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Continuous miner

Continuous Miners

A machine with a large rotating steel drum equipped i d with i h tungsten carbide bid teeth h that h scrape coal from the seam. Operating in a room and pillar system. It produces a constant flow of ore from the working face of the mine. Remote controlled continuous miners are used to work in a variety of difficult seams and conditions and robotic versions controlled by computers are becoming increasingly common.

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Early Miners

The continuous miner has been available in some form since the late 1800s. 1800s The first machine to resemble a continuous miner was known as the English Channel Machine. Latter on the machine was electrically driven by a rotor and consisted of a hydraulic swing and a set of water sprays. The early y twenties saw the development p of a new type yp of miner constructed by Colonel OToole. The miner had a capacity that could complete 154-tons of work in under 10 hours. The machine evolved to feature a pneumatic conveyor belt for the coal but such a development only reduced the power of the machine.

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Modern Miners

The first ripper-type continuous miner appeared in the early 1900s but did not prove to be immediately successful. Joy Manufacturing Co. laid its claim to fame in its early years in the mining industry with several continuous miners. By the 1950s, a series of continuous miners had been produced and manufactured. This miner was beneficial in that it could adapt p to different mining conditions. It had many drawbacks, however, including its complex structure, which made it difficult to clean, and its slow mining rate, which was attributed to the small area provided for face cutting.

Another type of miner was the auger head miner, a d i device with i h dual d l augers, first fi b il in built i 1955. 1955 Produced by A.G. Wilcox, it was built primarily for low-seam applications. Oscillating head ripper miners also made an appearance in the 1950s. Invented by E.M. Arentzen, president of Lee Norse Co., the Roadmaster was a machine featuring rotating cutter wheels that turned horizontally while engaged in a downward direction.

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Remote-controlled and Robotic Miners

Todays miner can extract at least 38 tons of coal per minute, depending on the thickness of the seam. The remote-controlled continuous miner is likely to continue paving the path of the future, with the Mining Safety and Health Administration employing resources to ensure the efficient operation of this type of machine.

Continuous miners consist Large rotating drum Tungsten carbide teeth Gathering Arm Loader Chain conveyor C Crawler l Hydraulic motors Gear boxes

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Common Manufacturers

Joy Mining Machinery Siemens Sandvik Bucyrus International

A static diagram can be easily used to determine the sump s mp and shear stability stabilit of a given gi en machine, machine as well as its ability to utilize the full cutting power of the cutter head in applying bit force to break out the material from the solid face.

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The static elements of the machine must produce a force component FA that th t i is equal l to t or greater t than th the similar component produced by the sump force of the miner, with the sump force being determined by the machine weight and the coefficient of friction of crawler chains on the mine bottom. Th d The design i of f the th crawler l drive d i system t must, t of f course, provide sufficient tractive effort to exceed this force.

Concurrently, the static component FB must be reasonably bl close to a similar component produced prod ced by the cutter head torque.

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Two basic factors influence machine selection for a particular seam height p g The minimum practical mining height of the miner and its chassis height. In low and very low seams, without undulations, a minimum of 6-in. (150-mm) operating clearance is considered adequate. In medium seams 12 to 15 in. (300 to 380 mm) is the desired operating clearance. In high seam 18 to 24 in. (460 to 610 mm) is the desired operating clearance.

The economics of operation in parts cost per ton of material produced is an essential factor in the selection of any continuous miner. Machine A mines at a rate of productivity of 10 tpm. a. 1 minute cutting b. 0.5 minute loading c. 1 minute wait time TOTAL: 2.5 minutes

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Therefore, productivity is: 10 / 2.5 = 4 tpm Shift f production is 180 minutes x 4 = 720 tons at 100% availability Annualized productivity is 2 shifts x 5 days x 50 weeks x 720 tons = 360,000 tons. Today, 93 to 96% availability is the accepted norm. Thus, at 96% availability in this example, the miner would produce 345,600 tons/year

Two methods are generally used to dilute methane and red reduce ce respirable dust d st concentrations in the working place with the deep-cut application

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On-board Dust Collectors

An electrically driven fan connected to a machinemounted ducting system picks up the dust at the cutter head. It is then exhausted and collected on a filter screen. Downstream, a de-mister, mounted in the ductwork, separates the water from the air, allowing clean dry air to be exhausted at the rear of the miner. The criterion for efficient operation of dust collectors is that they must be used with blowing face ventilation.

