herself (Getting Sts. to Self-Correct) Grammar is taught indirectly in an inductive way. Also, sts. find opportunity to use language in real context. Sts. should be encouraged to speak as much as possible. T asks questions to each student about themselves using prepositions (on/in/at/between) Sts. answer and then they make up questions and ask them (Conversational Practice)

Grammar is taught inductively way. The grammar Sts. fill in the blanks with prepositions practiced in the rules are never given explicitly. lesson (Fill in the Blanks Exercise) Writing is also another important skill that should be T asks sts. dictates a paragraph about geography of developed from the beginning of language learning US. He reads it three times with different speed. Also, process. Sts. label blank maps and direct T to complete a map. Also, they write a paragraph about geography of US. (Dictation & Paragraph Writing) Learning a language also involves how speakers of T uses a proverb to discuss how people in the US that language live. view punctuality.

The Grammar Translation Method


Translation is a must in both ways Teacher & sts. use L1

The Direct Method


No translation is allowed. L1 is forbidden

Reading & Writing are primary skills. No importance Although 4 skills are used from the beginning, or attention is given to speaking. Language is for language is seen as being primarily spoken not mental exercise and for appreciating literature. written Grammar is taught deductively Vocabulary is taught through memorization Grammar is taught inductively. Vocabulary is demonstrated through the use of authentic materials in complete sentences. Interaction goes both ways. Sts. should learn to think in the target language. Pronunciation receives attention right from the beginning. Self-correction is encouraged.

Interaction is mainly form T-St. T makes use of contrastive analysis such as cognates No attention is given to pronunciation.

Errors are corrected immediately.

Learning a language is limited to its literature and Learning another language also involves to learn how fine-arts. speakers of that language live.

THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD


The Direct Method did not take hold in the US the way it did in Europe due to several problems such as lack of native speaking teachers of modern foreign languages, the belief of US institutions in promoting reading proficiency rather than oral skills. By that time, The World War II broke out and the need for Americans to become orally proficient in the languages of both their aliens and their enemies emerged. Ironically, the Audio-Lingual Method borrowed many aspects from the Direct Method and injected them to their own teaching method. It was also influenced by Skinners Behavioristic Theory which advocates that language is acquired through a process of habit formation which involves too much repetition, imitation and reinforcement. According to Behaviorism, the way to acquire the sentence patterns of the language was through conditioning-helping learners to respond correctly to stimuli through shaping and reinforcement. Rote practicing and overlearning were also important. In addition, according to Behaviorism, errors should be avoided at all costs. Weaknesses: It failed to teach long-term communicative proficiency and usually students were unable to transfer skills into real life communication. The Innatists Hypothesis introduced by Chomsky in rejection to Behaviorism proved that language acquisition cannot be explained by imitation and repetition. Language is rather creative. Also, human brain is not a tabula rasa. We are prewired to acquire a language. We have an inborn capacity. Goals of the T: Ts goal is to teach sts. how to think and to communicate in the target language. In order to do this, they believe sts. need to overlearn the target language. Sts. achieve this by forming new habits in the target language and overcoming the old habits of their L1. Role of the T & Sts: T is like an orchestra leader. T directs and controls the language behavior of sts.She is also responsible for providing a good model so that sts. can imitate. Sts. are imitators. They have to respond as accurate and as rapidly as possible. Characteristics of the teaching/learning process: New vocabulary and language patterns are presented through dialogs. Dialogs are learnt through repetition and imitation. Various drills are used based upon the patterns presented in the dialog. Sts. successful responses are positively reinforced. Grammar is introduced inductively. Sts. reading and writing works are based on what they practice only. The nature of student-teacher interaction: The interaction is between T-St., St.-T and St.-St. but it is through drills and chain drills and it is teacher directed. Language & Culture: Language is primarily spoken. Sts. study common, everyday speech in the target language. Sts. also study culture and learn how the speakers of that language live. Language skills emphasized: The natural order of language acquisition is followed. (listening-speakingreading-writing). Language is seen as being primarily spoken not written Vocabulary is kept to a minimum while students are mastering the sound system and grammatical patterns. Sts. reading and writing works are based on what they practice only. Correct pronunciation is aimed right from the beginning. Error correction: Errors are to be avoided at all costs. T does contrastive analysis to predict where sts. will make errors and work on them.

The role of the sts native language: L1 is never used. Students should overcome the habits of their L1 as soon as possible. Sample Lesson: Konu; iki kisi arasinda (Bill & Sally) gecen bir konusma. T dialogu okuyor ve sts. ezberleyeceklerini bilerek dinliyorlar. L1 kullanilmiyor. T conveys meaning by demonstrations and visual aids. Instructions are in English. Sonra, 2 kere daha okuyor ve son okuyusunda bu defa anlamaya calismalarini istiyor. Sonra, her satiri okuyor ve sinifa tekrarlatiyor. Sinifin soyleyemedigi bolumde backward build-up drill yaptiriyor. Sonra kendisi Sally, sinif Bill oluyor ama sinif soylemeden o model olarak soyluyor onlarin okuyacagi satiri yani repetition drill yaptiriyor. They have to listen carefully and mimic the teachers model as accurately as possible. Sonra roller degistiriyor. Sts. yanlis okursa durdurup dogru modeli veriyor. Sonra, Gunaydin (isim)-Gunaydin Teacher Nasilsin?-iyiyim chain drill baslatiyor. Boylece tek tek sts. pronunciation uzerinde calisabiliyor. Herkes bitirdikten sonar iki sts. seciyor to perform the dialog for the rest of the class. Birkac ornekten sonar dersin ana bolumune geciyor. Onlara bir cue vererek single-slot substitution drill (tek kelime degisiyor) yaptiriyor (I am going to the post office the bank-). Cocuklar ne yapacaklarini mecburen anlayip yapiyorlar. Ayni seyi bu defa How are you? ile yapiyorlar. (pronoun degistirerek). Sonra T multiple-slot substitution drill yaptiriyor. (I am going to the post office-she/ to the park). Sonra soru cevap olarak questionanswer drill ve ayrica transformation drill yaptiriyor. Son kez daha sinifi ikiye bolerek dialogu tekrarlatiyor (cift tarafli) ve dersi bitiriyor. Following lessons: Dialog tekrari, birkac satir ekleyerek gelistirerek devam, drills, a little/few ile ilgili drilller, ve ancak birkac hafta sonra dialogu deftere yazma, bazi kelimeleri slime ve onlara tekrar yazdirma, alfabe oyunu, Amerikadaki supermarketler ile ilgili T sunumu ve Mali/Amerikan futbol karsilastirmasi.

THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD


PRINCIPLES Language forms occur in content. OBSERVATIONS & TECHNIQUES T introduces a new dialog.

L1 & L2 have separate linguistic systems. They should Meaning is conveyed through demonstrations and be kept apart so that sts L1 should not interfere with visual aids. T does not explain or translate. Sts are the target language expected to make direct association between target language and meaning. Language learning is a process of habit formation. Students repeat each line of the dialog several times. Learning takes place by repetition They know they are supposed to memorize it (Dialog memorization) Errors should be prevented at all costs. Errors lead to Sts. fail to repeat the line correctly. The teacher uses formation of bad habits. They should be corrected a (backward build-up drill). immediately. Positive reinforcement helps the sts. develop correct T says very good when the st. answers correctly. habits. Students should learn to respond to both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Each language has a finite number of patterns. Pattern practice helps sts. to form habits which enable them to use the patterns. Students should overlearn. They should learn to answer automatically without stopping to think. Major objective of T is to help get students acquire the structural patterns; sts. will learn vocabulary afterwards. Major challenge is to get students overcome the old habits of their native language. T uses spoken cues and picture cues for the drills. T conducts transformation and question answer drills.

When sts. handle it, the teacher poses the questions to them rapidly. New vocabulary is introduced through lines of the dialog. Vocabulary is limited. T does a contrastive analysis of the target language and the sts native language in order to predict where they will have difficulties.

Language is seen as being primarily spoken not T writes a dialog on the board towards the end of the written. The natural order of acquisition is followed week. Sts. do some limited work with the dialog and (listening-speaking-reading-writing). the sentence drills. Culture and language cannot be separated. Learning Supermarket alphabet game and discussion about another language also involves learning how speakers Mali and American football. of that language live.

The Audio-Lingual Method


No translation is allowed. L1 is forbidden

The Direct Method


No translation is allowed. L1 is forbidden

The natural order of language acquisition is followed. Although 4 skills are used from the beginning, (listening-speaking-reading-writing). Language is seen language is seen as being primarily spoken not as being primarily spoken not written written Grammar is taught inductively. L2 learning should be Grammar is taught inductively, through examples and like L1 acquisition. T drills sts. in the use of exercises. grammatical patterns (Behaviorism repetition) New vocabulary is introduced through lines of Vocabulary is demonstrated through the use of dialogues. authentic materials in complete sentences. Interaction is mainly from T-Sts. Interaction goes both ways.

