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UNIVERSITYOFLANCASTER

SUPERPOWER

INTERVENTION

AN

ANALYSIS

BEHAVIOUR

IN

OF

UNITED

AREAS

OF

STATES

DISPUTED

IN

CLIENT-STATE

WARS:

AND

SOVIET

OR UNCERTAIN

INTERVENTIONARY

INTEREST

SYMMETRY

Submitted

Department

of

Mohamed

M.

for

the

Politics,

degree

of

University

El-Doufani,

Doctor

of

of

B.

A.

Philosophy

Lancaster.

(Ph.

January

D. ),

1988.

ABSTRACT

This

intervention

wars

which

thesis

by

occur

the

in

examines

U. S.

and

locales

the

the

where

relationship

in

balance

U. S. S. R.

the

between

client-state

of

Soviet-

American

superpower

In

interests

the

security

first

in

is

part

either

the

of

era

the

disputed

of

stable

study,

a

or

uncertain,

nuclear

deterrence.

and

model

of

superpower

intervention

model

relationship

consists

in

client-state

four

of

between

wars

propositions

intervention,

is

established.

which

deal

political

with

The

the

and/or

territorial

change,

and

superpower

security;

the

occurrence

of

where

the

phenomena

reciprocal

of

non-

and

intervention

course

by

resolve

which

of

action;

the

regional

and

United

disputes

the

States

notion

and

peacefully.

asymmetrical

offers

the

of

crisis

the

Soviet

interventions

more

rational

as

a

mechanism

Union

could

The

second

part

of

the

work

is

an

empirical

analysis

of

the

Three

superpower

order

intervention

conflicts,

crisis

The

Arab-Israeli

intervention

of

U.

in

double,

the

first

model

case

to

of

studies

expounded

grey

which

the

part.

asymmetrical,

in

factors

S.

and

the

and

unilateral

Interventions

the

the

to

of

in

of

employed

levels

area

wars

are

determine

S.

R.

the

explain

by

U. S.

in

most

client-state

under

the

and

manipulation

examine

is

circumstances

when

which

it

is

war

of

used,

of

and

effective.

Korean

the

1950-1953,

war

at

of

the

1977-

studies

war

is,

case

are

1973,

Ethio-Somali

took

and

1978,

that

different

conflicts

which

place

stages

in

The

chapter.

the

third

intervention,

against

the

development

of

United

part

This

of

the

reviews

study

the

States-Soviet

consists

of

relationship

the

superpower

background

of

security,

the

empirical

and

peaceful

analysis.

relations.

concluding

between

change

,

CONTENTS

Chapter

1:

Introduction

An

Overview

of

the

Study

PART I

THEORETICAL

Chapter

Chapter

Chapter

2:

3:

4:

CONSIDERATIONS

Crisis,

The

Intervention,

and

Context

of

Intervention

Intervention

and

Superpower

Peaceful

Security

PART II

EMPIRICAL

SECTION

A:

Chapter

5:

Chapter

6:

Chapter

7:

ANALYSIS

ASSYMETRICAL INTERVENTION:

THE

KOREAN

The

Balance

The

Balance

The

Crisis

WAR

1950

-

of

Interests

of

Responses

Situation

1953

SECTION

B:

Chapter

8:

Chapter

9:

Chapter

SECTION

10:

C:

Chapter

11:

Chapter

12:

Chapter

13:

DOUBLE INTERVENTION

THE ARAB-ISRAELI

WAR 1973

The

Balance

The

Balance

The

Crisis

of

Interests

Responses

of

Situation

UNILATERAL

INTERVENTION

THE ETHIOPIAN-SOMALI

WAR 1977-1978

The

The

The

Balance

Balance

Crisis

of

of

Interests

Responses

Situation

Situation

Change

1

27

48

85

124

158

197

230

265

307

336

394

422

PART

III

Chapter

14:

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Conclusion

439

CHAPTER

1:

INTRODUCTION

An

Overview

of

the

Study

The

ubiquity

The

international

perhaps

competitive

B. C.,

around

the

the

of

intervention

recurrence

of

an

politics

inevitable

international

polarization

in

international

intervention

indicates

that

it

in

is

politics

the

history

a

principal,

instrument

of

system.

relations

of

manipulation

In

the

among

the

fifth

Greek

in

of

and

any

century

states

affairs

of

Athens

and

Sparta

led

to

a

substantial

growth

the

Greek

death

what

in

intervention

lesser

political

struggle

began

Greek

states.

