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STEP BY STEP WRITING: A GUIDE FOR LEVEL

PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS

PREPARED BY: K.KASTURI SK Ulu Yam Bharu

Here is a guide for you to write good sentences. You must understand what sentences are made of before you can write good sentences. What is a sentence? Sentences are made of a few parts or phrases. Phrases are made of words. I word. A few words = a phrase A few phrases = a sentence. Example:

The old man is driving the red car. (There are 3 phrases in this sentence)
Basically a sentence is made of a subject, verb and predicate. A sentence= subject + verb + predicate *subject, verb and predicate can be at word or phrase level. Example : I ate fish. I = subject. Ate = verb. Fish=predicate. (word level)

The diligent tailor is busy sewing a wedding gown. The diligent tailor= subject at phrase level. Is busy sewing= verb phrase. A wedding gown= predicate at phrase level. After this you are about to learn what are subject, verb and predicate phrases made of.

SUBJECT
Now, you will discover the different types of subjects.. Enjoy discovering!!!! TYPE 1 SUBJECT = ARTICLES + COMMON NOUNS Articles = a, an, the CATEGORY People Animal Building Object Place ARTICLES A The EXAMPLES boy, girl, teacher cat, dog, rat house, school, shop plate, pen, cup field, pond, lake

*The can also be used for plural nouns: *The common nouns given in the box are countable nouns. CATEGORY People Animal Building Object Place CATEGORY People Animal Building Object Place A/An = 1 The= definite/referring for the second time. ARTICLES The EXAMPLES boys, girls, teachers cats, dogs, rats houses, schools, shops plates, pens, cups fields, ponds, lakes EXAMPLES aunt, uncle, artist, infant elephant, ant, ostrich Igloo alarm clock, island,

ARTICLES An

TYPE 2

SUBJECT= ARTICLES +ADJECTIVE+NOUN ARTICL ES A Th e An ADJECTIVE Beautiful Cute Big Small Huge Ugly Active Old Interesting Enormous NOUN Girl Cat School Plate Field Lady Cat School Novel Forest TYPE OF NOUN people animal building object place people animal building object place

The can also be used with plural nouns Example: The beautiful girls.

TYPE 3: SUBJECT=PERSONAL PRONOUNS EXAMPLES: PRONOUNS THEY,WE,I,YOU(DEVI AYU),HE,SHE,IT IT TYPE 4 SUBJECT= QUANTIFIERS(SHOW AMOUNT) + UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Examples: Some milk A little oil A lot of sugar Note that some and a lot of can also be used with countable nouns as well. Example: Some people A lot of people TYPE PEOPLE ANIMAL,BUILDING,OBJECT,PLACE,(NONLIVING THING)

TYPE 5 SUBJECT= QUANTIFIERS(SHOW AMOUNT) + COUNTABLE NOUNS Examples: Many people Some cars A few buildings Several weeks

TYPE 6 SUBJECT= ARTICLES ( A/An) + COLLECTIVE NOUNS Examples: A troupe of monkeys A band of musicians A string of pearls A row of shops

TYPE 7 SUBJECT= POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS +COMMON NOUNS POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS= My, His, Her, Your, Our , Their ,Its Examples: PRONOUNS My His Her Your Our NOUNS sister cat house pen Country TYPE OF NOUNS people animal building object place

TYPE 8 SUBJECT=PRONOUNS+ADJECTIVES+NOUNS Examples: PRONOU NS My His Her Your Our Their ADJECTIVE Beautiful Cute Big Small Huge Old Active Old Interesting Enormous Long NOUN Mother Cat School Plate swimming pool Grandmothe r Cat School Novel Country Tail TYPE OF NOUN people animal building object place people animal building object place parts of body

Its TYPE 9

SUBJECT=PROPER NOUN Examples: PROPER NOUN Mr. Ranjit Bobo KLCC Proton Wira Kuala Lumpur CATEGORY OF NOUN PEOPLE ANIMAL BUILDING OBJECT PLACE

*Do not use articles( a, an , the) in front of a proper nouns.