Sts. should learn to think in the target language. Sts. Sts. should learn to think in the target language as should overcome the habits of their L1 and form the soon as possible. new habits required by L2. Pronunciation receives attention right from the Pronunciation receives attention right from the beginning. Sts. often work in labs on minimal pairs. beginning. Immediately corrected by the teacher. It is important Self-correction is encouraged. to prevent learners from making errors as errors lead to the formation of bad habits. Learning another language also involves learning how Learning another language also involves learning how speakers of that language live. speakers of that language live.

DESUGGESTOPEDIA
This method is developed by a Russian psychologist. He argued that people use %5-10 of their mental capacity. In order to make better use of our mental reserves limitations needs to be desuggested. Psychological barriers should be removed. Some of the classroom methodology was not particularly unique. The primary difference laid in the decoration, furniture, baroque music, seating arrangements and the authoritative behavior of the teacher. The most significant difference of this method form GTM, ALM and DM is that is highly influenced by an affective-humanistic approach an approach in which theres respect for students feelings. Teachers should help students to eliminate the feelings that they cannot be successful. Weaknesses :The method depends on too much memorization. It is not an appropriate method because it does not help students to improve. Despite such claims, Desuggestopedia gave insights to language teaching professionals. It highlighted the strength of the human brain. In addition, it showed that reducing the trait anxiety through music and other relaxation techniques is beneficial for successful language learning. Goals of the T: Ts goal is to tap students mental powers to accelerate the process of language learning. The paraconscious part of the mind should be activated by using techniques and their psychological barriers should be desuggested. Role of the T & Sts: T is the authority. Sts. must trust and respect her. It is believed that sts. will retain information better if it comes from someone whom they trust. Once they trust the T they will feel more secure and that will be less inhibited. Characteristics of the teaching/learning process: The classroom is bright and cheerful. Grammatical information is displayed on several posters which are hung on the walls of the classroom so that sts. will learn in an indirect way without intentionally directing their attention to them (peripheral learning). Students select target language names and new occupations. The texts contain lengthy dialogs. Next to the dialogs are translations in the sts. L1. There are also reproductions of paintings, notes on vocabulary and grammar. Baroque music is played while T reads the dialog. T matches her voice to the rhythm of the music. T aims to activate both left and the right brain for effective learning. No homework is assigned. Sts. may read the dialog before going to sleep and after they wake up if they want to. The nature of student-teacher interaction: The interaction with the whole group of students right from the beginning. T dili kisitli da olsa kullanmaya baslamalari icin stsa en basta basit bir dialog ogretiyor . Feeling of students: A great deal of attention is given to their feelings. It is believed that if sts. are relaxed and confident they will learn the language effortlessly. Sts psycho logical barriers should be desuggested. A new identity makes them feel more secure because the mistakes will not be made by themselves, it will be that identitys mistake. Language & Culture: Sts. study common, everyday speech in the target language. Sts. also study culture and learn how the speakers of that language live. The use of fine arts is also important. Language skills emphasized: Vocabulary is emphasized. Sts. has to memorize large number of words. Minimal explicit grammar is introduced. The paraconscious mind is expected to absorb the linguistic rules accordingly.

Speaking is emphasized. Students also read in the target language (dialogs) and write (imaginary compositions). Error correction: Errors are corrected gently. The teacher uses a soft voice. The role of the sts native language: L1 translation is used to make meaning of the dialog clear. T also uses L1 in class when necessary. As the course proceeds the use of L1 decreases. Sample Lesson: Konu To want to is to be able to. T once sts. greeting ve sonra ogrenmek icin ugrasmamalarini, ogrenmenin dogal olarak gerceklesecegini soyluyor. Kendilerine yeni identity ve occupation secmelerini istiyor. Meslekleri onlara pantomime kullanarak anlatiyor. Sonra yeni identity ve isleriyle ilgili sorular soruyor. Sts. yes/no cevaplari veriyorlar. Sonra siniftaki muzik aletlerini calmaya basliyorlar. T 20 syf. Dialogu dagitiyor. OtlineI biraz L1, biraz L2 biraz da pantomime ile anlatiyor. Instructions baslangicta mostly L1. 3 kere okuyor. Ilk okumada sesini muzige uyduruyor, ikinci okumada muzik degisiyor ve daha geri planda kaliyor. O arada translated taraftan takip etmelerini ve not tutmalarini tavsiye ediyor. En son okumada sadece dinliyorlar. Class is dismissed and there is no homework. T isterseniz yatmadan ve uyaninca okuyun diyor. Ikinci derste T sapkalar cikariyor. Once kendi takip karakterkerden biri oluyor. Sonra dorder dorder digerlerine giydiriyor. Dialogu bir kizgin, bir uzgun, bir mutlu okutuyor. You are auditioning for a role in Broadway oynatiyor. Bu defa dramatic okumalarini istiyor. Sonra dialogdan target languageda sorular soruyor. Bazen translation yapmalarini istiyor. Sonra onlara alfabe oyunu oynatiyor (cocuk gibi davranmalarini saglamaya calisiyor). Circle Time activity yaptiriyor (hayali identityleri ve occupationlari uzerinden). Yanlislar soft voice ile duzeltiliyor. More advanced levels: daha complex cumleler ve grammar, yeni kelimelerin antonyms/synonyms veriliyor. Sts. kendileri novel kelimeler kurmalari icin tesvif ediliyor.

DESUGGESTOPEDIA
PRINCIPLES Learning is facilitated in a cheerful environment. OBSERVATIONS & TECHNIQUES The classroom is bright and colorful (Classroom setup)

Students can learn from their environment even if Among the posters there are several grammatical their attention is not directed to (peripheral learning) information are hung on the walls (Peripheral learning) If sts. trust and respect Ts authority, they will accept and retain information better. T aims to desuggest the psychological barriers that sts. bring to class. They will feel less inhibited since their performance is really that of a different person. T teaches them a dialog so that they can start to communicate immediately. Songs are useful for freeing the speech muscles. The teacher speaks confidently. T teacher says you will not need to learn, just enjoy (Positive Suggestion) Sts. choose new names and identities (Choose a new identity) Sts. learn a dialog and introduce themselves to each other and to T. They play instruments as they sing a song.

The teacher integrates indirect positive suggestions The title of the dialog is To want to is to be able to. meaning that theres no limit what they can do. Fine art provides positive suggestions for the There are reproductions students. throughout the text of classical painting

Communication takes place on two phases. The first T matches her voice to the rhythm while reading the phase is language (message is encoded by T-receptive text phase for sts.) The second phase is factors that influence the message to be decoded. On the conscious phase learner attends to the language and on the subconscious phase the music suggests that learning is fun and easy. When they are in unity learning will take place effectively. Music is also ideal for overcoming sts. barriers. Fantasy reduces barriers to learning Sts. are directed to act as the characters in the dialog T helps the students to activate their brain for T leads the class in various activities involving dialogs, learning through various activities. T also tries to role-plays, games, question answer, translations. avoid repetition. (Creative Adaptation)

When sts. act as children, they will be more open to learning. Trusting the T is also important.

T teachers the sts. children songs

COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING


Currans Counseling-Learning model of education was inspired by Carl Rogers Humanistic Psychology which views humans as a whole. According to this view true human learning is both cognitive and affective. Adults often feel threatened by a new situation being afraid of appearing foolish. Curran believed that if teachers acted as counselors language counselors they would reduce the fear of students. By appreciating students feelings and fears a teacher could help students to overcome their negative feelings and turn them into positive energy for successful learning. Weaknesses: Teachers attempt counseling without special training. The method lacks a syllabus. The objectives are unclear. Evaluation is difficult. The focus is on fluency rather than accuracy. Goals of the T: Ts goal is to teach sts. to communicate in the target language. Also, T wants students to take responsibility for their own learning. They should also learn how to learn to learn from other sts. T accepts them as whole persons. T values the sts. and their feelings. Role of the T & Sts: T is the counselor. T recognizes how threatening a new environment can be for adult learners so understands and supports them. Characteristics of the teaching/learning process: In beginning classes sts. have conversation using their L1. According to Curran there are 6 elements necessary for non-defensive learning. SAARRD (Security Attention - Aggression Retention - Reflection Discrimination) Security : Sts should feel secure to enter in a successful learning experience Attention : Sts involvement in learning. Aggression : The sts should be given an opportunity to assert themselves, involve in the activities and has to show what he/she has learnt Retention : The material takes place within the whole itself (whole person). Reflection : Students are invited to consider their learning experience. Discrimination : Sorting out the differences among target language forms The nature of student-teacher interaction: Neither student, nor teacher centered but rather teacher-studentcentered both being decision makers in the class. Not competition but cooperation is encouraged. It is believed that trusting relationship can reduce the trait anxiety that students fell. Students Feelings: Responding to the students feelings is very important. One regular activity is inviting them to comment on how they feel. T can help them to overcome negative feelings that might otherwise block their learning. L1 use is also for them to feel secure. Language skills emphasized: At the early stages students decide on what to do in class. Later, when they feel more secure, T might prepare specific materials. Understanding and speaking the language is seen as basic. Thus, reading and writing exercises are based on what sts. practice orally. Error correction: Rephrasing is used for correcting errors (to repeat correctly what the student has said incorrectly without calling further attention to the error).

