You are on page 1of 7

Job Number

Sheet

Job Title
Software Consultants (Pty) Ltd
Internet: http://www.prokon.com
E-Mail : mail@prokon.com

Client
Calcs by

Checked by

Date

Retaining Wall Design : Cantilever wall example


C14

Input Data
H1
H2
H3
Hw
Hr
B
D

(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)

Wall Dimensions
5.5 C
0.5 F
0 xf
5.5 At
0.36 Ab
0.5 Cov wall
2.5 Cov base

0.5
0.3
2.40
0.3
0.4
50
50

(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)
mm
mm

Unfactored Live Loads


W
1.5
(kN/m)
P
1
(kN)
xp
1
(m)
L
1
(kN/m)
xl
1
(m)
Lh
(kN/m)
x
0
(m)

General Parameters
20
()
Soil frict
0
Fill slope ()
15
Wall frict ()
25
Conc kN/m3
18
kN/m3
Soil
fcu
30
(MPa)
fy
450
(MPa)

Design Parameters
SF Overt.
1.5
SF Slip
1.5
DL Factor
1.2
LL Factor
1.6
Pmax
150
(kPa)

Seepage allowed
Active pressure applied on back of shear key for sliding
Theory
: Coulomb
Wall type : Cantilever

SEISMIC ANALYSIS SETTINGS:


Seismic Analysis ON/OFF:ON

Hor Accel. (g) 0.02


Vert Accel. (g) 0.01
Include LL's
Y

VALUES OF PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS:


Active Pressure coefficient Ka
Passive Pressure coefficient Kp
Seismic Active Pressure coefficient Kas
Seismic Passive Pressure coefficient Kps
Base frictional constant

:0.442
:3.029
:0.454
:1.345
:0.364

FORCES ACTING ON THE WALL:


All forces/moments are per m
Description
Destabilizing forces:
Total Active pressure Pa
Siesmic component of Pa
Triangular W-table press Pw
Seismic component of Pw
Hydrostatic pressure on bot
of base: uniform portion
Hydrostatic pressure on bot
of base: triangular portion
As a result of surcharge w
As a result of Point load P
As a result of Line Load L
Siesmic wall inertia
Stabilizing forces:
Passive pressure on base Pp
Siesmic component of Pp
Weight of the wall + base
Weight of soil on the base
Hydrostatic pressure on top
of rear portion of base
Hydrostatic pressure on top
of front portion of base

width

FORCES (kN ) and their LEVER ARMS (m )


F Horizontal
Lever arm F Vertical
Lever arm
left (+)
down (+)
121.722
2.973
85.328
2.597

1.845
3.300
1.878
3.300

3.560
0.223
0.223
1.767

2.750
5.055
5.055
1.582

-2.592
3.791

-0.000
0.300

34.356
0.861
0.000
0.000
-16.510

0.866
0.840
0.872
0.844
1.700

-82.551

2.267

1.031
0.065
0.065

0.855
0.809
0.809

88.358
103.378
121.399

1.228
2.125
2.150

0.000

0.250

Job Number

Sheet

Job Title
Software Consultants (Pty) Ltd
Internet: http://www.prokon.com
E-Mail : mail@prokon.com

Client
Calcs by

Checked by

Point load of
0.99 kN on backfill
Line load of
0.99 kN/m on backfill
UDL of 1.5 kPa

Date

0.090
0.990
3.861

1.500
1.500
2.100

EQUILIBRIUM CALCULATIONS AT SLS


All forces/moments are per m

width

1.Moment Equilibrium
Point of rotation: bottom front corner of base.
For Overturning moment Mo calculate as follows:
Mo = Sum(hor. forces x l.a.) - Sum(vert. forces x l.a.)
For Stabilizing moment Mr calculate as follows:
Mr = -Sum(hor. forces x l.a.) + Sum(vert. forces x l.a.)
where l.a. = lever arm of each force.
Stabilizing moment Mr : 598.93 kNm
Destabilizing moment Mo : 583.24 kNm
Safety factor against overturning = Mr/Mo = 1.027

*** SAFETY FACTOR IS LOWER THAN SPECIFIED MINIMUM OF

1.5 ***

2.Force Equilibrium
Sum of Vertical forces Pv
Frictional resistance Pfric
Passive Pressure on shear key
Passive pressure on base
=> Horizontal resistance Fr