TYPE 10 SUBJECT=PRONOUN+ADJECTIVE+PROPER NOUN Examples: PRONOUN/ARTICLE THE My/The ADJECTIVE Cute PROPER NOUN Bobo

TYPE 11 SUBJECT=ARTICLES+ADJECTIVE+PROPER NOUN

ARTICLE The A An

ADJECTIVE New Big Old

PROPER NOUN Proton Wira Mercedes Benz Proton Saga

TYPE 12 DEMONSTRATIVES CAN BE AT THE BEGINNING OF A SUBJECT TYPES OF DEMONSTRATIVES ARE: NEA R This Thes e FAR That Those

SINGUL AR PLURAL

This and that can be used in front of Subject type 1,2,3,6,7,8,9,10,11. This/That + is + Subj1-Subj3,Subj6-Subj11.

These and Those can be used in front of subject type 1,2,3,7,8,9,10,11, however use article the only; cannot use articles a and an. These/Those are +Subj1-Subj3,subj7-Subj11

EXAMPLES: This is a book. This is a big book. This is her house. This is your old cat This is Mr. Ranjit. This is my old Bobo. This is the new Proton Wira. That is a book. That is a big book. That is her house. That is your old cat That is Mr. Ranjit. That is my old Bobo. That is the new Proton Wira. These are books. These are big books. These are their houses. These are your old cats These are Mr. Ranjit and Mr. Siva. These are my old Bobo and cute Kiki. These are the new Proton Wira and Proton Saga. Those are books.

Those are big books. Those are her houses. Those are my old friends. Those are Mr. Ranjit and Mr. Siva. Those are my old Bobo and cute Kiki. Those are the new Proton Wira and Proton Saga.

There can be used in front of Subject type 1,2,3,4,5,6, however without article the. For subject type 4 use is for uncountable nouns and are for plural form of countable nouns. There + is/are+ Subj1-Subj6 Examples: There is a girl. There is a beautiful girl. There are beautiful girls There is an old lady at the gate. There are old ladies in the hospital. There is a lot of sugar in the jar. There is a book on the table. There are many books on the table. There is a band of musician on the stage.

VERB
Now, you will discover the different types of verbs.. Enjoy discovering!!!! TYPE 1 VERB= VERB TO BE PRESENT TENSE am is Are PAST TENSE Was Were

SINGULAR PLURAL

VERB=VERB TO BE + VERB+ING EXAMPLES: VERB TO BE Am is are was were VERB+ING eat+ing=eatin g play+ing=playi ng dance+ing=da ncing do+ing=doing have+ing=havi ng

TYPE 2 VERB=VERB TO BE+VERB+ED EXAMPLES PRONOUN They,we,I,You,He,She,It NOUNS The car The vans TYPE 3 VERB TO BE am,is are was, were VERB TO BE is, was are , were VERB+ED tired VERB+ED parked parked

VERB=VERB TO HAVE PRESENT TENSE Has Have PAST TENSE Had Had

SINGULAR PLURAL TYPE 4

VERB= VERB TO HAVE+ARTICLE(a/an)+ONE COUNTABLE NOUN Examples: has a book have a pen VERB TO HAVE has, have, had TYPE 5 VERB=VERB TO HAVE+ARTICLE(the)+ONE/MORE THAN ONE COUNTABLE NOUN Examples: has the book have the book has the books have the books ARTICLE a, an

VERB= VERB TO HAVE+SHOW QUANTITY+MORE THAN ONE COUNTABLE NOUN Example: have a few musical instruments.

VERB= VERB TO HAVE+ SHOW QUANTITY+UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Example: had a little headache

TYPE 6 VERB=VERB TO HAVE+COLLECTIVE NOUNS Examples:

has a bale of cotton have a bouquet of flowers

TYPE 7 VERB=VERB TO DO PRESENT TENSE SINGULAR Does PLURAL Do *Note that you cannot write TYPE 8 VERB=ACTION VERB(HABITUAL ACTION) EVERYDAY,NORMALLY DONE. SINGULAR NOUNS USE VERB+S He She Ali My father My cat The girl Plays eats drinks sleeps everyday every Tuesday every week every night PAST TENSE Did Did hasing and doesing.