The role of the sts native language: L1 use is also for them to feel secure. Where possible native language equivalents are given to the target language. Instructions are given in L1. Sts. express and share their feelings in L1. Sample Lesson: Herkes masanin cevresinde circle olacak sekilde oturuyor. Masanin ortasinda bir tape recorder var. Tanisma faslindan sonra ogretmen sohpet edeceklerini ve kendi soylediklerinin kayit edilecegini soyluyor. Daha sonra kaydin transcriptini cikaracaklarini anlatiyor. Arkalarinda durup konusmalarini cevirecegini soyluyor. Elini kaldiran ogrencinin gidip arkasinda duruyor. Translate ediyor, sonra kayit ediliyor. Sohpet bitince ogrt. De yanlarina oturuyor ve L1da hislerini soruyor. Hepsini saygiyla accept et mek zorunda. Sonra teypten kendilerini dinleyip tekrar etmeye calisiyorlar. Teyp durdurularak utterancelar tek tek tahtaya yaziliyor. Ogrt. Ogrencilerin sadece dinlemelerini ve seyretmelerini istiyor, yamayin diyor. Tekrar okuyor. Arkaniza dayanin dinleyin diyor. Sonra da Human Computer olacagini ve tam olarak yapacaklarini anlatiyor. Sonra grup work yapiyorlar. Transcriptteki kelimeleri kullanarak yeni cumleler kuruyorlar. Ogrt. Error oldugunda rephrasing yapiyor. Tape 2 kere daha dinleniyor. Dersin son 10 dk. Yine fikirlerini soruyor. Following lessons: Conversation uzerinde calismaya devam, study grammar in conversation, sira ile transcript okuma (biri L1 biri taget language), pronunciation uzerinde calisma olanagi, create a new dialogue with that words.

COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING


PRINCIPLES OBSERVATIONS & TECHNIQUES

Building a relationship with and among sts. is very T greets sts and introduces himself and has sts. important introduce themselves A new learning experience can be threatening. When sts. know what to do they feel more secure Language is for communication. T superior knowledge may be threatening for the sts. T also fosters interaction by standing behind the sts. T should be sensitive to sts level of confidence and give them what they need to succeed. T and sts are whole persons. By sharing their experiences they will get to know each other and built community Each learner is unique. T should create an accepting atmosphere. By this way the learning experience becomes less threatening. The teacher counsels the sts. L1 is used to make the meaning clear. Sts. feel more secure when they understand everything. Explains briefly what they are going to do Sts. have conversation The teacher stands behind the students T translates what sts. want to say and the utterances are tape recorded (Tape Recording Conversation) Sts. are invited to talk about how they feel.

T accepts and understands what sts. say

S listen to the tape and give the L1 translation.

Sts. learn best when they have a choice in what to In the (Human Computer Activity) sts. choose what practice. They should take control of their own they want to repeat and T repeats as many times as learning. they want him to repeat. They feel a sense of community and also they learn Sts. work in groups (Small Group Tasks). from each other in groups. Cooperation not competition is encouraged. Fantasy reduces barriers to learning Sts. are directed to act as the characters in the dialog

T helps the students to activate their brain for T leads the class in various activities involving dialogs, learning through various activities. T also tries to role-plays, games, question answer, translations. avoid repetition.

When sts. act as children, they will be more open to learning. Trusting the T is also important.

T teachers the sts. children songs

TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE


This method is developed by James Asher. It was influenced by a general approach named The Comprehension Approach by which the importance is given to listening comprehension. L2 learning should be more like L1 acquisition. A baby spends many months listening to the people around it long before it ever says a word. The child has the time to internalize the sounds it hears. No one tells the baby that it must speak. The child chooses to speak when he feels ready to do so. Asher also added that the childs listening is accompanied by physical responses (reaching, grabbing, moving, looking and so forth). He also gave some attention to right brain learning. According to Asher motor activity is a right brain function and it should precede left brain language processing. He also wished to come up with a method that would lower down the debilitative anxiety level that appears in many language classes. TRP heavily utilized the imperative mood. Commands were the easy ways to get learners to move about and to loosen up. No verbal response was necessary. More complex syntax could also be incorporated into the imperatives. Weaknesses: The method does not cater for the needs of advanced learners. Goals of the T: Ts goal is to have their students to enjoy their experience in learning a second language. T also aims to reduce the debilitative anxiety that students feel. Role of the T & Sts: T is the director of sts behaviors. Sts. are imitators of her non-verbal model. When students feel ready to speak they can act as a teacher and give commands. Characteristics of the teaching/learning process: T always models what to do. T performs the actions with the students. Later, T gives directions and sts. perform alone. Afterwards, all class performs. Then, T combines the element of the commands and give commands that they are not familiar with. Sts. perform them, also. These commands are usually humorous. Sts. also learn to read and write them. Sts. who are ready to speak starts giving commands. The nature of student-teacher interaction: T is speaking and directing the sts. by giving commands. Sts. are non-verbal respondents. Later on, sts. become more verbal and T becomes more non-verbal. Sts. perform all together. Culture: Culture is the life style of people who speak the language. Sts. learn how the speakers of that language live. Students Feelings: The major goal of this method is to lower down the debilitative anxiety and stress sts. feel when studying foreign languages. One of the primary ways of doing it is to let them speak whenever they are ready. In addition, perfection should not be expected. Another way to lower down anxiety is to make language learning enjoyable. Language skills emphasized: Vocabulary and grammatical structures are emphasized over other language areas. These are embedded within imperatives. It is believed that all grammatical features can be introduced through imperatives. One of the reasons of using imperatives is that children acquiring their L1 are exposed to language that includes imperatives. Comprehension should precede production. Sts. reading and writing works are based on what they practice only. Sts. learn to read only after 10 hours of instruction.

Error correction: It is expected that sts. will make errors when they first begin speaking. Teachers should be tolerant on them and only correct major errors. The errors should be corrected in an non-threatening way. The role of the sts native language: L1 is not used. T conveys his message using his body language and visual aids. Sample Lesson: Ogrt. sinifa giriyor. Greets the sts. L1 kullanarak ne yapacaklarini anlatiyor. Basta konusmayacaklarini ogretmeni dinleyip yaptiklarini ve soylediklerini yapacaklarini anlatiyor. Ingilizce commandlar verecegini soyluyor. 4 kisiyi secip yanina oturtuyor. Hep beraber oturuyorlar. Once onlara sirasiyla hep 6 command veriyor. Once kendi gosteriyor, sonra hep beraber, sonra yalniz onlar, sonra tum sinif yapiyorlar. Command sirasini degistirip tekrar soyluyor, hizli soyluyor. Sonra bir ogrenci seciyor. O ogr. tek basina command veriyor. Bu 6 commandI iyice anladiklarindan emin olunca yenilerini ekliyor. Sonra commandlari birbirine karistirip novel commandlar veriyor. Bunlar genelde komik oluyor. Sonra daha complex commandlar veriyor. Sonra verdigi commandlari tahtaya yaziyor. Sts. defterlerine yaziyorlar. Daha ileri seviyede ogranciler konusmaya hazir olunca commandlar vermeye basliyorlar.

TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE


PRINCIPLES OBSERVATIONS & TECHNIQUES

Meaning is conveyed through actions and body T gives a command and performs it with the students. language. The right brain which is responsible for the non-verbal behavior should be activated at the beginning of foreign language instruction. The target language should be presented in chunks rather than single words. Their comprehension is expected to develop before production. They are not forced to speak until they feel ready. They learn the language by moving their body parts. The imperative is a powerful linguistic device. By giving commands in imperatives T can direct sts. behaviors and actions. Sts. learn by both performing and observing the actions. Sts. should feel successful. Feeling of success and low anxiety facilitate learning. Sts. should not be made to memorize fixed routines. Error correction should be in a non-threatening way. Errors should be tolerated. Sts. say nothing.

T sits down and issues commands to the volunteers

After the volunteers whole class performs the actions. T introduces new commands after they succeed in the previous ones. T changer changes the order of commands When sts. make an error, T repeats the command by acting it out.

Sts. should develop flexibility in understanding novel T issues novel commands to the sts. combinations in the target language. Language learning is more effective when it is fun. T issues commands that are humorous commands.

Spoken language should be emphasized over written T writes the new commands on the board. language.

Sts. speak when they feel ready.

A few weeks later, a st. begins giving commands

T helps the students to activate their brain for T leads the class in various activities involving dialogs, learning through various activities. T also tries to role-plays, games, question answer, translations. avoid repetition.

When sts. act as children, they will be more open to learning. Trusting the T is also important.

T teachers the sts. children songs

THE FUNCTIONAL-NOTIONAL APPROACH First of all, it is not a method. It is an approach. Teacher can choose this approach and add the techniques taken from other methods and form an eclectic approach for their teaching. Its major emphasis is on the communicative (pragmatic) purposes of the speech act. It focuses on what people want to do or what they want to accomplish through speech. The curriculum is set dependent on the functions of the language that the learner wants to accomplish. Functions of language: Introducing self and other people Asking for information Exchanging information Asking questions Giving commands and directing people Apologizing and thanking Identifying and describing Imaginative function Functional language also incorporates specific notions. Notions are meaning of elements which may be expressed through nouns pronouns, verbs, prepositions, conjunctions, adjectives and adverbs. Notions may change according to gender, number, tense, aspect, emphasis, the context and to whom we are addressing our speech (the teacher or a student; the boss or the employee, family member or a stranger). Students and their communicative purposes are at the very center of the teaching program. The learners academic, social and vocational needs will underlie all aspects of the programs linguistic and cultural context. It makes provision through a unit or a module system. As the program is designed according to the needs of the learner, the linguistic context, the curriculum will be meaningful to the learner and thus will be selfmotivating. The learner will have intrinsic motivation which leads to successful learning.

COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING Communicative Language Teaching is influenced by the Communicative Approach. According to this approach, communicative competence is the goal of language teaching. Classroom goals are focused on all of the components of communicative competence such as grammatical, discourse, functional, sociolinguistic and strategic. That means, linguistic competence (the knowledge of forms and their meanings) is just one part of communicative competence. Another aspect of communicative competence is knowledge of the functions the language is used for. The teacher tries to get students to develop linguistic fluency besides accuracy. In addition, learners should be able to adjust their language use according to the status of the interlocutor and the social context in which the communication takes place. Language techniques are designed to engage learners in the functional and authentic use of language for meaningful purposes. It reminds us of functionalnotional approach. It involves knowing and using the appropriate notions according to the functions of the language that the learner wants to accomplish. For example; in the role-play activity, T wants them to imagine that they are employees of the same company. He also wants one member of each group to act as the boss. T wants them to discuss the possible outcomes of a merging agreement between their company and another company in a company meeting. After the discussion session, they discuss on the language forms appropriate when speaking to a colleague and when speaking to the boss. T introduces a situation in which the boss doesnt think that t he vacation policy will change after the merging but the employee thinks it will. T and the students discuss that it is more appropriate to say I think the vacation policy might change instead of saying The vacation policy will change. On the other hand, if it is your colleague with whom you disagree, than there is no problem in saying The vacation policy will change or I know/Im sure that the vacation policy will change . According to Morrow (1981), activities that are truly communicative should have three features in common: 1) Information gap: It refers to a situation where one of the communicators knows something that the other one does not. In the card game the speaker did not know what her classmate was going to do the following weekend. So, there is an information gap. 2) Choice: Student chooses a kind of sport from the blackboard and utters it in the form that she likes. So, the student has a choice both in terms of prediction and the language form. 3) Feedback: The speaker received feedback from the members of her group. If the students didnt have the card that involved her prediction, she opened the card which had been put face down on the table and learned that her prediction was true. Classroom tasks are designed to equip students with the skills necessary for communication outside the classroom in different contexts. Goals of the T: The goal is to enable students communicate in the target language. T guides them to learn and use the functions of the language as well as the linguistic forms and the meanings. They need to know that a

variety of forms can be used to accomplish a single function or the same form of language can be used for a variety of functions. A speaker may say It may rain or Perhaps it will rain to make a prediction (variety of forms of language for a single function) A speaker can use May both to make a prediction and to give permission You may sit in the back (the same form of language for a variety of functions) They must also be able to choose the appropriate form according to the roles of the interlocutors and the social context that the communication takes place in. In addition, they must also be able to negotiate meaning with their interlocutors in order to understand whether the interlocutors decoded the message correctly or not. A speaker may say Can you pass the salt? when having dinner a dinner with his friends and family. A speaker is more likely to say Could you pass the salt please? when having dinner in a formal context with interlocutors who are socially in a higher position like his boss. Role of the T & Sts: Teacher is the facilitator, need analyst, adviser, researcher and counselor. She is not supposed to know everything. The teacher aims to facilitate lifelong learning among students. During the activities he acts as an adviser, he answers sts questions and monitors their performance. He might ma ke note of the sts errors during a communication based activity and he might work on sts errors later during an activity that focuses on forms and accuracy. Sts. are active communicators even if they have limited competence in the target language. They are expected to negotiate meaning continuously during communication. They are encouraged to discover their own learning styles and to develop skills for lifelong learning. Characteristics of the teaching/learning process: Everything is done in class and every activity aim to enhance sts communication skills. Sts. use the language through meaningful communicative activities such as scrambled sentences, language games, role-plays and problem solving tasks. Another important characteristic of CLT is the use of authentic materials such as newspaper articles, radio programs, debates on radio and TV. Authentic materials help students to become familiar with different types of language used in real life. The nature of student-teacher interaction: The teacher is more effective when working with sts linguistic accuracy. At other times, he is the facilitator of the activities. He mostly establishes situations that enable sts to communicate with each other. Language & Culture: Language is for communication. Linguistic competence is not enough. It should be accompanied by sociolinguistic competence. Sts. should know the functions that the language is used for. In addition, they should be able to adjust their use of language according to the status of the interlocutor and the social context that the communication takes place in. They should be competent in using the appropriate notions according to the functions of the language that they want to accomplish. Culture is everyday lifestyle of people who use both verbal and non-verbal language.

Students Feelings: It is believed that if the learning is meaningful they will be more motivated to learn the target language. Sts. are also given a chance to express their ideas and opinions on a regular basis. Error correction: Errors are seen as the signs of sts developing language competence. Errors of form are tolerated during communication based activities which aims to develop fluency. Sts. are accepted to be candidates of successful communicators even with a limited linguistic knowledge. T may note the errors during fluency activities and return to them later with an accuracy-based activity. The role of the sts native language: Judicious use of sts native language is permitted. However, whenever possible, the target language should be used during communicative activities, while giving instructions and assigning homework. It is important to use the target language as much as possible because by this way sts realize that the target language is not only a subject to be studied in school; rather, it is a tool for communication. Language skills emphasized: Students work on all four skills from the beginning. Generally a functional syllabus is used. A variety of forms are introduced for each function. At first, simpler forms are introduced. Later, as the sts become more proficient in the target language more complex forms are introduced. They also learn about cohesion and coherence. They learn how sentences are bound together through linguistic devices that make a text cohesive such as pronouns, articles, prepositions, auxiliaries and tense markers. They also make use of basic semantic propositions and add linguistic devices to make a unified and a coherent text. Activity: Introducing a newspaper headline PM Meets Queen. Sts. are directed to add grammar to unify the headline and to make it coherent. The Prime Minister has met the Queen Activity: Scrambled words Kim/dog/run/over How many sentences can you make with the following element in any order by adding grammatical words such as pronouns, articles, prepositions, auxiliaries and tense markers? Subject & Object relations can be established through the use of Passive Voice. A relationship between nouns can be established through the use of possessive s. Time relations can be clarified through the use of tense markers. Some Definitions: Information gap: Exists when two communicating people already know the answer to a question. In this case the exchange is not really communicative. If the exercise is tightly controlled so that students can only say something in one way, the speaker has no choice and the exchange, therefore, is not communicative. Communicative competence: The knowledge of forms and their meaning is just one part of communicative competence. Knowledge of the functions is another aspect of communicative competence. Communicative competence is interlanguage plus 1 (i+1) Communication: In communication the speaker has a choice of what she will say and how she will say it. True communication is purposeful

4 dimensions of communicative competence according to Canale & Swain (1980) 1) Grammatical competence (Chomskys Linguistic competence): Its the ability to recognize and produce the distinctive grammatical structures of a language and to use them effectively in communication. 2) Sociolinguistic competence : (social context, purpose, participants) The knowledge of the socio-cultural rules of language and of discourse. 3) Discourse competence (Interconnectedness within a text): The ability to connect sentences in stretches of discourse and to form a meaningful whole out of a series of utterances. (the odd-one out, scrambled sentences, completing a dialogue, choosing the right response) 4) Strategic competence : the verbal and nonverbal communication strategies that may be called into action to compensate for breakdowns in communication due to performance variables or due to insufficient competence. a) Initiate a communication: its a starter (hello, I think I know who you are ) b) Maintain a communication: to keep the communication going. c) Repair a communication: if someone misunderstood you and you try to explain your position. d) Terminate a communication: to stop to communicate (I have to go ..) Strategic competence is the ability to keep the communication going.

