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GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

SCHOOL of ELECTRICAL and COMPUTER ENGINEERING

ECE 3084 Fall 2012 Problem Set #3


Assigned: 21-Sept-12 Due Date: 2-Oct-12

Your homework will is due at the start of class on Tuesday, October 2. You may turn in your homework up to one day late, by 4:30 PM the following day. A 30% penalty will be assessed on late homeworks (even homeworks turned in later the day it is due, although the penalty might be slightly less at my discretion). We understand that sometimes multiple assignments hit at once, or other life events intervene, and hence you have to make some tough choices. Wed rather let you turn something in late, with some points o, than have a no late assignments accepted at all policy, since the former encourages you to still do the assignment and learn something from it, while the latter just grinds down your soul. The somewhat aggressive late penalty is not intended to be harsh its intended to encourage you to get things in relatively on time (or just punt if you have to and not leave it hanging over you all semester) so that you can move on to assignments for your other classes. Also, there is the practical matter that we cannot accept homeworks after solutions are posted, and we would like to post solutions shortly after both sections have submitted their homework.

From http://xkcd.com/26

PROBLEM 3.1*:
The impulse response of a continuous-time linear time-invariant system is h(t) = (t) 0.2e0.2t step(t). (a) Find the frequency response H (j ) of the system. Express your answer as a single rational function with powers of (j ) in the numerator and denominator. (b) Plot the magnitude squared, |H (j )|2 = H (j )H (j ), versus . You may use MATLAB to check your answer if you want to, but try it by hand rst, i.e. plot a few points on paper and sketch a smooth curve. (c) At what frequency does the magnitude squared of the frequency response have it largest value? (Your answer might be something like innity.) At what frequency is the magnitude squared of the frequency response equal to one half of its peak value? (This is referred to as the 3dB point of the lter since the frequency response magnitude measured in decibels, 10 log |H (j )|2 , is 3.01dB smaller at this frequency compared to its peak value when measured in decibels.) (d) Suppose that the input to this system is f (t) = 40 + 20 cos([0.2 3]t) + 3 (t 1.6). Use superposition to nd the output y (t). Note that the argument of the cosine really is (0.2 3)t, not (0.2 3)t. Hint: To nd the response of each term, use the easiest method, i.e., impulse response or frequency response. Also, if I set this up right, the computations should work out elegantly.

PROBLEM 3.2*:
Consider the LTI system below: f (t)
-

LTI System h(t)

y (t)
-

The input to this system is the periodic pulse wave f (t) depicted below:
6 f (t)

6
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 -1 0 1 2 4 6 8 10

The input can be represented by the Fourier series

f (t) =
k=

ak ejk0 t

where

ak =

6 sin(k/4) . k

Note we can make sense of the ak formula for k = 0 using LHopitals rule. (a) Determine 0 in the Fourier series representation of f (t). (b) Plot F (j ), the Fourier transform of the signal f (t), for 40 40 . (See Equation 4.55 on p. 144 of Chen.) (c) If the frequency response of the system is the ideal highpass lter H (j ) = 0 1 | | < /8 | | > /8

plot the output of the system, y (t), when the input is f (t) as plotted above. Hint: First determine what frequency is removed by the lter, and then determine what eect this will have on the waveform. (d) If the frequency response of the system is an ideal lowpass lter H (j ) = 1 0 | | < c | | > c

where c is the cuto frequency, for what values of c will the output of the system have the form y (t) = A + B cos(0 t + ) where A and B are nonzero? (e) Find A, B , and in part (d). (f) If the frequency response of the LTI system is H (j ) = 1 ej 2 , plot the output of the system, y (t), when the input is f (t) as plotted above. Hint: In this case it will be easiest to determine the impulse response h(t) corresponding to H (j ) and from h(t) you can easily nd an equation that relates y (t) to f (t). This will allow you to plot y (t).

PROBLEM 3.3*:
(a) The ramp lter is often used in medical imaging applications such as X-ray computer-aided tomography. It has a frequency response given by H (j ) = j for | | < 0 0 otherwise