system

between

as

alliance

by

the

major

Thus,

the

powers

in

the

bipolarization

which

Athens

accompanied

and

Sparta

relationships

the

rapidly

linking

long

affairs

of

life-and-

of

the

transformed

the

smaller

states

to

intervention

its

power,

dominance

intervene

in

the

on

two

the

imperial

in

the

great

powers

into

part

of

Rome

the

latter.

enjoyed

coercive

a

1

At

the

position

international

system

that

the

affairs

of

most

of

the

lesser

patterns

of

zenith

of

of

it

actors

such

could

in

the

system

almost

at

will.

In

The

16th

and

17th

centuries,

the

European

system,

which

encompassed

states,

nation-states,

city-states,

ubiquitous.

religious

strife

the.

transition

empires,

During

and

to

dominant

Likewise,

characteristic

the

Napoleonic

and

the

church,

the

this

period,

extensive

intervention

was

the

disorder

combination

associated

also

of

with

a

state

and

of

system

made

international

post-Napoleonic

intervention

eras

politics.

in

Europe

a

1

were

incessant

typified

by

ideological

high

levels

attraction

of

of

intervention.

the

French

combined

generate

a

with

state

the

of

immense

turmoil

and

counter-intervention

power

of

in

Europe

Napoleonic

in

which

became

virtually

response

situation

to

this

turmoil

in

the

in

which

"conservative"

post-Napoleonic

interventions

a

Revolution

France

intervention

norm.

The

to

The

era

led

became

to

the

a

order

of

regarding

legitimate

the

the

and

day.

Hence,

one

conditions

the

modes

under

which

it

of

which

should

the

great

intervention

take

took

debates

is

place

during

by

the

following

the

post-Napoleonic

growing

the

divergence

Congress

of

era.

between

Vienna.

This

debate

Castlereagh

2

was

and

epitomised

Metternich

The

occurrence

international

in

and

have

previous

capabilities

either

system

periods.

used

order

domestic

to

affect

political

the

has

of

been

Since

intervention

more

1945,

or

less

states

in

the

postwar

as

widespread

as

of

various

sizes

and

in

almost

every

corner

of

or

threatened

internal

structures

to

use

military

or

external

policies,

of

other

states.

the

force

or

world

in

the

By

far

the

largest

number

of

interventions

has

been

by

the

and

four

the

great

Soviet

powers:

Union.

Britain,

France,

Between

them,

the

United

these

States,

countries

account

for

at

least

40

numerous

other

independent

Soviet

Union,

states

for

indirect

during

example,

direct

military

interventions

interventions

in

the

affairs

the

directly

period

1946-1980.3

intervened

militarily

and

of

The

on

at

the

or

least

four

seven

occasions

interventions

during

aimed

consolidating

sympathetic

at

this

either

period.

quelling

communist

party

These

include

discontent

factions

in

2

Eastern

of

1979-

Attrition"

Europe,

The

4

of

and

the

1968-1970,

United

ones

in

and

the

the

States,

for

intervened

1946.

militarily

Amongst

these

the

Korean

War,

Vietnamese

War,

and

in

have

not

been

less

than

North

North

Lebanon

and

South

during

the

Egyptian-Israeli

Afghan

its

10

civil

part,

countries

and

South

Vietnam

Korea

during

civil

wars

war

"War

of

directly

of

since

during

the

1958

and

1975-

France

intervened

most

of

instance,

Chad

in

which

in

were

counter-insurgency

Morocco

in

1956,

in

1968,1978,1985,

and

1987.

on

at

least

actions

Cameroon

in

12

in

occasions,

Africa,

1960,

and

The

largest

number

for

in

of

direct

during

than

were

13

a

military

the

period

times.

legacy

of

interventions

has

under

consideration

been

by

'Britain,

intervened

no

which

fewer

Like

an

France,

imperial

many

of

these

past

and

amounted

interventions

to

either

counter-insurgency

and

newly

military

1958,

or

other

independent

mutinies

actions,

measures

state,

in

Kenya,

as

in

Muscat

and

Oman

to

such

protect

as

the

Tanganyika,

the

attempts

and

government

to

Uganda

in

1957

of

a

suppress

in

1964.

