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1.

Diamond Structures

The structure has billions of atoms forming hexagons and extends in all directions.

The structure is arranged in a strong, tetrahedral structure.

Physical Properties Very hard, because each atom is held in place by four strong covalent bonds. Its the hardest substance on earth. It has a very high melting point, 3550 . Cant conduct electricity (insulator), there are no ions or free electrons to carry the charge. The specific gravity is 3.52. Brittle (not malleable), all of the bonds are directional and stress will tend to break the structure. Chemical properties Diamonds are not reactive. Under room temperature, diamonds do not react with any chemical reagents including strong acids, alkalis, organic compound, etc. A diamond's surface can only be oxidized a little by just a few oxidants at high temperature. Insoluble in all liquids. Uses/Importance Small pieces of diamonds are used for cutting glass and drilling rocks. Only a diamond can cut another diamond. Diamonds dust is used for polishing diamonds and precious rocks. Diamond dies are used to make thin tungsten wires. Diamonds are valuable gemstones. The larger and purer the diamond, the more valuable it is. For jewellery. In industry for cooling element for high temperature generating electronics due to high thermal conductivity. Chemistry Research

Stefany Rendy CS4

2. Graphite Structures

Graphite consists of many flat layers of hexagon. The layers are called graphene sheets. The rings (structure) form flat sheets that lie on top of each other, held together by week forces.

Each carbon atom is joined to three other carbon atoms. Each layer is itself a giant molecule with very strong covalent bonds.

Physical Properties Its soft and slippery; the sheets can slide over each other easily. Its a good conductor of electricity. Each carbon atom has four outer electrons, but forms only three bonds. So the fourth electron is free to move through the graphite, carrying charge. It can be broken easily and leaves a black streak on the hand when touched. Although graphite is soft and flexible, it is not elastic in nature. Has a melting point above 3000 . Brittle. Chemical Properties It is slightly more reactive than diamond. This is because the reactants are able to penetrate between the hexagonal layers of carbon atoms in graphite. It is unaffected by ordinary solvents, dilute acids, or fused alkalis. Its insoluble in water, there are no attractive forces that occur between the solvent molecules and the carbons atoms in graphite and so it fails to dissolve in any of the organic solvents. Uses/Importance As a lubricant for engines and locks. (soft and slippery) For pencil lead, mixed with clay. (soft and dark in colour) For electrodes and connecting brushes in generators. (conducts electricity). Molds in foundry. Manufactures of polishers and paints.

Stefany Rendy CS4

Chemistry Research

3. Buckminsterfullerene Structures

Due to their extremely stable state (see Structure) buckminsterfullerene will not bond with itself.

Aromaticity, which means it, has stable and inert carbon bonds.

Physical Properties Has a low melting point of approximately 280 in the form of solids. Cant conduct electricity and heat (insulator), no movement of electrons. One of the roundest and most symmetrical large molecules known. Brittle, soft weak crystals typical of covalent substances. Soft and slippery, few covalent bonds holding the molecules together but only weak Vander Waals forces between molecules. Chemical Properties They not very reactive due to the stability of the graphite-like bonds, Fairly insoluble in many solvents. Uses/Importance Its unique bonding properties and stability allow it to be used as a lubricant. The space inside the molecule is big enough to fit any known element. This provides uses for medicinal purposes in various ways, including drug delivery systems and targeted cancer therapies. Its double bonds can be broken and the molecule can be used as hydrogen storage, its unique shape allows it to carry a lot of hydrogen. Its photoresistant property makes it a plausibly safe storage molecule for radioactive waste.

Stefany Rendy CS4

Chemistry Research

In conclusion, there are some similarities and differences between the allotropes of Carbon: Similarities between allotropes of Carbon Theyre all made of pure carbon. The bonds that hold the carbon to each other are covalent bonds. Covalent bonds are bonds that share electrons between atoms. Theyre all insoluble in water. Have giant structures. Differences between allotropes of Carbon Properties Melting point Reactive/unreactive Conductor/Insulator Strong/Soft Diamond High Unreactive Insulator Strong Graphite High Reactive Conductor Soft Buckminsterfullerene Low Unreactive Insulator Soft

Resources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allotropes_of_carbon http://www.docbrown.info/page04/4_72bond4.htm Etc.

Stefany Rendy CS4

Chemistry Research