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CHEMICAL INDUSTRY and RAW MATERIALS

2. 3. 1. Jacob A. Moulijn, Chemical Technology, p 1-187, p307-330, p 437-440 G._Herbert_Vogel_Process_Development__From_the_Initial_Idea_to_the_Chemical_Produc tion_Plant__2005 http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=cemical%20industry%20in%20ppt&source=web &cd=1&ved=0CCQQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fchemicalengineering.dal.ca%2FFiles%2F2__The_Chemical_Industry.ppt&ei=h7SDULGGAsPXrQeCloGgBw&usg=AFQjCNFPEBMoAIEK6M Y1Bw_8CYkPnXrE4g

SUMBER

Pabrik Urea

Market Capital of Major Chemical Companies

Euro

German Chemical Industry

Structure of Production Cost

Change in Raw Matrials

Energy Production and Raw Materials

Chemical Market by region

Fig. 1.4 Inter-regional CHEMICALS TRADE, 1998

Source: CEFIC Facts and Figures, 1999

THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

OUTLINE
1. 2. 3. 4. Structure of the Chemical Industry Raw Materials and Energy Base Chemicals Chemical Processes

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CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

RAW MATERIAL

CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

CONSUMER

OTHER INDUSTRY

Product Family of Chemical Industry

Structure of the chemical industry

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STRUCTURE OF THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY


Raw materials are converted into products for other industries and consumers. Basic raw materials can be divided into:
organic, and inorganic.

Inorganic raw materials include:


air, water and minerals.

Fossil fuels and biomass belong to the class of organic raw materials.
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Structure of the chemical industry


About 85% of chemicals are produced from ~ 20 simple chemicals called base chemicals. Base chemicals produced from ~ 10 raw materials. Base chemicals converted to ~ 300 intermediates. Base chemicals and intermediates classified as bulk chemicals. About 30,000 consumer products are produced from intermediates.

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Where these chemicals go..


12 % of the cost of a car polyurethane seat cushions; neoprene hoses and belts; airbags and nylon seat restraints 10 % of the cost of a house

10 % of what the average household consumer buys and uses every day food products clothing footwear health and personal care products household cleansers home entertainment equipment.

including the cost of important insulation pipes electrical wiring

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Price of Bulk & Fine Chemicals

Turn over of bulk & Fine Chemicals

Anatomi Pabrik Kimia

By products Recycle of un-reacted material wastes

Raw Material Storage Stage 1

Feed Preparation

Reaction

Product Separation

Product Purification

Product Storage

Sales

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

Stage 5

Stage 6

Anatomi Pabrik Kimia

Raw Material Storage


1. Raw Material atau Feed stocks kadang-kadang dipasok dalam bentuk intermediate products misalnya dari pabrik yang bersebelahan 2. Kadang diperlukan penyimpan umpan untuk mengatasi fluktuasi atau terhentinya pasokan 3. Penyimpan yang diperlukan tergantung sifat bahan baku, cara transportasinya dan jaminan kesinambungan bahan baku tsb

Feed Preparation/ treatment


1. Beberapa tujuan treatment sebelum direaksikan Kemurnian Bentuk khusus, misal dijadikan fasa gas, grinding, diayak dsb 2. Beberapa contoh treatment Reaksi katalitik Scrubbing

Reactor
1. Merupakan jantung dari proses kimia 2. Dalam reaktor terjadi reaksi reaktan pada kondisi tertentu menjadi produk yang diinginkan 3. Seringkali juga terjadi reaksi samping dan impurities

Product Separation
1. Lebih dulu dilakukan pemisahan produk utama dan hasil samping dari reaktan yang tidak bereaksi 2. Zat yang tidak bereaksi didaur ulang bila jumlahnya cukup besar 3. Pemisahan produk utama dari hasil samping

Purification
1. Dilakukan pemurnian atas produk yang dihasilkan untuk memenuhi spesifikasi 2. Bila ekonomis bisa juga dilakukan pemurnian terhadap impurities untuk dijual

Product Storage
1. Penyimpanan produk diperlukan untuk menyeimbangkan antara produksi dengan penjualan 2. Seringkali produk perlu dikemas sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan tuntutan pasar (bulk, drum, kantong, bales dsb

Ancillary Process
Seringkali diperlukan beberapa utilitas
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Air proses Air pendingin Udara tekan Uap air Fasilitas pemeliharaan pabrik Pemadam kebakaran Laboratorium dsb

Structure of the chemical industry


Coal, oil and natural gas (NG) are the primary raw materials for production of most bulk chemicals. Each stage adds value:
Crude oil Fuel Typical petrochemical Typical consumer product Relative value 1 2 10 50

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Bahan Kimia Penting

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Consumer products from raw materials