The

amongst

use

the

of

intervention

developing

countries.

has

also

Egypt

been

and

widespread

Saudi

Arabia

directly

war

support

War

during

of

of

indirectly

intervened

1963-1968.

the

Federal

1967-1970.

at

different

on

opposite

sides

in

the

Yemeni

Egypt

also

intervened

directly

Government

during

Algeria

intervened

the

Nigerian

both

directly

times

during

Morocco's

war

with

civil

in

Civil

and

the

POLISARIO

intervened

directly

guerillas

indirectly

on

the

side

over

in

of

the

Western

Desert.

the

Morocca-POLISARIO

President

Idi

Amin

in

Libya

conflict,

the

also

and

Ugandan

3

civil

war

1981,1983,

of

1978-1979,

and

1986-1987.

and

in

the

Cuba

Chad

civil

intervened

the

before

side

support

intervened

against

rebels.

of

the

of

the

the

Eritreans

downfall

of

against

Haile

the

Selassie,

Ethiopian

and

the

directly

regime

in

after

support

South

African-backed

the

of

Revolution.

the

U. N.

I.

Angolan

T.

A.

In

Central

America,

the

Cubans

war

in

indirectly

1980-

on

government

directly

Cuba

in

also

government

and

F.

continue

N.

L.

A.

to

intervene

U.

S.

the

-

and

side

government.

intervene

on

behalf

of

Honduran-backed

of

in

the

the

In

guerillas

south

domestic

the

Nicaraguan

CONTRA

rebels,

east

against

Asia,

affairs

of

government

against

and,

the

allegedly,

El

Salvadorian

Vietnam

Kampuchea

continues

and

Laos.

on

to

intra-

Although

and

clearly

inter-state

a

time-honoured

conflicts

and

means

other

of

manipulating

interactions,

intervention

significance

has

during

acquired

the

an

postwar

added

political

period,

which

and

places

strategic

it

in

a

qualitatively

different

category

from

the

interventions

of

earlier

times.

to

of

the

three

World

United

systemic

War

II.

States

nuclear

capability,

This

added

changes

The

first

and

the

as

well

significance

which

have

has

occurred

of

Soviety

these

was

Union

the

of

as

conventional

been

since

mainly

the

acquisition

an

invulnerable

due

end

by

military

forces

capable

systemic

of

reaching

development

international

North

America,

system

and

most

parts

consisted

as

the

whole

of

of

the

the

world

globe.

The

enlargement

and

not

just

the

Soviet

Union

became

involved

second

of

the

Europe,

in

the

system.

Together,

new

phenomenon,

bipolarization

of

these

two

which

the

might

world.

developments

be

This

termed

occurred

the

led.

as

to

a

third

"involuntary"

each

of

the

4

superpowers

what

it

began

regarded

as

to

its

define

own

the

of

subjective

the

major

inclinations

consequences

the

geographical

security

of

the

sphere,

states

components

irrespective

involved.

5

of

these

developments

was

for

the

United

States

and

the

Soviet

Union,

of

of

One

that,

Security

considerations

and

security

motivations

became

Whatever

in

(or

strengthening

[

for

all-encompassing.

suspected

of

contributed

the

to

of

contributing)

the

anywhere

world

or

considered

other

6

up

one

power

own

was

immediate

therefore

[its]

[

oppose

]

it

influence.

to

the

of

who

security

concern

in

to

try

would

increase

make

or

by

power

was

as

],

it

Postwar

international

relations,

in

other

words,

became

very

much

akin

to

a

superpowers

or,

at

positions.

of

the

significance

two.

"7

least,

being

in

"An

other,

in

zero-sum

game,

with

each

engaged

in

a

a

competition

action

by

one

struggle

to

maintain

for

directly

affects

global

their

all

that

international

they

affect

changes

the

balance

are

on

The

impact

intervention

acquisition

global

by

interests

security

area

of

the

has

three

postwar

been

manifold.

the

United

States

and

to

and

the

include

consequent

virtually

systemic

To

the

begin

Soviet

widening

the

whole

of

the

two

dominance

the

relative

position

of

vital

between

developments

with,

Union

the

the

of

of

their

world

has

vastly'

conflicts,

likely

increased

to

that

become

the

is,

number

conflicts

involved.

of

potentially

in

which

This,

in

interventionary

the

turn,

superpowers

has

had

are

an

effect

targets

on

of

both

the

intervention.

