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University of Technology, Jamaica

Faculty of Engineering

Material Science Lab 1


Lab # 4: Tensile Testing Name: Ovrian Campbell Id No. 0905141 Lab session: Friday 8-11 pm Lab Tutor: Mr. Lindsay October 19, 2012

Abstract The aim of the experiment was to carry out a uniaxial tensile test on a material to determine its mechanical properties (yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, % elongation, ductility, modulus of elasticity). The tensile test was carried out using the dension testing machine where force was applied at both end of the material to determine the specifications of the Material. The engineering strain calculated for the specimen after testing was 0.033 and the calculated stress was 110.3 MPa.

Table of Content

Nomenclature.4 Objective.5 Introduction/Theory..5 Apparatus...7 Procedure...8 Results.....9 Discussion..11 Conclusion and recommendation.12 References..12

Nomenclature Tensile Strength - A material's ability to resist forces that attempt to pull it apart or stretch it Tensile Stress - A force that attempts to pull apart or stretch a material E n G modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus) Poisson's ratio modulus of rigidity (shear modulus

Aim/Objective: To carry out a uniaxial tensile test on a material to determine its mechanical properties (yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, % elongation, ductility, modulus of elasticity)

Introduction/Theory Tensile testing, also known as tension testing is a fundamental materials science test in which a sample is subjected to uniaxial tension until failure. The results from the test are commonly used to select a material for an application, for quality control, and to predict how a material will react under other types of forces. Properties that are directly measured via a tensile test are ultimate tensile strength, maximum elongation and reduction in area. From these measurements the following properties can also be determined: Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, yield strength, and strain-hardening characteristics Stress Strain curve

Elastic Region In the context of material behavior, a structural component is said to behave elastically if during loading/unloading the deformation is reversible. In other words, when the loads are released the specimen will return to its original, undeformed configuration. 5

Plastic Region An area of the stress-strain graph in which permanent changes to a metal begin to occur. True elastic limit is a very low value and is related to the motion of a few hundred dislocations. Micro strain measurements are required to detect strain on order of 2 x 10 -6 in/in. Proportional limit is the highest stress at which stress is directly proportional to strain. It is obtained by observing the deviation from the straight-line portion of the stress-strain curve. Elastic limit is the greatest stress the material can withstand without any measurable permanent strain remaining on the complete release of load. It is determined using a tedious incremental loading-unloading test procedure. With the sensitivity of strain measurements usually employed in engineering studies (10 -4in/in), the elastic limit is greater than the proportional limit. With increasing sensitivity of strain measurement, the value of the elastic limit decreases until it eventually equals the true elastic limit determined from micro strain measurements. Yield strength is the stress required to produce a small-specified amount of plastic deformation. The yield strength obtained by an offset method is commonly used for engineering purposes because it avoids the practical difficulties of measuring the elastic limit or proportional limit. Ultimate Tensile Strength The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) or, more simply, the tensile strength, is the maximum engineering stress level reached in a tension test. The strength of a material is its ability to withstand external forces without breaking. In brittle materials, the UTS will at the end of the linear-elastic portion of the stress-strain curve or close to the elastic limit. In ductile materials, the UTS will be well outside of the elastic portion into the plastic portion of the stress-strain curve. The ductility of a material is a measure of the extent to which a material will deform before fracture. The amount of ductility is an important factor when considering forming operations such as rolling and extrusion. It also provides an indication of how visible overload damage to a component might become before the component fractures. Ductility is also used a quality control measure to assess the level of impurities and proper processing of a material.

Yield Strength is the point on the stress-strain curve where there is a sudden increase in strain, but no increase in stress. It is at this point that a metal is about to permanently deform.

Apparatus Test Specimen Dension testing machine Extensometer Vernier caliper A pair of divider

Procedure Students got familiar with the operation of the testing machine. The gauge length and the diameter of the specimen were measured. The extensometer was used to place gauge marks on the specimen. Testing parameters were imputed. Specimen was mounted in the draw of the machine. The extensometer was attached and the load on it was zeroed. Machine drive keyboard was pressed to begin tensile testing. A graph was simultaneously drawn ass the testing proceeds. The extensometer was removed before the elastic limit was exceeded. Measurements were taken. Specimen was strain until fracture. The specimen was observed.

Results
Diagram 1 showing specimen after testing

Table 1and 2 showing values of stress and strain values for aluminum and mild steel respectively Table 1 Table 2
Aluminum stress (N/mm^2) 27779603 79866310 1.18E+08 1.37E+08 1.41E+08 1.46E+08 1.48E+08 1.5E+08 1.53E+08 1.53E+08 1.5E+08 1.39E+08 1.23E+08 1.13E+08 1.02E+08 81023682 18517953 32408964 39353196 48612172 48612172 Mild Steel strain 0.0125 0.0250 0.0350 0.0500 0.0625 0.0750 0.0875 0.1000 0.1125 0.1250 0.1375 0.1500 0.1700 0.1800 0.1900 0.2075 0.2300 0.2475 0.2575 0.2700 0.2775 stress (N/mm^2) strain 80213903.74 0.0264 249554367.2 0.0528 319073083.8 0.0647 319073083.8 0.0792 319073083.8 0.1000 374331550.8 0.1264 401069518.7 0.1528 418894830.7 0.1792 427807486.6 0.2198 436720142.6 0.2462 441176470.6 0.2726 447415329.8 0.3264 454545454.5 0.3528 454545454.5 0.3792 454545454.5 0.4064 454545454.5 0.4128 454545454.5 0.4792 436720142.6 0.5264 409982174.7 0.5528 383244206.8 0.5792 294117647.1 0.6198 170613700 0.6462 106951871.7 0.6660

