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# I.

Chapter 9 a. Pressure i. P=pgh ii. P in Pascals!! 1atm= 760 torr= 1.01325*10^5 Pa b. Absolute Zero= 0K=theoretical lowest temp c. Avogadros # i. 6.022*10^23 d. Different values of R i. 0.08206 Latm/molK ii. 8.314 J/molK e. Standard Temp and Press (STP) i. T=273 K and P=1 atm f. Mole Fraction formula i. P(a)/P(tot)= n(a)/n(tot)= x g. Boyles Law i. Manometer= J tube 1. Height H measures difference in pressure between 2 ends of manometer. Since two ends are 0 and Patm, height H measures atmospheric pressure ii. Graphs iii. Units of PV dont matter h. T formula i. Daltons Law i. Total pressure of gas is sum of pressures ii. Ptot=P1+P2+ iii. P(total)V=n(tot)RT iv. Example 9.6 in book j. Kinetic Theory of Gases: i. Pure gas consists of large number identical molecules sep by distances large compared to their size ii. Gas molecules constantly moving in random directions with a distribution of speeds iii. Molecules exert no force on e/o between collisions, so b/w move in straight lines with CV iv. Collisions of molecules with walls of the container are elastic k. E= (3/2)K(b)T l. Ideal gas Law i. PV=nRT ii. high Temp, low Press iii. neglects interaction between molecules and neglects volume occupied by gas m. Van der Waals equation of State

II.

i. For real gases: modifies ideal gas law, taking into account nonzero size of molecules and attractions bw them ii. Takes into account intermolecular forces and volume occupied by molecules of a gas iii. Above critical temperature, van der Waals eqn is improvement of ideal gas law, iv. When density is low, van der waals reduces to ideal gas law v. P=nRT/(V-nb) av^2/n^2 vi. A and b are constants particular to a given gas vii. n. Maxwell-Boltzmann Speed Distribution i. Probability of an atom/molecule having speeds bw u and d+u ii. Gives distribution of speeds for a gas at a certain temperature T 1. from this distribution the most probably speed, the average speed, and the rms speed can be derived! iii. Applies to ideal gases and forms the basis of the Kinetic Theory of Gases iv. The distibution attained when molecule speed is set against the number of molecules sharing that speed v. Temperature is proportional to average kinetic energy vi. Equation o. Effusion p. Mean Free Path i. The mean distance a molecule travels before it impacts another molecule; given the huge number of collisions in a gas, the mean free path is vastly smaller than any typical room or container ii. Factors affecting Mean Free Path 1. Density: as density increases, molecules are closer together so mean free path decreases 2. radius of molecule: increasing radius causes decrease in mean free path 3. P, T, and other factors that affect density can affect mean free path iii. Equation Chapter 10: Solids, Liquids, and Phase Transitions a. Bulk Properties of Gases, Liquids, and solids: molecular interpretation b. Intermolecular forces: origins in molecular structure i. Intermolecular forces generally weaker than covalent chemical bonds, also less directional and operate at longer range 1. Ion-Ion a. Between charged particles, can be as strong as those in the covalent bond, and are long ranged. V is proportional to 1/R and decreases much less rapidly with distance than do the strengths of other types of interactions b. Not directionaleach ion interacts equally strongly with neighboring ions on all sides.

c. Lead to the formation of ionic bonds through the Coloumb stabilization energy d. Bond bw oppositely charged particlescrystalline structure 2. Dipole-Dipole Forces a. Dominate force between polar molecules b. Depend on orientations of two molecules and can either be attractive, repulsive, or zero c. Potential decreases by distance R as R^-3, much more rapidly than ion-ion d. In liquids, thermal energy can overcome dipole-dipole interactions and disrupt favorable orientations. Dipole-dipole interactions are too weak to hold molecules in a liquid together in a nearly rigid arrangement. Nonetheless, they are sufficiently strong to influence many physical properties, including boiling point, melting point, and molecular orientations in solids 3. Ion-Dipole Forces a. Ion and polar molecule b. Ie Water and dissolved ion 4. Charge-Induced Dipole Forces: polarizability a. Symmetric Electron distribution in a nonpolar molecule is distorted by approaching ion b. Interactions are weak and effective only at a short range c. As an ion approaches an atom or molecule, its electrostatic field distorts the distribution of the outer electrons. The effect of this distortion is to create a dipole moment that exerts an attractive force back on the ion. 5. Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole Forces= London Dispersion a. Attractions bw neutral, nonpolar molecules or atoms (van der Waals Forces) that exist bw ALL MOLECULES/ATOMS! b. Always attractive and fall off as R^-6; more short-ranged than dipole-dipole c. Heavier atoms or molecules interact more strongly by dispersion forces than do lighter ones. This is due to the increased polarizability of molecules with larger, more dispersed electron clouds. d. Without London forces, noble gases wouldnt exist in liquid form! There would be no attraction between neutral atoms! e. A weak attractive force between atoms or nonpolar molecules caused by a temporary change in dipole moment arising from a brief shift of orbital electrons to one side of one atom or molecule, creating a similar shift in adjacent atoms or molecules c. Intermolecular forces in liquids

d. e.

f. g. h.

i. Strong intermolecular forces= higher boiling points ii. Within a series of related compounds, iii. Higher molar mass= higher boiling point (trend arises from increased polarizability) iv. Density of water: max when stage of solid/liquid; density abruptly decreases once freezes Phase Equilibrium Phase Diagrams 1. Triple point: all three phases in equilibrium 2. Critical point: substance beyond CP is called a SUPERCRITICAL FLUID b/c term fluid includes both gas and liquids a. Phase boundary terminates; properties of gas and liquid converges to create supercritical fluid Gibbs Free Energy G= H TS i. Entropy change large and positive from liquid to gas Bonding i. (H20)2= Hydrogen bond