Littlewood (1981)
Functional Communicative Activities : Comparing pictures Determining likely sequence of events Discovering missing features Following directions Solving problems Social Interaction Avtivities : Conversation & Discussion Dialogues & Role-plays Simulations & Skits Improvisations Debates

Sample Lesson: Ogrt. bir handout dagitiyor. On yuzunde gazeteden alinmis bir spor haberi var. Kose yazari Dunya
Kupasini kimin kazanacagi konusunda tahminlerde bulunuyor. Ogr. yaziyi okuyor ve yazarin prediction yaptigi bolumlerin altini ciziyor. Instructions are all in English. Daha sonra altini cizdiklerini okuyorlar. Ogrt. tartistiklari predictionlari tahtaya yaziyor. Daha sonra yazarin hangi predictionlarda daha emin hissettigi, hangilerinde daha emin hissettigi konusunda tartisiyorlar. Daha sonra ogrt. tahtadaki ilk cumleye bakmalarini ve onu baska sekilde soylemelerini istiyor. Sts. tahminde bulunuyor. Ogrt. de bir tane offer ediyor. Daha sonra sayfanin arkasini ceviriyorlar ve scrambled sentences (metinden) activity yapiyorlar. Sonra bes kisilik gruplara ayrilip oyun oynuyorlar. Her gruba 13 kartlik bir deste dagitiyor. Her kartin uzerinde bir sport equipment resmi var. Ogr. isimlerini tek tek identify ediyor ve ogrt. de tahtaya yaziyor. Kartlar karistiriliyor ve gruptaki ogr. her birine 3 adet kart dagitiliyor. Kalan tek kart grubun ortasina kapali olarak konuyor. Ogr. ellerindeki kartlari kimseye gostermiyor. Gruptaki 5. Kisiye kart dagitilmiyor. O ogr. siniftaki belirli bir ogr. gelecek haftasonu ne yapacagini bulmaya calisiyor. Bunun icin predictionlar iceren cumleler kuruyor. Simon may go skiing this weekend. Eger grup arkadaslarinin elinde o kart var ise cevap veriyor Simon cant go skiing because I have his skis. Eger prediction yapan ogr. soyledigi spora ait malzeme kimsenin elinde yok ise o ogr. ortadaki kapali karti aciyor ve bu defa daha kesin bir prediction yapiyor ve mesela Simon will go skiing next weekend diyor. Sts. take turns

so that each st. has a chance to make the predictions about how a classmate will spend his or her time. Daha sonra ogrt.ulkelerin gelecegi ve dunya ile ilgili bir dizi predictions okuyor. The sts. are told to make statements about how probable they think the predictions are and why they believe so. They are also asked how they feel about the prediction. Bir ogr. dusuncelerini soylerken ungramm. cumle kuruyor ama ogrt. ignore ediyor. Daha sonra ogrt. ogr. 3 kisilik gruplara boluyor. Gruptaki 1 ogr. picture strip story veriliyor. There are six pictures in a row on a piece of paper, but no words. The pictures tell a story. Hikayeyi elinde tutatn ogr. grup arkadaslarina ilk resmi gosteriyor (digger resimleri cover ederek). Grup arkadaslari takip eden resimde ne olacagini predict ediyorlar. Hikayeyi elinde tutan ogr. dogru olup olmadiklarini soyluyor ve resmi aciyor. Tum resimler bitene kadar oyun devam ediyor. Bitince ogrt. yeni bir set picture strip veriyor. Ogr. roller degiserek aktiviteye devam ediyorlar. Son aktivite olarak ogrt. role-play yapacaklarini soyluyor ve ogr. 4 kisilik gruplara boluyor. Ayni sirketin employeeleri olduklarini hayal etmelerini istiyor. Iclerinden birini boss olarak secmelerini ve bor toplantida olduklarini dusunmelerini istiyor. They are having a meeting to discuss what will possibly occur as a result of their company merging with another company. Baslamadan once bazi possibilityleri sinifca tartisiyorlar (possibility of losing their jobs, moving, changes in company policies, increase/decrease in salaries,ext.) Ogr. aktiviteye baslamadan ogrt. bir hatirlatma yapiyor: Remember, that one of you in each group is the boss. You should think about this relationship if, for example, he or she makes a prediction that you dont agree with. 15 dk. They perform their role. Ogr. bu arada grup grup dolasiyor ve offers advice on what the sts. can discuss. Ogr. sorularini da yanitliyor. Sonra sinifta statu olarak kendilerinden yuksek bir konumda olan patronlarinin disagree ettigi durumlarda predictionlarini yaparken use of languageI nasil adjust edebeliceklerini tartisiyorlar. Mesela patron vacation policynin degisecegi konusunda sizinle ayni fikirde degil ise, The vacation policy will change yerine I think the vacation policy may change demenin daha dogru olmasi gibi. Son olarak ogrt. homework assignment veriyor. TV veya radioda o aksam yayinlanacak olan iki politikaci adayinin katildigi bir debateI dinlemelerini ve Ingilizce olarak kimin kazanacagina dair predictionlarini nedenlerini belirterek yazmalarini istiyor. Gelecek dersin basinda ogrencilere okuyacaklarini soyluyor.

COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING


PRINCIPLES OBSERVATIONS & TECHNIQUES

Whenever possible, authentic language that is the T distributes a handout that has a copy of a sports language used in real context should be introduced. column from a recent newspaper. Being able to figure out the speakers or writers intentions is part of being communicatively competent. The target language is not only a subject to be studied. It is the means of communication. One function can be expressed by using different notions. The focus of the course is on real language use so, a variety of linguistic forms are presented together. The emphasis is on the process of communication rather than just the mastery of language forms. Sts. should work with language at the discourse level. They must learn about the properties of language (cohesion and coherence) which bind the sentences together. Games have certain features in common with real communicative events. Also, the speaker receives immediate feedback from the listener on whether or not he or she has successfully communicated. In this way, they can negotiate meaning. Sts. should be given an opportunity to express their ideas and opinions. Errors are tolerated and as seen as a sign of sts developing competence in the target language. T doesnt correct the st. during a fluency-based activity but simply notes the errors and work on them at a later point. One of the major responsibilities of the T is to establish situations that promote communication. Communicative interaction encourages cooperative relations among sts. Sts. find an opportunity to negotiate meaning. Learning to use language forms appropriately is an important part of communication competence. Sts. underline the writers predictions and try to find out the ones that he is uncertain and less certain. T gives all the instructions in the target language. Sts. try to state the reporters predictions in different words.

Sts. unscramble the sentences of the newspaper article.

Sts. play a language game.

Sts. are asked how they feel about the predictions. A student makes an error. The teacher and other sts. ignore it.

T gives each group a strip of story and a task to perform. Sts. predict what the next picture in the strip story will be.

In a role-play activity one of the sts. acts as the boss and T reminds sts. that they should remember this when speaking to that st.

T acts as a facilitator in setting up communicative T moves form group to group offering advice and activities. T also acts as an advisor during the answering questions. activities.

The Audio-Lingual Method


Attends to structure and form more than meaning. Structure-based dialogues are memorized.

The Communicative Language Teaching


Meaning is paramount. Dialogues center around communicative functions and are not memorized.

Language learning is learning structures, sounds or Language learning is learning to communicate. words. Overlearning is sought. Drilling is a central technique. Native-speaker-like pronunciation is sought. Grammatical explanation is avoided. Effective communication is sought. Drilling may occur but peripherally. Comprehensible pronunciation is sought. Any device that helps the learners is accepted.

Reading and writing are deferred until speech is Reading and writing can start from the first day, if mastered. desired. Linguistic competence is a desired goal. T controls the learners and prevents them from making errors. Language is seen as a habit formation process. Errors cause the formation of bad habits so they must be prevented at all costs. Communicative competence is a desired goal. T help learners in any way that motivates them to work with the language. Errors are tolerated as they are seen as signs of sts developing competence in the target language.

Accuracy, in terms of formal correctness, is a primary Fluency and acceptable language are the primary goal. goals, accuracy is judged in context. Interaction between sts. is not allowed due to the risk Sts. are expected to interact with other sts. through of error formation. pair and group work. T makes use of totally controlled-activities. T cannot know exactly what language the sts. will use.

CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION
Content-Based instruction and Task-based instruction are two other approaches that make communication central. They draw on the principles of CLT. The only difference between these approaches is a matter of their focus. The CLT instruction is centered on giving students opportunities to practice using of the communicative functions of language. Content-Based instruction does not begin with the functions. Rather, there is a predetermined linguistic content and the language is used to learn the content. Students learn the language as a by-product of learning about real-world content. Thus, CBI stands in contrast to traditional approaches to language teaching in which language form is the primary focus of the syllabus and of classroom teaching. It integrates the learning of language with the learning of some other content which is often an academic subject matter. Learners get both content knowledge and increased language proficiency. Students get two for one both content knowledge and increased language proficiency. CBI leads to integrated teaching of the four language skills. It employs authentic reading materials which require students not only to understand information but to interpret and evaluate it as well. It provides a forum in which students can respond orally to reading and lecture materials. It recognizes that academic writing follows from listening and reading and thus requires students to synthesize facts and ideas from multiple sources as preparation for writing. There are other educational initiatives that also emphasize the principle of acquiring content through language rather than the study of language for its own sake. These are; Language Across the Curriculum Immersion Education Immigrant On-Arrival Programs Programs for Students with Limited English Proficiency Language for Specific Purposes Immersion Education is a type of foreign language instruction in which the regular school curriculum is taught through the medium of the foreign language. The foreign language is the tool for content instruction; it is not the subject of instruction. Immigrant on Arrival Programs typically focus on the language newly arrived immigrants in a country need for survival. Such learners typically need to learn how to deal with differing kinds of kinds of real-world content as a basis for social survival. In current on arrival programs, a competency based approach is often used in which a teaching syllabus is developed around the competencies learners are presumed to need in different survival situations. Programs for Students with Limited English Proficiency are designed to provide instruction for any school-age children whose language competence is insufficient to participate fully in normal school instruction.