Graph plot of Engineering Stress, (N/m^2) against Engineering Strain (Aluminium)


200000000

Engineering Stress

150000000

100000000

50000000 0 y = 3,227,951,390.1284x 0 0.05

-0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

-50000000

Engineering Strain

Graph plot of Engineering Stress, N(mm^2) against Engineering Strain (Mild Steel)
500000000 400000000

Engineering Stress

300000000 200000000 100000000 0 y = 4,685,752,182.3712x

-0.1 -1E+08

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

Engineering Strain

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Discussion The aim of the experiment was to carry out a uniaxial tensile test on a material to determine its mechanical properties (yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, % elongation, ductility, modulus of elasticity). The tensile test was carried out using the dension testing machine Before the test a gage marks was placed on the specimen the initial gage length and diameter was measured. A load scale to deform and fracture the specimen was selected. During the test he load was measured and test was conducted until fracture. A tensile test, also known as a tension test, tests a material's strength. It's a mechanical test where a pulling force is applied to a material from both sides until the sample changes its shape or breaks. It's is a common and important test that provides a variety of information about the material being tested, including the elongation, yield point, tensile strength, and ultimate strength of the material. A tensile test in this experiment was performed on a metal. The tensile strength of a sample of material describes how it reacts when tension is applied to it. By measuring the changes in the material as tension is applied, engineers can determine a variety of things about the material, which is helpful in determining whether the material is a suitable choice for the application they have in mind. In addition to whether a material changes in shape, a tensile test will also show a material's ultimate strength. The ultimate strength refers to the maximum tensile load that the material can stand. A tension test also uncovers the material's yield point which is the amount of tension that causes the sample to break or fail. Tensile testing is vitally important in a number of industries, including mechanical engineering, structural engineering and architecture. During the planning stage of a building project, for example, these professionals normally calculate the stresses to which a building might be subjected. To ensure a stable construction, it is then necessary to select appropriate building materials, which will be able to withstand those stresses without breaking. The engineering strain calculated for the specimen after testing was 0.033. The type of experiment done does not support the constructions of a graph could not be constructed and completion of additional calculation was not possible therefore the objective of the experiment was no met the calculated stress was 110.3 MPa.

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Conclusion and Recommendation In concluding the tensile test was carried out using the dension testing machine. The engineering strain calculated for the specimen after testing was 0.033 and the calculated strain was 110.3 MPa. It is recommended that when conducting a tensile test one should get all parameters possible to calculate the characters of the specimen. Tesile testing in summary can be used to test specification of materials for the it to be used for suitable applications.

Reference Czichos, Horst (2006). Springer Handbook of Materials Measurement Methods. Berlin: Springer. pp. 303304. ISBN 978-3-540-20785-6. John, Vernon, Introduction to Engineering materials, 4th ed., Palgrave Macmillan 2003

John, Vernon. Introduction to Engineering Materials, 3rd ed.(?) New York: Industrial Press, 1992. ISBN 0-8311-3043-1.

Van Vlack, L. H., Elements of Materials Science and Engineering, Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., (Mass:1994)

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Sample Calculations Details Gauge length, l0 Final length, l Initial cross-sectional area, A0 Final cross-sectional area, A Breaking force, L Youngs Modulus Reduction in Area Elongation ALUMINUM SPECIMEN 50.00 mm 56.00 mm 78.54 mm2 19.63 mm2 SI UNITS 0.050 m 0.056 m 0.00007854 m2 0.00001963 11.92 kN 38.5 kN/mm2 75 % 12 %

Aluminum Specimen The engineering stress at maximum load is: n = L / A0 Where A0: initial area n = 11920 N/0.00007854 m2 n = 151769799 Pa The engineering strain at fracture point is: n = (l l0)/ l0 Where l: current length l0: initial length n = (0.056 0.05)/ 0.05 n = 0.12 The Youngs Modulus, En En = n/( n) = Gradient from graph 1.0 (elastic region) = En = 3228 N/mm2 En = 3.288 GPa The percentage elongation, % EL; % Elongation = [(l l0)/ l0] 100 % EL = [(0.056 0.05)/ 0.05] 100 % EL = 12 % The Percentage Reduction in Area, %RA % RA = [(A0 A)/ A0] 100 % RA = [(0.00007854 0.00001963)/ 0.00007854] 100 % RA = 75.006 % Mild Steel Specimen The nominal (engineering) stress at maximum load is: n = L / A0 13

Where A0: initial area n = 32680 N/0.00007854 m2 n = 416093710.21 Pa The engineering strain at fracture point is: n = (l l0)/ l0 Where l: current length l0: initial length n = (0.0684 0.05)/ 0.05 n = 0.368 The Youngs Modulus, En En = n/( n) =Gradient from Graph 1.1 (elastic region) = En = 4685.8 N/mm2 En = 4.686 GPa The percentage elongation, % EL; % Elongation = [(l l0)/ l0] 100 % EL = [(0.0684 0.05)/ 0.05] 100 % EL = 36 % The Percentage Reduction in Area, %RA % RA = [(A0 A)/ A0] 100 % RA = [(0.00007854 0.00002678)/ 0.00007854] 100 % RA = 65.902 %

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