: 254.48 kN
: 92.62 kN
:
5.15 kN
:
2.59 kN
: 100.37 kN

Horizontal sliding force on wall Fhw : 212.64 kN


Horizontal sliding force on shear key Fht : -23.28 kN
=> Total Horizontal sliding force Fh : 189.37 kN
Safety factor against overall sliding = Fr/Fh = 0.530

*** SAFETY FACTOR IS LOWER THAN SPECIFIED MINIMUM OF

1.50 ***

SOIL PRESSURES UNDER BASE


Maximum pressure :2750.33 kPa
Minimum pressure : 0 kPa at 3.21 m from right hand side of base.
Maximum pressure occurs at left hand side of base

*** MAXIMUM PRESSURE EXCEEDS SPECIFIED ALLOWABLE PRESSURE BY 2600.3 kPa ***
WALL MOMENTS (ULS) AND REINFORCEMENT TO BS8110 - 1997
Position from
base top (m )
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50

Moment
(kNm )
366.56
346.82
326.82
307.61
289.16
271.47
254.51
238.27
222.74
207.90
193.74
180.23
167.37
155.13
143.50
132.47

Front Reinforcing Back Reinforcing Nominal (0.13%)


(mm/m )
(mm/m )
(mm/m )
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

2901.92
2740.12
2576.72
2421.20
2273.15
2132.20
1998.00
1870.24
1748.64
1632.93
1522.88
1418.24
1318.81
1224.39
1134.79
1049.83

522.60
520.00
517.40
514.80
512.20
509.60
507.00
504.40
501.80
499.20
496.60
494.00
491.40
488.80
486.20
483.60

Job Number

Sheet

Job Title
Software Consultants (Pty) Ltd
Internet: http://www.prokon.com
E-Mail : mail@prokon.com

1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.10
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
3.00
3.10
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90
4.00
4.10
4.20
4.30
4.40
4.50
4.60
4.70
4.80
4.90
5.00

Client
Calcs by

122.02
112.14
102.80
94.00
85.71
77.93
70.63
63.80
57.42
51.49
45.98
40.87
36.16
31.82
27.85
24.21
20.91
17.92
15.23
12.82
10.68
8.79
7.13
5.69
4.46
3.41
2.54
1.82
1.24
0.79
0.44
0.22
0.09
0.02
0.00

Checked by

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Date

969.35
896.48
827.21
761.34
698.82
639.58
583.57
530.70
480.93
434.18
390.37
349.44
311.31
275.90
243.14
212.94
185.23
159.90
136.88
116.08
97.40
80.74
66.00
53.09
41.89
32.30
24.20
17.48
12.02
7.70
4.38
2.14
0.87
0.20
0.01

481.00
478.40
475.80
473.20
470.60
468.00
465.40
462.80
460.20
457.60
455.00
452.40
449.80
447.20
444.60
442.00
439.40
436.80
434.20
431.60
429.00
426.40
423.80
421.20
418.60
416.00
413.40
410.80
408.20
405.60
403.00
400.40
397.80
395.20
392.60

BASE MOMENTS (ULS) AND REINFORCEMENT TO BS8110 - 1997


Position from
left (m )
0.07
0.14
0.20
0.27
0.34
0.41
0.48
0.54
0.61
0.68
0.75
0.82
0.88
0.95
1.02
1.09
1.16
1.22
1.29
1.36
1.43
1.50
1.56
1.63
1.70
1.77
1.84
1.90

Moment
(kNm )
-0.00
-1.90
-7.61
-17.12
-30.43
-47.54
-68.46
-93.19
-121.71
-154.04
-190.18
-209.67
273.79
253.88
241.03
228.51
216.32
204.47
192.96
181.77
170.92
160.41
150.23
140.38
130.86
121.68
112.84
104.32

Top Reinforcing
(mm/m )
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1542.19
1423.55
1348.83
1278.77
1210.58
1144.26
1079.81
1017.22
956.51
897.66
840.68
785.57
732.33
680.95
631.44
583.81