interveners

concerned,

lays

the

superpower

stakes

in

transformation.

intervention,

their

As

one

original

writer

As

and

far

the

as

whether

dispute

pointed

intervened

the

latter

or

the

are

desired

open

out,

to

the

a

or

not,

complete

U. S.

and

S

the

U. S. S. R.

each

retain

international

option

confrontation.

to

imply

large

reciprocal

the

are

compromise,

original

drawn

not

likely

For

the

the

power

crisis.

to

convert

the

At

a

maximum

terms

they

of

hold

any

the

issue

to

raise

risks

almost

any

a

superpower

either

Any

of

by

other,

such

drawing

escalation

be

of

8

a

in

to

would

the

of

the

alter

and

the

the

effect

would

profoundly.

follows

goals

stakes

superpowers

issue

Once

imperative

to

actors

are

in,

there

natural

the

the

and

original

to

be

achieved.

United

States

and

the

Soviet

Union,

the

eruption

often

of

carries

conflict

the

danger

in

strategically

of

a

possible

war

by

because

these

conflict.

of

the

superpowers

ever-present

on

behalf

Consequently,

such

possibility

of

their

conflicts,

important

escalation

of

regions

to

nuclear

intervention

proteges

more

often

in

the

than

not,

tend

to

create

an

aura

of

crisis

involving

not

only

the

U.

S.

and

the

U.

S.

S.

R.,

but

also

each

of

these

countries

and

its

warring

client(s)

in

the

region

concerned.

Intervention

Although

and

the

crisis

manipulation

existence

of

client-state

crises

undesirable,

United

involving

States

it

the

superpowers

is

presents

and/or

the

welcome

Soviet

Union

generally

opportunities

on

the

war

one

stimulated

considered

for

hand,

the

and

their

preserve

"

to

[i]f

move

protagonist

the

status

client(s)

quo.

you

the

act

world

creatively

towards

the

on

the

other,

As

you

Kissinger

should

be

structural

to

once

able

solutions

challenge

pointed

to

use

that

or

out,

crises

are

necessary

'

For

provides

through

"9

a

superpower,

the

existence

of

it

the

with

the

opportunity

manipulation

of

the

to

risk

settle

of

this

type

without

war,

those

of

crisis

violence,

of

its

6

disputes

severe

not

to

with

be

amenable

ascertainment

Furthermore,

the

nature

because

of

clients

the

other

superpower

that

resolved

by

ordinary

to

diplomatic

of

a

regional

it

enables

it

to

diplomacy

settlement,

balance

affect

important

are

or

such

of

its

relationship

tend

to

be

more

with

in

its

need

client.

of,

and

either

too

are

simply

as

the

interests.

changes

This

in

is

therefore

vulnerable

to

pressure

from,

their

superpower

patrons

in

situations

Under

such

of

a

real

or

circumstances,

perceived

the

high

patron

threat

may

environment.

intimate

the

possibility

client,

action.

or

of

withholding

the

latter

Consequently,

may

the

or

reducing

anticipate

client

may

its

such

support

a

for

course

grant

considerable

the

of

concessions

less

threatening

to

the

patron,

conditions.

which

Such

it

would

not

concessions

extend

can

take

under

the

form

or

them

their

of

major

Crisis

base

changes

rights,

in

can

also

its

with

the

patrons

opportunity

towards

treaties,

international

international

associations.

realignments,

10

be

of

their

utility

of

using

own

ends.

to

their

clients

by

providing

relationship

Since

a

client-state

with

is

valuable

intrinsic

to

worth

its

and

superpower

its

ability

patron

to

competitive

ignite

other

one,

to

in

have

a

advantage

regional

crisis

superpower,

the

belief

or

at

that,

over

the

other

involving

least

refrain

the

since

its

own

it

defeated

at

the

hands

of

the

its

protege(s),

forthcoming.

Such

its

a

support

belief

would

will

be

because

confer

superpower,

client(s)

from

trying

of

upon

11

to

of

it

it

its

a

may

the

avoid

patron

other

be

plausible

cannot

superpower

afford

and

automatically

in

view

of

7

the

superpower's

protecting

extend

the

its

basic

allies

required

political

and

help

associates.

to

its

and

strategic

12

Should

client,

it

interest

the

may

in

patron

become

involved

intervention

competitor,

support

The

with

the

other

of

to

their

which

exceed

proteges.

superpower

may

by

far