Fan Sprays

A second system is the Foster-Miller type of fan spray. spra This system increases the flow of incoming air, in combination with an increased number of water sprays that effectively control dust and increase the airflow sweeping across the face, thus permitting the use of f deep d cuts. t

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Face Cycle

The face cycle has three elements: cutting, haulage and support. In this system a continuous miner is cutting the coal and parallel feeding it into a shuttle car which off-loads it at the boot end of a conveyor. During haulage bolting takes place. The holes for the rock bolts are mostly drilled with onboard drill rigs. Simultaneous cutting and bolting can reduce the face cycle time. In a standard operation p one operator p is needed for the CM operation, p , one for each shuttle car and usually two to four men for bolt installation.

cutting procedure

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Coal Haulage
Different equipment is available on the market, however the most common one is the first of the following options: shuttle car (electric) ram car (battery, diesel) scoops (LHD (LHDs) s) coal hauler continuous haulage system

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Support

For roof and rib support usually fully resin encapsulated high tension steel bolts are used. However, at the longwall side of the roadways fibre glass bolts are installed to enable the longwall shearer to cut through them.

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Bolting and Surge Car

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Special feature of Continuous miner

The JOY 14CM continuous miner product line has been developed to meet the high productivity requirements of todays underground mining industry. Built to withstand the rigorous conditions, the 14CM offers optimum service life and return on investment. Each machine employs Joys multi-motor concept with outboard access to motors, gearcases, controllers and other major components. Th continuous The ti miners i use individual i di id l motors t with ith direct di t drive di transmissions to power the cutter, traction, gathering and hydraulic systems. This permits service or repair quickly and easily, thus reducing downtime and maintenance costs.

It is mainly used in underground mining of coal and other friable material. material The other methods such as drilling blasting are not cost effective in many instance. Moreover, these methods are labor intensive and less safe. Longwall Mining method is the most productive mining method. However, it requires a sizable capital investment.

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Advantages

It used to enlarge mine entries. It avoids the blast damage to the coal and rock Lighter support is required. high advance rates, safety, less strata disturbances and less labor. Improved p safety, y, reduced ground g support pp requirement and fewer personnel.

Disadvantages/Limitations

Higher floor f impact by cyclic movements Initial cost is very high Required large size of opening

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Assignment/Questions

Prepare a notes on Continuous miner of any company mentioning the details of its features. What are the selection parameters of continuous miner over, drilling blasting and other mining machine used in underground mines. Draw a plan and section of continuous miner with details specifications.

Wethead Cutterhead Systems Application Specific Cutting Systems Optimum Fluid Control Proven Conveyor System Total Control at the Coal Face Inby Rescue: Work Zone Shift Reporting Apprentice Maintenance Chief High Voltage Capability Maintainability and Serviceability Dual-Sprocket Chain Conveyor System Production Optimization Reliability Through Design

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Wethead Cutterhead Systems

The JOY wethead continuous miner cutterhead i incorporates t a fine fi spray behind b hi d each h cutting tti bit of f the th cutter drums to reduce the potential for frictional ignitions and to reduce respirable dust levels. The water spray acts as both a cooling and wetting agent in order to address both issues at the same time. Also, the sprays provide lubrication that substantially improves bit life. The Wethead does all this while potentially consuming less water than the standard miner dust sprays.

Application Specific Cutting Systems

The 14CM accommodates a wide variety of cutting options. Available in solid head or RipperveyorTM models and in drum diameters ranging from 30 to 44 inches or 762 to 1117 mm, the cutting system can be sized to match seam conditions. Rated cutting power as high as 590 hp (440 kW).

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Optimum Fluid Control

Hydraulic manifolds reduce hose assemblies and fitting count t by b over 30% from f previous i manifolds, if ld which hi h significantly reduce leak points. All serviceable parts for a circuit are in one common location and all pressure check points allow gauge connection and disconnection while the pump is running. Bolt-on caps permit easy access for troubleshooting or replacement on hydraulic or water segments. Joys new main control valve design has 25% higher flow and 30% higher pressure capability.

Conveyor System

Dual direct drive motors power for conveying system, loading l di arms and d chain h i via i reliable, li bl timei tested transmissions have been used. The conveyor chain includes universal links to prolong chain life, and the cam style adjusting mechanism automatically compensates for chain slack as the conveyor swings. Recent enhancements to the system include increased abrasion resistant material use along the chain path and loading arms.

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Total Control at the Coal Face

Cross-functional supervisory controller for all of Joys electronic control systems with a unique surface reporting package allows you to manage your equipment data where and when you need it. Improved reliability & flexibility over conventional hardwired electrical control circuits and Improved service support by establishing one common electronics platform. Adaptability to Joys new range of ergonomic user friendly radio remote controls Enhances Joys OPTIDRIVE (AC) traction system Communication flexibility for both point to point and mine wide networks.

Inby Rescue

Move your equipment out of any dangerous area in minimal i i l time i without i h exposing i your operators to difficult conditions. Methane Monitor Override - Eliminates the need to temporarily support the roof to repair failed methane monitor by tramming CM out of the coalface. Emergency Stop Override - Eliminates the need to pull a miner off the rib, when an e-stop has been jammed in the rib.