Bot Reinforcing
(mm/m )
0.00
10.64
42.57
95.78
170.28
266.06
383.13
521.49
681.13
862.05
1064.26
1173.35
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Nominal (0.13%)
(mm/m )
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00

Job Number

Sheet

Job Title
Software Consultants (Pty) Ltd
Internet: http://www.prokon.com
E-Mail : mail@prokon.com

1.97
2.04
2.11
2.18
2.24
2.31
2.38
2.45
2.52
2.58
2.65
2.72
2.79
2.86
2.92
2.99
3.06
3.13
3.20
3.26
3.33
3.40

Client
Calcs by

96.14
88.30
80.79
73.61
66.77
60.26
54.08
48.24
42.73
37.56
32.72
28.21
24.04
20.20
16.69
13.52
10.68
8.18
6.01
4.17
2.67
1.50

Checked by

538.04
494.13
452.10
411.93
373.64
337.21
302.64
269.95
239.13
210.17
183.08
157.86
134.51
113.02
93.41
75.66
59.78
45.77
33.63
23.35
14.95
8.41

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Date

650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00
650.00

SHEAR CHECK AT WALL-BASE JUNCTION TO BS8110 - 1997


Shear force at bottom of wall V = 259.7 kN
Shear stress at bottom of wall v = 0.76 MPa INADEQUATE
Allowable shear stress vc = 0.66 MPa (based on Wall tensile reinf.)

Sketch of Wall

Design code: BS8110 - 1997


1.00 0.99kN/m
0.99kN

kh =0.02g
kv =0.01g

0.50

2750.3kPa
Wall type: Cantilever
Theory: Coulomb

1.49

20.00

0.50
0.40

0.30

0.50

5.50

15.00

5.50

1.00
0.30
0.00

2.50

2.40

SFslip = 0.53
SFovt = 1.03

Kas=0.45
Kps=1.34
=0.36
V=259.7kN
v= 0.76MPa
vc= 0.66MPa

Job Number

Sheet

Job Title
Software Consultants (Pty) Ltd
Internet: http://www.prokon.com
E-Mail : mail@prokon.com

Client
Calcs by

Checked by

Date

Wall Bending Moments

Moment max = 367 kNm @ -.500m

Wall Moments
5.00
4.50
4.00
3.50

2.50
2.00
1.50

Bending moment (kNm)

350

300

250

200

150

100

.500

50.0

1.00
0.00

Height (m)

3.00

Job Number

Sheet

Job Title
Software Consultants (Pty) Ltd
Internet: http://www.prokon.com
E-Mail : mail@prokon.com

Client
Calcs by

Checked by

Date

Base Bending Moments

300

Base Moments

Moment max = 274 kNm @ .703m

250

150

3.40

3.20

3.00

2.80

2.60

2.40

2.20

2.00

1.80

1.60

1.40

1.20

1.00

.800

.600

50.0

.400

100
.200

Bending moment (kNm)

200

-50.0
-100
-150
-200
Position (m)

Wall Reinforcement
Wall Reinforcement
Reinf. max = 2900mm/m @ 0.00m

5.00
4.50

Nominal

4.00

3.00
Back

2.50
2.00
1.50

Reinforcement (mm/m)

3000

2500

2000

.500

1500

Front

1000

1.00

500

Height (m)

3.50

Job Number

Sheet

Job Title
Software Consultants (Pty) Ltd
Internet: http://www.prokon.com
E-Mail : mail@prokon.com

Client
Calcs by

Checked by

Date

Base Reinforcement

Base Reinforcement

Reinf. max = 1540mm/m @ .703m

1600
1400

1000
800
Nominal
600
400

Top

Position (m)
Schematic Reinforcement

T12@200 (Hor)
T12@200 (Hor)
T32@250 (NF)
T12@200 (FF)
1-R10/m2 clips
1-R10/m2 clips
T12@200 starters

FRONT

T32@220 starters
T20@200 (T1)
T20@250 (B1)
T16@300 (T2)
T16@300 (B2)
T12@200

SECTION

T12@200 (EF)

3.40

3.20

3.00

2.80

2.60

2.40

2.00

1.80

1.60

1.40

1.20

1.00

.800

.600

.200

.400

Bottom

200

2.20

Reinforcement (mm/m)

1200