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# IEEE Standard 1459-2010 Single Phase Power Definitions

## Electrical Engineering Department

Outline
1. 2. 3. 4. Single Phase Power Definitions Under Sinusoidal Conditions Single Phase Power Definitions Under Nonsinusoidal Conditions Numerical Study References

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## 1. Single Phase Power Definitions Under Sinusoidal Conditions

The well-known and universally accepted concept. Let the voltage and current:
= 2 sin and = 2 sin (1)

The instantaneous power , consists of instantaneous active power and instantaneous reactive power.
= = + (2)

= 1 2

= 1 2

(3)

Instantaneous active power is the rate of unidirectional flow of the energy from the source to the load. Its steady state rate of flow is not negative. Consists of active and intrinsic power 2 . Intrinsic power is always present . This oscillating component does not cause power loss. Active power ;
1 =
+

1 =

= cos

(4)
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Instantaneous reactive power oscillates between the source and load where the net transfer of energy to the load is nil. These power oscillations cause power loss in the conductors.
= 2 = 2 (5)

## SINGLE PHASE POWER DEFINITIONS UNDER SINUSOIDAL CONDITIONS

Reactive power Q ; due to the phase shift between voltage and current
= (6)

The apparent power S ; is the product of the rms voltage and the rms current. Maximum active power that can be transmitted through the same line while keeping load rms voltage and rms current are constant.
= = 2 + 2 (7)

Power factor:

the ratio between the energy transmitted to the load over the max. energy that could be transmitted provided the line losses are kept same
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## 2. Single Phase Power Definitions Under Nonsinusoidal Conditions

Let the voltage and current: the power system frequency components 1 , 1 and the remaining terms; harmonic components and .
= 1 + and = 1 +

(8)

where
1 = 21 sin 1 1 = 21 sin 1 = 0 + 2
1

sin sin
1

= 0 + 2

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## SINGLE PHASE POWER DEFINITIONS UNDER SINUSOIDAL CONDITIONS

Voltage and current is divided into two components, fundamental and harmonic parts. rms values are calculated.
1 2 =
+ 2 2 = 12 + + 2 2 2 = 1 +

(13)

1 2 =

(14)

where

2 = 02 + 1 2 2 = 0 + 1

2 = 2 12
2 2 = 2 1

(15)

(16)

= = 1 = = 1 1 1
2

1
2

(17)

(18)

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Active power ;

1 =

= 1 +

## (19) (20) (21)

1 = 1 1 cos 1 = 1 =
1

cos

Only fundamental reactive power definition is given and no explanation is made. Distortion powers for individually voltage, current and harmonics are defined by using THD. But there is not any physical interpretation and also a definition for total distortion power. Reactive power is related to energy oscillations. Distortion powers are related to waveform distortions.

## Fundamental reactive power:

1 = 1 1 sin 1 (22)

11 = 1 1 =
2 2 11 + 11

(23)

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= 1 = 1 (24)

= 1 = 1 (25)

= = 1 (26)

=
2 2

(27)

## Finally, apparent power becomes as;

2 =
2 2 2 2 = 1 + 2 + +

(28)

## Nonfundamental apparent power:

2 2 2 2 = 2 1 = 2 + +

(29)

Nonactive power:

2 2

(30)
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## IEEES POWER DECOMPOSITION

Fundamental Power Factor (Displacement Power Factor): 1 1 = 1 Power Factor : Line utilization
=

(31)

(32)

max. utilization of the line is obtained when = Harmonic Pollution : Harmonic injection produced by consumer
= 1 (33)

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3. Numerical Study
v t 2V1 sin t 1 2V3 sin 3t 3 2V5 sin 5t 5 2V7 sin 7t 7 i t 2I1 sin t 1 2I 3 sin 3t 3 2I 5 sin 5t 5 2 I 7 sin 7t 7
(34)

Table 1. RMS Values and Phase Angles 100 100 1 1 8 20 3 3 15 15 5 5 5 10 7 7 101.56 103.56 17.72 26.926 0 30 1 1 70 165 3 3 -141 -234 5 5 -142 -234 7 7

Table 2. IEEEs Power Definitions 10517.55 10000 11 477.13 3256.88 8632.54 8660 11 -27.46 5000 11 2692.58 1772 476.34 6008.17 0.177 0.269 0.866 1 0.821 0.3257

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6. References

1.

IEEE Standard Definitions for the Measurement of Electric Power Quantities Under Sinusoidal, Nonsinusoidal, Balanced, or Unbalanced Conditions, IEEE Std. 14592010, Feb. 2010. E. Emanuel, Power Definitions and the Physical Mechanism of Power Flow, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., UK, 2010

2.

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