SALT
Na-hydroxide chlorine

CRUDE OIL
Naphta etc

NATURAL GAS
CO + Hydrogen

Na-hypochlorite

Ethylene

Methanol

Fertilizer

Ethylene dichloride

Vinyl-chloride

Tri & tetra chloro ethylene (dry cleaning)

Chloromethane

Chloro Fluoro Carbon CFC PTFE - Teflon

PVC

Overview of the petrochemical industry

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Structure of the chemical industry


First step in petrochemical industry is conversion of raw materials into base chemicals.
Synthesis gas (H2 and CO) through steam reforming of NG ammonia or methanol. Lower alkenes through steam cracking of ethane or naphtha: ethene, propene, butadiene. Aromatics through steam cracking of ethane or naphtha or the catalytic reforming process: benzene, toluene, xylenes (BTX).

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Structure of the chemical industry


The second step involves a variety of chemical processes often aimed at introducing various heteroatoms (O, Cl, S etc.) into the molecule.
This leads to formation of intermediates such as: acetic acid, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and monomers like acrylonitrile, terephthalic acid etc.

The third step yields consumer products. The chemical industry can be conveniently divided into 7 sectors.

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World chemical Sectors market (1989)

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World chemical industry


World output $2.7 trillion
Americas 34% Asia/Pacific/Africa 32% Europe 34%

In 2000, there were 1,200 establishments operating in Canada. They employed approximately 72,500 employees.

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US Chemical Production
In the USA, 70,000 chemical products in 12,000 plants, 95% in batch operations. Top five organic chemicals: ethylene, propylene, ethylene dichloride, methyl-tertbutyl-ether (MTBE), and vinyl chloride. Top inorganic chemicals: nitrogen, oxygen, chlorine, and sodium hydroxide.

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USA Petroleum Industry


USA has 163 operating refineries and 15.6 million barrels per day

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USA Chemicals Industry

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Canadian Chemicals

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RAW MATERIALS AND ENERGY


Raw materials and energy are closely related. Indeed, the main raw materials for the chemical industry are fossil fuels. These are also the most important sources of energy. Major energy source is oil (~40%), Coal (~ 26%), then NG (~ 21%). But reserves show a different picture!

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Total world energy consumption

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Fossil fuel reserves (reserves/production) 1997

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Petrochemical share of world oil

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Energy and the chemical industry


A lot of energy is used in the chemical industry (~ same order as used for feedstock) About 8% of crude oil demand is used as raw material in the chemical industry: the balance is used for fuel production. 1. Fuels for direct heaters and furnaces:

often same as raw material, e.g. in steam reforming of NG, the NG is used for both feedstock and fuel. Fuel oil (a product of distillation) is often used to preheat feed to the crude oil fractionator.

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Energy and the chemical industry


2. Steam:
Usually most important utility system. Used for process heating, a reactant, & in distillation. It is used saturated, wet or superheated. Steam used is replaced by treated make-up water. Steam used at 3 pressures levels: Operating Conditions Saturation Pressure (bar) Temp (K)Temp (K) HP 40 683 523 MP 10 493 453 LP 3 463 407

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Steam/power generation

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Steam saturation temp. vs pressure

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Energy and the chemical industry


3. Electricity:
Can be generated in-plant or purchased from utility. Reduction of energy costs by generation of power onsite with steam turbines and process heating with exhaust gases. Often economical to drive large compressors with steam. Co-generation (electricity and local/district heating). Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (ICGCC) power generation ( is 41-43% vs 34-35% for PF / steam turbine).

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BASE CHEMICALS
Most important base chemicals are the lower alkenes (ethene, propene and butadiene), the aromatics (BTX), NH3 and CH3OH. Syngas (a mixture of H2 & CO) can be used as a base chemical feedstock (e.g. Fischer-Tropsch). Most chemicals can be produced directly or indirectly from these building blocks. Feedstock depends on location & production unit.

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Lower Alkenes from oil

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Lower Alkenes from NG

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Aromatics production

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Ammonia and methanol production

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BusinessBusiness -cash flowchart

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CHEMICAL PROCESSES
Various disciplines are integrated in chemical process technology. They can be divided according to their scale: scale independent
Microlevel Mesolevel Macrolevel

Villermaux shows the discipline of ChE in an enlightening way.


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Chemical processes: what we need to know


Which reactions are involved? What are the the phases, thermodynamics, kinetics and operating conditions (T & P)? Is a catalyst used and if so is regeneration needed? Is gas or liquid recycle needed? Do we need to purify the feed? How are the products separated? What are the HSE & sustainability issues? Can different operations be integrated in one piece of equipment (process intensification)? What are the economics (comparison between processes)?
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Petroleum Industry Technologies

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Chemicals Industry Technologies

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Levels of development

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Process development and levels of integration

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Space and time scales

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SLIDE TAMBAHAN

Selected Process Type

Harry Sila, Chemical Process engineering