Language for Specific Purposes is a movement that seeks to serve the language needs of learners who need language in order to carry out specific roles (e.g., student, engineer, technician, nurse) and who thus need to acquire content and real world skills through the medium of a second language rather than master the language for its own sake. (its subfields are English for Occupational Purposes and English for Academic Purposes). Approach People learn a second language more successfully when they use the language as a means of acquiring information rather than as an end itself. Content-Based Instruction better reflects learners needs for learning a second language. Theory of Language Language is Text-Discourse Based : CBI addresses the role of language as a vehicle for learning content. the focus of teaching is how meaning and information are communicated and constructed through texts and discourse. The linguistic units that are central are not limited to the level of sentences, clauses and phrases but are those that account for how longer stretches of language are used and the linguistic features that create coherence and cohesion within speech events and text types. This involves study of the texture and discourse structure of written texts such as letters, reports, essays, descriptions or book chapters or of speech events such as meetings, lectures and discussions. Language use Draws on Integrated Skills: In a content-based class students are often involved in activities that link the skills because this is how the skills are generally involved in the real world. Topic or theme-based courses provide a good basis for an integrated skills approach because the topics selected provide coherence and continuity across skill areas and focus on the use of language in connected discourse rather than isolated fragments. They seek to bring together knowledge, language and thinking skills. Grammar can also be presented through a content-based approach. Language is Purposeful : language is used for specific purposes. When learners focus on the purpose of the language samples they are exposed to, they become engaged in following through and seeing if the purpose is attained and how their own interests relate to this purpose. In order to make content comprehensible for learners teachers need to make adjustments and simplifications. These modifications include; Simplification (using shorter teacher units and clauses) Well-formedness (using few deviations from standard usage) Explicitness (speaking with non-reduced pronunciation) Regularization (use of conocial word order) Redundancy (highlighting important materials through simultaneous use of several linguistic mechanisms).

Theory of Learning People learn a second language more successfully when they use the language as means of acquiring information, rather than as an end itself. o In formal educational settings, second languages are best learned when the focus is on mastery of content rather than on mastery of language. People learn a second language more successfully when the information they are acquiring is perceived as interesting, useful and leading to a desired goal. o For successful learning to occur, the language syllabus must take into account the eventual uses the learner will make of the target language. The use of informational content which is perceived as relevant by the learner is assumed by many to increase motivation in the language course, and thus to promote more effective learning. Language learning is also believed to be more motivating when students are focusing on something other than language, such as ideas, issues and opinions. If content with a high level of interest is chosen, learners may acquire the language more willingly. Some content areas are more useful as a basis for language learning than others. o For example geography is often the first choice of the subject matter as it is highly visual, spatial and contextual. It includes the use of maps, charts and relia. In addition the language tends to be descriptive in nature with use of the cognates and proper names. Students learn best when instruction addresses students needs o Authentic texts, both written and spoken, that students will encounter in the real world provide the starting point for developing a syllabus, so relevance to learners needs is assured. Teaching builds on the previous experience of the learners o CBI seeks to build on students current knowledge and previous knowledge. Students do not start out as blank slates but are treated as bringing important knowledge and understanding to the classroom. Learners Roles Students will support each other in collaborative modes of learning. CBI is in the learning by doing school of pedagogy. This assumes an active role by learners in several dimensions. Learners are expected to be active interpreters of input, willing to tolerate uncertainty along the path of learning, willing to explore alternative learning strategies and willing to seek multiple interpretations of oral and written texts. Learners themselves may be sources of content and joint participants in the selection of topics and activities.

The Role of Teachers They must be knowledgeable in the subject matter and be able to elicit that knowledge from their students. They are responsible for selecting and adapting authentic materials for use in class, they become student needs analysts and they have to create truly learner-centered classrooms. Stryker and Leaver suggest the following essential skills for any CBI instructor: Varying the format of classroom instruction Using group work and team-building techniques Organizing jigsaw reading arrangements Defining the background knowledge and language skills required for student success. Helping students develop coping strategies Using process approaches to writing Using appropriate error correction techniques Developing and maintaining high levels of student esteem The Role of Materials The materials are authentic. They are like the kinds of materials used in native-language instruction. Authenticity refers to introduction of newspaper and magazine articles and any other media materials that were not originally produced for language teaching purposes. CBI practitioners recommend the use of relia such as tourist guidebooks, technical journals, railway timetables, newspaper adds, radio and TV broadcasts, videotapes and audiotapes. Materials may need modification in order to ensure maximum comprehensibility. This may mean linguistic simplification or adding redundancy to text materials. Contemporary Models of CBI Theme-based language instruction refers to a language course in which the syllabus is organized around themes or topics such as pollution or woman rights. A topic might be introduced through a reading, vocabulary developed through guided discussion, audio or video material on the same topic used for listening comprehension, followed by written assignments integrating information from several different sources. Sheltered-content instruction refers to content courses taught in the second language by a content area specialist, to a group of ESL learners who have been grouped together for this purpose. The ESL students are not in a class together with native speakers. The instructor will choose a text of suitable difficulty level for the learners and adjust course requirements to accommodate the learners language capacities. Adjunct language instruction refers to a kind of instruction in which students are enrolled in two linked courses. Students enroll in a regular academic course. In addition, they take a language course that is linked to the academic course. Then, during the language class, the language teachers focus is on helping students

process the language in order to understand the academic content presented by the subject teacher. The language teacher also helps students to complete academic tasks such as writing term papers, improving their note-taking abilities and reading academic textbooks assigned by the content teacher. Team-teach approach is a variation on the adjunct approach. It focuses on lecture comprehension and the writing of examination questions in fields such as transportation and plant biology. An example is from a polytechnic program in Singapore. An English-for-occupational purpose writing course was designed to prepare students for writing tasks they might have to carry out in future jobs in building maintenance and management. Skills-based approach focuses on a specific academic skill area (eg. Academic writing) Courses at Elementary and Secondary Level Theme-based approach: Topics (eg. consumer education, map skills, foods and nutrition, nuclear age, sports, Green movement, street kids and teenage smoking) were chosen primarily cater to the widest variety of students needs and interests. Linguistic appropriateness was another factor taken into account. A sample content-based lesson I The lesson is a Spanish lesson built around the viewing of the film El Norte. Preliminary Preparation: Students read reference materials regarding US immigration laws as well as an extract from Octavio Pazs book. 1. Linguistic analysis: Discussion of grammar and vocabulary based on students analysis of oral presentations done the day before. 2. Preparation for the film : Activities previewing vocabulary in the film including a vocabulary worksheet. 3. Viewing a segment of the movie. 4. Discussion of the film: The teacher leads a discussion of the film. 5. Discussion of the reading. 6. Videotaped interview: Students see a short interview in which immigration matters are discussed. 7. Discussion: A discussion of immigration reform. 8. Preparation of articles: Students are given time to read related articles and prepare a class presentation. 9. Presentation of articles: Students make presentations, which may be taped so that they can later listen for self-correction.

A sample content-based lesson II T ssa what is a globe diye soruyor. Bazilari isaretle bazilari sozle cevap veriyor. T masanin altindan bir globe cikariyor ve ssa onunla ilgili ne bildiklarini soruyor. Cevaplari tahtaya yazi yor. Dil acisindan anlatmakta zorlandiklarinda eksik bolumleri tamamlamalari icin destek oluyor. Daha sonra, seyredecekleri video Understanding Globes uzerine hazirlanmis bir handout dagitiyor. Handoutun basinda Some Vocabulary to know yaziyor. Listed are some key geographical terms used in the video. T kelimeleri okurken ss. dinliyor. Paragraphi okumalarini ve tepede yazan kelimeleri kullanarak fill in the blanks yaomalarini istiyor. Bitirdikten sonra videoyu izliyorlar. Videoyu izlerken kalan bosluklara uygun kelimeleri yaziyorlar. Daha sonra ss. pair up to chech their answers. Daha sonra T dikkatlerini paragrafta cok gecen passive verb yapilara cekiyor. Passivein ne ise yaradigini anlatiyor (theres no deductive teaching). Latitude ve longitudeun dunyadaki herhangi bir yeri tespit etmekte nasil kullanildigini anlatiyor ve ornekler veriyor. In her examples, T integrates the present passive and the content focus at the same time. Sonra ss. play a guessing game. Gruplara ayrilip bes sehir ismi dusunuyorlar. Daha sonra bu sehirleri T ogrettigi sekilde globe uzerine yerlestiriyorlar ve latitude ve longitude coordinatlarini yaziyorlar. Sonra sesli okuyorlar ve digger ogrencilerin sehrin ismini bilmesini bekliyorlar. Odev olarak T onlara bir harita ve Australianin descriptionini veriyor. DescriptionI okumalari ve major sehirleri ve points of interest bolgeleri isaretlemelerini istiyor. Critics Most language teachers have been trained to teach language as a skill rather than to teach a content subject. Thus, language teachers may be insufficiently grounded to teach subject matter in which they have not been trained.

CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION
PRINCIPLES OBSERVATIONS & TECHNIQUES

The subject matter content is used for language The class is studying geography. teaching purposes. Teaching should experience. build on students previous The teacher asks the students what they know about a globe.