Find the impulse response, h(t), of this lter. Dont use integration by parts to do this problem; use Fourier transform pairs and properties, such as the Time Derivative property from this website: http://fourier.eng.hmc.edu/e101/lectures/handout3/node2.html You may need to go back to your old calculus text if youve forgotten how to take derivatives of quotients. Also make a plot of the impulse response (this is pretty complicated, so you should feel free to use MATLAB or one of those fancy graphing calculators to help you make the plot.) If youve ever had a CAT scan done, youve run across this lter in practice! A hint on making the plot: Were interested in the overall shape of the curve; you can pick whatever 0 you nd the most interesting. I found that the following bit of MATLAB code made a nice plot. You should feel free to use it: omega_0 = 2*pi; period = 2*pi/omega; t = -5*period:period/100:5*period; h = [fill in code that goes here] h([t == 0]) = [fill in value that goes here] plot(t,h); You may ask yourself what the h([t == 0]) = business is all about. Well, it turns out that h(t) is indeterminite at t = 0, i.e. we wind up dividing zero by zero. To nd a meaningful value for h(0), use LHopitals rule. Alternatively, you can probably guess what h(0) should be by looking at h(t) for t near zero. (b) Chemists using nuclear magnetic resonance and radiologists using magnetic resonance imaging1 spend a lot of time thinking about free induction decay signals, which take the form of a decaying sinusoid, for instance: f (t) = A exp t T2 sin(0 t) step(t)

The nonnegative constant T2 is called the spin-spin relaxation time. Dierent kinds of body tissue have dierent T2 times; for instance, by determining T2 times, doctors can identify and locate some kinds of cancer. 0 is called the resonant frequency; in an MRI scheme, this tells you what part of the body the signal is coming from. A is called the spin density, which also depends on tissue type. If you dont nd anything in the previous paragraph at all interesting, dont worry about it; all I want you to do is nd F (j ), the Fourier transform of f (t), in terms of the constants A, T2 , and 0 .
To be consistent, what we know now as MRI should be called NMRI. However, many of these developments occured during the height of the cold war, and using the word nuclear was considered unwise from a marketing perspective. Hence, the N got dropped.
1

PROBLEM 3.4*:
Consider the Fourier transform pair ea|t|
F

2a a2 + 2

(1)

You may have noticed that Fourier transform pairs have a kind of symmetry. For instance, rectangular pulses in the time domain transform to sincs in the frequency domain, and sincs in the time tomain transform to rectangular windows in the frequency domain. Similarly, (1) has a related Fourier transform pair: (a2 a F ea|| + t2 )

(a) Suppose f (t) = a/[ (a2 + t2 )] and h(t) = b/[ (b2 + t2 )]. (i) Compute the convolution y (t) = f (t) h(t). Theoretically, you could nd the result by directly cranking on the convolution integral: y (t) = 1 2

(a2

a b d 2 2 + ) (b + (t )2 )

However, that way lies madness. There is an easier path! (ii) When you convolve two similar functions, you usually dont get a function that looks anything like the functions youre convolving. For instance, if you convolve two rectangular pulses, you get a triangle or a trapezoid. However, there are a few families of functions for instance, sinc functions that give you a member of the same family if you convolve two functions from that family. Such families of functions are relatively rare and usually have quite interesting properties in many applications, particularly probability theory. Looking at your answer to part (i), does it seem very dierent in form than f (t) or y (t)? Or does it look similar? (b) Find the inverse Fourier transform of exp(6| 5|) + exp(6| + 5|). (c) Find the inverse Fourier transform of exp(6| | + 5j ). (d) Evaluate the integral

1 ej 4c dc 2500 + c2

This will not yield to a frontal assault using the standard methods you learned in your calculus classes attack it with Fourier theory instead. You may have to twiddle with some constants to get things to line up right.

PROBLEM 3.5*:
In class, we presented a double side band suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) amplitude modulation scheme. As presented, that scheme requires that the frequency and phase of the sinusoidal oscillator used to demodulate the signal be be locked with the frequency and phase of the sinusoidal oscillator used to modulate the signal. This problem explores what happens when there is a mismatch in the phases or the frequencies. f (t)

y (t)
E

y (t)

w(t)
E

LTI Lowpass Filter H (j ) 2 0

v (t)
E

cos(c t)

cos(c t + )

H (j ) =

| | < co | | > co

We have shown that if f (t) has a bandlimited Fourier transform such that F (j ) = 0 for | | b and c > b and = 0 and b < co < 2c b , then the AMDSB/SC signal y (t) = f (t) cos(c t) can be demodulated by the above system. That is, for precise adjustment of the demodulator frequency and phase, v (t) = f (t). In the following parts, assume that the input signal f (t) has a bandlimited Fourier transform represented by the following plot: F (j )
T

1
d d d

b Now suppose that = 0.

(a) Use a well known trignometric identity to show that


1 w(t) = y (t) cos(c t + ) = f (t) cos(c t) cos(c t + ) = 1 2 f (t) cos() + 2 f (t) cos(2c t + ).

(b) Use your equation from part (a) to obtain an equation for W (j ), the Fourier transform of w(t), in terms of F (j ). (c) Use your equation from part (b) to make a plot of W (j ) for the given F (j ). (d) Use your plot in part (c) to make a plot of V (j ), the Fourier transform of v (t). (e) Use your plot in part (d) to obtain an equation for v (t) in terms of f (t) and .