PLURAL NOUNS USE ROOT VERB I You They We My friends My cats The boys Play eat drink sleep everyday every Tuesday every week every night

TYPE 9 VERB= INTENSITY/FREQUENCY +VERB You can also add words that show intensity/frequency before the verb. Examples: usually plays, normally eats Usage in sentences:

He She Ali My father My cat The girl

usually normall y frequen tly seldom always

plays eats drinks sleeps

in the afternoon on Tuesdays at night

I You They We My friends My cats The boys TYPE 10

Usually normall y frequen tly seldom always

Play eat drink sleep

In the afternoon on Tuesdays at night

VERB=INFINITY TO + ROOT VERB Examples: * usually comes after words like : want/wants/wanted, hope/hopes/hoped, like/likes/liked, need/needs/needed , has/have/had. Wish/wishes/wished CORREC T to play to eat to drink TYPE 11 VERB=MODAL+ROOT VERB MODAL Will can must should could would will not(wont) cannot(cant) must not(mustnt) should not(shouldnt) could not(couldnt) VERB Eat drink play sleep sit walk give do have write read sing INCORRECT to plays to eating to drank

would not(wouldnt) TYPE 12 VERB= VERB +ARTICLE(a/an)+ONE COUNTABLE NOUN Examples: read a book give an umbrella

TYPE 13 VERB=VERB +ARTICLE(the)+ONE/MORE THAN ONE COUNTABLE NOUN Examples: give the book, sells the books

TYPE 14 VERB=VERB +COLLECTIVE NOUNS Examples: buys/buy/bought a bale of cotton gives/give/gave a bouquet of flowers TYPE 15 VERB=VERB+PRONOUNS+COUNTABLE/COLLECTIVE NOUNS Examples: Give/gives/gave her a book Give/gives/gave me the book Give/gives/gave her the books Buy/buys/bought him the pen Tell/tells/told them the story Inform/informs/informed him the matter

TYPE 16 VERB=LIKE/LIKES+TO+ROOT VERB Examples: like to play, likes to eat

TYPE 17 VERB=LIKE/LIKES+VERB+ING Examples: like playing, likes reading

TYPE 18 VERB=WISH/WISHES+TO+VERB VERB=WISH/WISHES+TO+VERB TO BE+ A NOUN VERB=WISH/WISHES+TO+HAVE+ A NOUN VERB=WISH/WISHES+TO+HAVE+MORE THAN ONE NOUN(countable Or uncountable)

Examples: wish to sing, wishes to dance, wish to be a doctor, wishes to be a teacher, wish to have a car, wishes to have a house, wish to have a few bars of chocolate, wishes to have a few bars of chocolates, wish to have a lot of money, wishes to have a lot of money

TYPE 19 VERB=WANT TO +ROOT VERB Examples: want wante d wants To Play eat say

TYPE 20

VERB=WANT/WANTS/WANTED + NOUNS Examples: Want Wants Wanted A book An apple Some sugar A few sweets

PREDICATE
Now, you will discover the different type of predicates.. Enjoy discovering!!!! TYPE 1=WHAT?(NOUNS: football, noodles) Example: I eat noodles ( eat what?=noodles) TYPE2=HOW?(ADVERBS: gracefully, sweetly) Example: I sing sweetly (sing how?=sweetly) TYPE3=WHERE?(PREPOSITIONS+ARTICLES+PLACE/BUILDING) Examples: at a river, in a room, on a table, near a house, beside a shop, in an igloo at the river, in the room, on the table, near the house, beside the shop TYPE 4=WHERE?(PREPOSITION+PROPER NOUNS) Examples: at Kuala Lumpur, in Ipoh, from Johor, to school, along Jalan Kuching TYPE 5=WHOSE?(POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS) Examples: his, hers, mine, yours, ours, theirs, its, my fathers TYPE 6=WHO?(POSSESIVE PRONOUNS +NOUN) Examples: my father, your book TYPE 7=WHEN?(PREPOSITION+ARTICLE THE + POINT OF DAY Examples: in the morning, in the afternoon TYPE 8=WHEN?( EVERY+ DAY(Monday, Tuesday),POINT OF DAY (afternoon, night),MONTH,YEAR Examples: every Sunday, Every afternoon, every month, every year TYPE 9=WHEN?(PREPOSITION+NIGHT/NOON Examples: at night, at noon TYPE 10=WHEN?(PREPOSITION+TIME) Examples: at 3pm, at five oclock TYPE 11=WHEN?(LAST/NEXT=DAY/WEEK/MONTH/YEAR. =WHEN? (ARTICLE THE+NEXT=POINT OF DAY.LAST=NIGHT Examples: Last Monday