When learners perceive the relevance of their Sts. call out their answers enthusiastically as the language use, they are motivated to learn. They know teacher writes them on the board. that it is a means to an end, rather than an end itself. T scaffolds the linguistic content. She helps learners say what it is they want to say by building together with the sts. a complete utterance. Language is learned most effectively when it is used as a medium to convey informational content of interest to the sts. Games have certain features in common with real communicative events. Also, the speaker receives immediate feedback from the listener on whether or not he or she has successfully communicated. In this way, they can negotiate meaning. Vocabulary is easy to acquire when there are contextual clues to help convey meaning. When they work with authentic subject matter, sts. need language support. For instance, the teacher may provide a number of examples, use comprehension checks, etc. Learners work with meaningful, cognitively demanding language and content within the context of authentic material and tasks. T supplies the missing language when the sts. have trouble in explaining a concept in the target language. Sts. unscramble the sentences of the newspaper article. T reads the new vocabulary and then the sts. watch a video entitled Understanding Globes.

Sts. fill in the vocabulary words in the blanks in the modified cloze passage as they watch the video. T provides a number of examples using the present passive with latitude and longitude co-ordinates.

Sts. are given the latitude and longitude coordinates and they have to come to the front of the classroom to find the city on the globe.

Communicative competence involves more than using In a role-play activity one of the sts. acts as the boss language in conversation. It also includes the ability to and T reminds sts. that they should remember this read, discuss and write about content from other when speaking to that st. fields.

THE WHOLE LANGUAGE APPROACH


Its philosophy has much in common with Content-Based Instruction. The language is regarded holistically, rather than as pieces such as the vocabulary words, grammatical structures and pronunciation points. Whole language educators believe that students do not learn best by learning the language piece by piece. They learn best when they are working to understand the meaning of whole texts. In other words, students work from the top down attempting first to understand the meaning of the overall text before they work on the linguistic forms comprising it. It is thought that the learning process will work best when students are engaged in purposeful use of language. Whole language educators see errors as part of learning and they encourage students to experiment with reading and writing to promote both their enjoyment and ownership. Whole Language educators embrace the ideas of Vygotsky about the social nature of learning. As a social process, it is assumed that learning is best served by collaboration between teacher and students and among students. A Sample Lesson Reading Skills: Sts. okumayi ogreniyorlar. T onlarin sirayla life experienceslarini ogreniyor ve bir kagida yaziyor (in the target language). Sonra her st. T yardimiyla kendi hayat experienceini okumaya calisiyor. It applies the principles of whole-language as the text is about content that is significant to the students, it is collaboratively produced, it is whole and since it is the students story, the link between text and meaning is facilitated. Writing Skills: do a bit of brainstorming about the topic during the pre-writing stage and then, have students write about the topic. While they are writing assist them and let them communicate and assist each other. Give feedback on their writing up to that point, make revisions. Based on the feedback they receive, let them revise and continue their writing. In this way, students learn to view their writing as someone elses reading and to improve both the expression of meaning and the form of their writing as they draft and redraft. Another way is to have students keep dialogue journals. It is a widely used technique in the Whole Language Approach. It involves students writing in class or for homework regularly, perhaps after each class or once a week. There may be particular focus for the writing, such as the students express ing their feelings for how and what they are learning. The writing might also be on anything that the students wish to communicate to the teacher. The teacher reads the students journals and writes a response to it but does not correct its form.

TASK-BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING


Content-Based instruction and Task-based instruction are two other approaches that make communication central. They draw on the principles of CLT. The only difference between these approaches is a matter of their focus. It refers to an approach based on the use of tasks as the core unit of planning and instruction in language teaching. Task is a form of technique that focuses on the authentic use of language for meaningful communicative purposes. David Nunan 1989 is a piece of classroom work which involves learners in comprehending, manipulating , producing or interacting in the TL while their attention is principally focused on meaning rather than form. Activities that involve real communication are essential for language learning. Activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks promote learning. Language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process. Recent researches revealed that the traditional type of grammar focused teaching activities do not promote the cognitive development of learners. Engaging learners in task work provides a better context for the activation of learning processes. Thus, provides better opportunities for language learning to take place. Tasks are proposed as useful vehicles for applying these principles. Language focus follows the completion of the task. The teacher may introduce a material and they may match their task with that of the teachers. Then, they discuss on the language. The teacher and the students give feedback. Task types Listing Task: Make a list of vocabulary or make a list of good teaches. The student may list as following- a good teacher is planned, honest, competent .. Ordering sorting Task: Order from the most important quality to the less important one. Here the student is asked to arrange the adjectives which he had chosen before Comparing Task: They might be asked to compare and present two cities Problem solving Task: What can we do to prevent global warming? Homework Sharing personal experiences Task: Students are going to talk about their experiences.

Creative task Task: Come up with come solutions about global warming Jig-saw The teacher gives each group a part of the information and the students need to complete the task. In this jigsaw task students have to listen to different parts of a total set of information they need to complete a task. Decision making Kalp nakli iin 6 kiiden 4 n semek Opinion exchange and Problem solving (authentic speaking and listening) The three types of tasks identified by Praphu An information-gap activity: it involves the exchange of information among participants in order to complete a task. For example, a student may describe a picture for another student to draw or students drawing each others family trees after sharing information. In the sample lesson described below, students had to exchange information within their groups in order to complete the timetable. A reasoning-gap activity: it requires sts. to derive some new information by inferring it from information they have been given. For example sts. might be given a railroad timetable and asked to work out the best route to get from one particular city to another or they might be asked to solve a riddle. In the sample lesson described below, students were asked to use their findings to figure out how best to discover their classmates three popular subjects. Project Work The language practiced in the classroom is not predetermined, but rather derives from the nature of a particular project that students are required to do. For example students might decide to take on a project such as publishing a school newspaper in the target language. This project would follow three stages; During the first stage, the students would work in their class, planning in collaboration with the teacher, the content and scope of the project and specific language needs they might have. They might also devise some strategies for how they will carry out the tasks, such as assigning each other specific roles to fulfill. The second stage typically takes place outside the classroom and involves the gathering of any necessary information. For example, if the students have decided to publish a school newspaper then, this stage might involve their conducting interviews, taking photographs and gathering printed or visual material. It would also include writing up their interviews and laying out and printing and distributing the first edition of their newspaper. During this stage students may well use all four skills in a natural integrated fashion. In the third and final stage students review the project. They monitor their own work and receive feedback from the teacher on their performance. At each of these three stages, the teacher will be working with the students acting as counselor and consultant, not as the project director.

Sample Lesson Plan T derse We are going to do a lesson on timetables diyerek basliyor. Tahtaya columns and rows ciziyor ve ilk columna 09:30-10:15 yaziyor. Sts. ogretmenin gunun ilk ders saatinin suresini yazdigini anliyorlar ve devamini getiriyorlar. Tnin tum columnlari doldurmasina sinifca yardim ediyorlar. T tahtaya voluntarily bir sts. cagiriyor ve o da haftanin gunlerini yaziyor. Sasirdigi yerde sinif spellinge yardim ediyor. is that correct? T asks and sts. say Yes. T sinifi beser kisilik 8 gruba boluyor. Her gruba haftanin bir gununun scheduleini iceren bir card veriyor. The students task is to complete the weeks schedule by sharing the information on their cads with each other. T moves around and listens to the sts. T also reminds them to speak in English. Bitiren grup tahtaya gelip bos scheduleI hep beraber dolduruyor. Sonra T tum gruplarim timetablelarini okumak ve daha sonra geri iade etmek uzere topluyor. Amaci contentin dogru olup olmadigina bakmak. Daha sonra stsa grup arkadaslari ile interview yapmalarini ve en sevdikleri dersi ogrenmelerini istiyor. Her gruptaki en sevilen 3 dersi bulmalari gerekiyor. Bunun icin bir questionnaire hazirlamalari ve sinifta dolasarak digger arkadaslari ile de interview yapmalari gerekiyor. Later, they have to summarize and report the results. They have to determine how to do this. They may use percentages, a bar graph, a pie chart or some other visual display. Again, much interaction takes place.

TASK-BASED INSTRUCTION
PRINCIPLES OBSERVATIONS & TECHNIQUES

The class activities have a perceived purpose and a T tells the class that they are going to complete a clear outcome. timetable. A pre-task in which students work through a similar task to one that they will later do individually, is a helpful way to have sts. see the logic involved in what they are being asked to do. It will also allow the language necessary to complete the task to come into play. T breaks down into smaller steps the logical thinking process necessary to complete the task. The demand on thinking made by the activity should be just above the level which learners can meet without help. T needs to seek ways of knowing how involved the sts. are in the process, so she can make adjustments in light of the learners perceptions of relevance and their readiness to learn. Such teacher-class negotiation ensures that as many students as possibly in a mixed ability class grasp the nature of the activity. T does not consciously simplify her language; she uses whatever language is necessary to have sts. comprehend the current step in the pre-task. Here she switched from a wh- question to a yes/no question. This switch is natural strategy that proficient speakers use when interacting with less proficient speakers inside and outside of the classroom. This jigsaw task, where sts. have to listen to different parts of a total set of information they need to complete a task, gives them plenty of opportunity to engage in authentic speaking and listening and provides opportunities to develop their comprehension and speaking skills. Sts. should receive feedback on their level of success in completing the task. The overall focus is on meaning. Sts. have input into the design and the way that they carry out the task. This gives them more opportunity for authentic and meaningful interaction. T begins by having the class help her begin to fill out a class schedule. This is done through whole-class interaction in the form of teacher question and student response.