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Work Zone

Faceboss Work Zone allows the operator to work in a safer environment resulting g in less operator p fatigue g and better consistent performance. Battery Back-up Fire Suppression - Remote operation of fire suppression or water sprays by operator who does not need to leave supported roof. Remote-Activated Scrubber Backflush - Safer and easier for operator to clean dust filter during operation. Traction Brakes - Automatic function allows minimal coordination of tramming switches, switches and maximum safety safety. Proximity Detection & Control - Future developments will allow safe working zones. Traction Breaker Remote Reset - Eliminates temporarily roof support to reset breaker.

Shift Reporting

Better information allows for better planning. Shift Reporting indicates both trending and logging, logging invaluable tools for developing performance strategies.
Shift Production Report Shift Engineering Report Shift Parameter Change Report Weekly/Monthly Production Report Weekly/Monthly W kl /M hl Engineering Report Summary Production Pie Graph Summary Cutting Pie Graph Hourly Activity Bar Graph

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Apprentice

Operational functionality at the touch of a button allowing the operator to consistently produce even under pressure from changing mining conditions. Boom Height Limit Control - Limits can be set to minimize mining and handling of non-sellable product. Reduces out of seam dilution. Proportional Shear Control - Optimizes cutting performance while machine is shearing. Provides a smoother shear cycle. Auto Scrubber Controls - Allows positive control of dust suppression, without relying on operator input. Cutter Feedback Adjustment - Allows for maximum cutting force by preventing p g excessive traction chain slippage. pp g Automatic Dust Collector Fan On/Off - Allows the operator to program the water system to start before, with, or after, the cutters. Sequence Lights - Optimizes machine utilization between the two machines on the super section.

Maintenance Chief

Component protection and failure indication combine to improve methods of p preventative maintenance thus lowering g total cost per p ton. Remote Monitoring Module (RMM) - Monitor machine status from remote location including surface and off-site. Online Technical Service Manual - Displays parts books and tech manuals on board the machine for and Parts Catalog enhanced information access. Instantaneous Overload Protection - Electronic controls are more reactive, minimizing reaction time, saving costly damage. Low Hydraulic Oil Level - Ability to indicate when hydraulic system damage is immanent on the machine. Line Voltage Indication - Displays line voltage as a percentage of nominal voltage.

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Power

The 12CM27 is a high-voltage machine that is operated at 2300 Volt 60 Hz (3300 Volt 50 Hz) to provide a significant increase in horsepower to the cutting system. Reduced thermal losses in the cutter motors and trailing cable increase the available continuous cutting time almost indefinitely, leading to improved production levels. With a high-voltage cutting system, the 12CM27 is typically operated well withing its maximum operating limits. This leads to longer motor and electrical component lives, reduced maintenance and lower repair costs.

Maintainability and Serviceability

The design of the 12CM machines makes effective use of the additional space available in higher seam heights to provide machines with improved access to all components. Furthermore, the electrical controller cases are designed and located for ease of access. With the introduction of fluid system manifolds, thirty percent of the hoses have been eliminated and troubleshooting has been simplified.

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Dual-Sprocket Chain Conveyor System

continuous miners are equipped with the patented JOY dualsprocket continuous miner conveyor chain. chain The dual dual-sprocket sprocket chain is 50% stronger in tension than conventional chains and is driven by two parallel 8-tooth sprockets which provide better torsional rigidity. Increased contact area between the chain and sprocket significantly decreases the amount of wear, increasing the working life of both components. The dual-sprocket conveyor chain has an even pitch and travels smoothly around the sprocket and return-roller, reducing the noise generated by up to 3 decibels and consequently reducing the noise exposure level of the typically located continuous miner operator.

Production Optimization

Optimized Cutting Cutting rate is automatically kept as high as possible during sump and shear cycles by ensuring optimal cutter loading through the control of the traction motor speed and hydraulic shear rate respectively. High Availability Feedback control loops protect all electric motors on the continuous miner from jam and thermal overloads, ultimately extending motor life and minimizing machine downtime. Automated Sequences Generate consistency in machine operation in the face of changing operators and changing conditions. For example, onetouch-shear automatically controls the position of the cutter boom using a boom angle sensor, which ensures the floor and roof levels are properly maintained, and reduces operator fatigue. Maximum Flexibility Different operating parameters for the typical cycle cutting requirements (e.g. full pass, half pass, cross cut, etc.) can be predefined and are easily and quickly selected via the continuous miner remote station to prevent unnecessary delays.

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Reliability Through Design

All hardware has been designed and tested specifically ifi ll for f underground d d applications. li i T i at Testing extreme temperatures and vibration levels ensures that each component can stand up to harsh conditions. Further testing to destruction in atypical conditions allowed Joy engineers to better understand the failure modes of each component in order to improve the overall design and reliability.

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