Next

week month year Night morning, afternoon

Last the next

TYPE 12=WHEN?(PREPOSITION IN + MONTH Example: in July TYPE 13=WHEN?(PREPOSITION ON+DAY) Example: on Monday TYPE 14=WHEN?(PREPOSITION ON+CELEBRATION DAY) Example: on Hari Raya TYPE 15=WHEN?(PREPOSITION DURING + ARTICLE THE HOLIDAYS/VACATION/OUTING/A SPAN OF TIME Examples: during the vacation, during the fasting month TYPE 16=WHEN? =(PREPOSITION FOR + NUMBER + SECONDS/MINUTES/HOURS/DAYS/WEEKS/MONTHS/YEARS) Examples: for ten seconds/for five minutes/for ten years TYPE 17=WHEN?(PREPOSITION BEFORE+ TIME+DAY+MONTH Examples: before 4pm,before Tuesday, before August TYPE 18=WHEN?(PREPOSITION UNTIL+TIME/DAY/MONTH) =WHEN?(PREPOSITION UNTIL+NEXT/LAST=DAY/MONTH/YEAR) Examples: until 5am, until Sunday, until September, until next Monday, until last Tuesday, until Last year, until next year. TYPE 19=WHEN?(THIS+POINT OF DAY/DAY) Examples: This evening, This Friday TYPE 20= WHEN? Examples: yesterday, tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, today

Now that you know the different types of phrases (subject, verb, predicate), lets see how to join them to make sentences.

SENTENCE CONSTRUCTIONS
Subject type 1 will be stated as S1 followed by S2 for subject type 2 and so on. Verb type 1 will be stated as V1 followed by V2 for verb type 2 and so on. Predicate type 1 will be stated as P1 followed by P2 for predicate type 2 and so on. 1. S1+V1+P1 The boy eats noodles 2. S1+V1+P1+P2 The boy eats noodles hurriedly. 3. S1+V1+P1+P2+P3 The boy eats noodles hurriedly at the restaurant. 4. S1+V1+P1+P2+P3+P4 The boy eats noodles hurriedly at the restaurant in Jalan Ipoh. 5. S1+V3+P1+P5+P3 The girl has Azrins English book in her bag. 6. S1+V17+P1+P3+P3 The lady likes playing netball at the court every evening. 7. S1+V7+P1+P3+P10 The girl does her homework in the room at 3 p.m. 8. S1+V8+P2+P4+P8 The boy sleeps soundly in his room every night. 9. S1+V9+P2+P3+P18 The man usually sleeps soundly in his room until 6 a.m. 10.S1+V10+P1+P3+P20 The girl wanted to eat burger at the canteen yesterday. 11.S1+V11+P5+P1+P20 The boy will read his book tomorrow. 12.S1+V13+P3+P18+P7

The man sells the books near the school until 5 oclock in the evening.

13.S1+V14+P3+P11 The man bought a bouquet of roses last night. 14.S1+V15+P3+P11 The girl told me the story in the classroom, last Monday. Sentences 1-14 can be repeated by substituting S1 with S2,S3,S7,S8,S9 and S10.You can also write other types of sentences based on the frames prepared. Now, you are free to write numerous sentences as your wish based on the frames given. I believe the frames ( suggested phrases) provide you a guide to write sentences well. However, a pupil still needs a teachers assistance to use this notes as he/ she may find it difficult to understand without explanation. Thank you.