T first has the sts. label the time periods and then the days.

T asks the sts. if a particular answer is right.

T asks What about Saturday? Do we have school on Saturday?

Sts. then, do the task in groups, following Ts instructions. They are each given part of the information they need to complete the task.

Sts.s papers were marked by the teacher on the basis of the content. Sts. are asked to design a way to survey the other sts. about their favorite subjects. They are to figure out a way to report their findings to the rest of the class.

MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
Multiple Intelligences refers to a learner-based philosophy that characterizes human intelligence as having multiple dimensions. MI is based on a work of Howard Gardner. Gardner notes that traditional IQ tests measure only logic and language, yet the brain has other equally important types of intelligence. Gardner claims that his view of intelligences is culture-free and avoids the conceptual narrowness usually associated with traditional models of intelligence (IQ). People differ in the strengths and combinations of intelligences Gardner posits eight different intelligences that can be enhanced through training and practice over a lifetime; 1. Verbal/Linguistic: The ability to use language in special and creative ways, which is something lawyers, writers, educators and interpreters are strong in. Skills include: listening, speaking, writing Activities: note-taking, story telling 2. Logical/Mathematical : The ability to use numbers effectively to see abstract patterns and to reason well, which is often found with doctors, engineers, programmers and scientists. Activities: puzzles 3. Bodily/Kinesthetic : The ability to use ones body to express oneself and to solve problems, something found in athletes and crafts persons. Skill include: dancing, physical coordination Activities: hands-on activities, field trips, pantomime 4. Musical: The ability to recognize tonal patterns and sensitivity to the rhythm, pitch melody found in strong singers and composers. Activities: singing, playing music 5. Visual/Spatial: The ability to form mental models of the world, something architects, decorators, sculptors and painters are good at. Enjoy looking at maps, charts, picture. Skills: puzzle building, reading, writing, videos 6. Interpersonal: The ability to be able to work well with people, which is strong in salespeople, politicians and teachers. Generally they try to maintain peace in group settings and encourage cooperation Skills include: listening, using empathy counseling Pair work, project work 7. Intrapersonal: The ability to understand oneself and to practice self-discipline. Activities: self evaluation, journal keeping 8. Naturalistic: The ability to understand and organize the patterns of nature.

Teachers should recognize learner differences in teaching (learning styles, preferences, intelligences) and plan their lessons accordingly. Sample Lesson Plan Step 1: Give students a riddle and ask them to solve it in pairs. I have eyes but I see nothing, I have ears but I hear nothing. I have a mouth by I cannot speak. If Im young, I stay young; if Im old, I stay old. What am I? Answer: A person in a painting or a photograph Intelligences: Interpersonal, Verbal/Linguistic Step 2: (Guided Imaginary) Tell students to close their eyes and to relax; then describe a painting to them. Ask them to imagine it. Play music while you are giving the students the description. Intelligences: Spatial/Visual Intelligence, Musical Step 3: Distribute to each person in a small group a written description of the same painting they have just heard described. Each description is incomplete, however and no two in the group are quite the same. For example, one description has certain words missing, the others have different words missing. the students work together with the other members of the group to fill in the missing words so that they all end up with a complete description of the painting. Intelligences: Interpersonal, Verbal/Linguistic Step 4: Ask students to create a tableau of painting by acting out the description. Intelligence: Bodily/Kinesthetic Step 5: Show the students the painting. Ask them to find five things about it that differ from their tableau or from how they imagined the painting to look. Intelligence: Logical/Mathematical Step 6: (Reflection) Ask students if they have learned anything new about the target language. Intelligence: Intrapersonal

LEARNING STYLES
Different people learn in different ways. Teachers should help people to find their own style. Visual learners Learn through seeing Learn best from visual displays ( OHT, DAGRAMS, VDEOS) Auditory learners Learn through listening Benefit from reading text aloud and use of CD players Kinesthetic learners Learn though, moving, doing and touching Learn best through a hands-on approach

The Lexical Approach


A lexical approach in language teaching refers to one derived from the belief that the building blocks of language learning and communication are not grammar, functions, notions, or some other unit of planning and teaching but lexis, that is, words and word combinations. The Lexical approach puts lexicon in the center of teaching and learning The role of lexical units has been stressed in both first and second language acquisition research Emphasize is on input but changes as learners language level increases. In both L1 and L2 a mature lexicon is acquired in very similar ways (1. Listening, 2. Comprehensible reading) Approach: Theory of language and learning Whereas Chomskys influential theory of language emphasized the capacity of speakers to create and interpret sentences that are unique and have never been produced or heard previously, in contrast, the lexical view holds that only a minority of spoken sentences are entirely novel creations and that multiword units functioning as chunks or memorized patterns form a high proportion of the fluent stretches of speech heard in every day conversation. The role of collocation is also important in lexically based theories of language. Collocation refers to the regular occurrence together of words. Popularized by Micahel Lewis 1993 Lewis supports Krashens Natural Approach procedures and suggests that teacher talk is a major source of learner input in demonstrating how lexical phrases are used for different functional purposes The building blocks of language are not grammar or functions but lexis (words and word combinations) Lewis(1997) on page 153 Language consists not on traditional grammar and vocabulary but often of multi word prefabricated chunks (collocations, idioms .) Only a minority of spoken sentences are entirely novel Corpus Linguistics studies focus on collocations and multiple word units. To see how a word is used. Collins Cobuild English Course attempts to realize a syllabus based on lexical principles. Collocation: regular occurrence together or words Do: my hair/ the cooking/ my work Make: my bed/ a primes/ coffee / a meal

Types of Lexical Units Clean and tidy (binomials) Cool, calm and collected (trinomials) Dead drunk, to run up a bill (idioms) As old as the hills (similes) Finally, to conclude (connectives) Conversational gambits (Guess what!)

Teaching resources to support Lexical Approaches in language teaching are of at least four types; Complete course packages ( Collins Cobuild) Collections of vocabulary teaching activities (lewis 1997) Computer corpora printouts versions of computer corpora collections package in text format. Materials are computer concordancing programs and attached data sets to allow students to set up and carry out their own analyses. These are typically packaged in CD-ROM form These activities are awareness raising; Learners must assume the role of a discourse analyst Classroom procedures involve: teaching individual collocations, raising Ss awareness, storing collocations in lexical notebooks

CONTINUING YOUR TEACHER EDUCATION


Teacher goals towards becoming a master teacher Knowledge of the theories of language teaching and learning Have analytical skills to assess teaching contexts and classroom conditions Awareness of, and ability and confidence to use alternative teaching techniques ( showing what you have learned) Informed knowledge of yourself and your students ( knowing your strength and weaknesses , knowing which areas you know)(what are the ss goals, do the students get support from their parents, kimlik problemi, Kabul edilmemesi snfta grencinin). Interpersonal communication skills (being able to openly communicate with the students) Be flexible, open to change and criticism Becoming a Teacher No one can become a master teacher over night, be patient. Try not. Do. Or do not. (bahane bulmakla ilgili hayatta, grencilerin motivasyonsuzluu filan, deniyorum ama olmuyor, vaktim yok) Theres no try. What ts consider for each lesson Classroom management (seat order, strategy) Goals (what is my goals, ask before the lesson starts, which goal will be most effective) Using appropriate teaching techniques (how am I going to teach something, ) Lesson delivery Body language Feedback Individual attention (mixed ability groups: Am I going to show all my attention to the weaker students?) Motivating students (how are you going to motivate the students)

Mid lesson alterations (immediate decision change while having the lesson, according to the classroom situation) Define a Self Actualizing Teacher To face your weaknesses in terms of teaching Putting a target of improving himself Learning new things Peak performer teachers Set realistic goals Set priorities Take risks Manage stress (you have to face to a class full of students, you are trying to manage the situation. Am I teaching right, reading papers, managing the classroom, planning lessons) Qualities of a good language teacher: see list on p.429 Good language teaching characteristics: see table 202 Similarities and differences between methods and choosing among them Differences between methods: complementary and contradictory Complementary: Views of learner (cognitive, social, affective being) Views of teachers ( model, linguist, counselor, facilitator etc) Contradictory: Use of L1while learning L2 Which method is best? Absolutism: One method is best, Relativism: They argue that there can be no right method for everyone. They point out that some methods are more suitable for older learners; others for younger or that some might be more appropriate for beginning level language study. They believe that each method has its strengths and weaknesses. Pluralism: They believe that different methods, or parts of methods, should be practiced in the same context. There is some value in each method, different methods and different techniques should be practiced in the same context.

Eclectic Practice: When teachers who subscribe to the pluralistic view of methods pick and choose from among methods to create their own blend. Her methodun iyi bir taraf vardr be btn methodlardan iyisini seer uygularm . Principled Eclecticism: They are creating their own method by blending aspects of others in a principled manner. Teachers who practice principled eclecticism should be able to give a reason for why they do what they do. Bir approach setim, iindeki methodlarn ve snfta uygulad techniklerin bir bir leriyle tutarl olmas gerekiyor. Mesela; bena en yakn gelen approach communicative olmas ama snfta grammar translation yaptrmas tutarsz olur.