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Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium, Cambridge, USA, July 26, 2008

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A Study on the Interference in Single Frequency Network and On-Channel Repeater


Sung-Woong Choi and Heon-Jin Hong ETRI-Radio & Broadcasting Technology Lab., Radio Technology Department 161 Kajong-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Taejon 305-350, Korea

Abstract In digital TV, SFN (Single Frequency Network) and OCR (On-Channel Repeater)
are often considered for the eciency of frequency allotment. Both of them broadcast using the same frequency. In this paper, we discuss the performance and evaluate some coverage criterions for SFN and OCR. Also, we propose method and simulation for coverage planning and estimation. 1. INTRODUCTION

Broadcasting had been used during long period by ecient method that can carry the large quantity of information to many people. To carry much information and satisfy various consumers desire, various digital broadcasting techniques are introduced and studied recently. Because such new broadcasting system must co-exist existing broadcasting system during some period, frequency assignment that is dierent from existing frequency is required. Because of limited frequency resource, most digital broadcasting system is supplying technique of SFN (Single Frequency Network) or OCR (On-Channel Repeater) etc. to use minimum frequency resources. In this paper, we analyze the scheme to apply SFN of DVB-T [1, 2] and OCR of ATSC [3, 6] in domestic, and propose to simulate coverage area by position of relay station and transmitter.
2. THE CONCEPT OF THE SFN AND OCR 2.1. The SFN Concept

The analog terrestrial broadcasting utilizes MFN (Multi-Frequency Network), a transmission scheme that uses a dierent transmitting frequency in each service area. Hundreds of stations are established for national broadcasting service, therefore much frequencies are used. From late 1980s, using OFDM in Europe or Japan, technology that operate on the same frequency in adjacent service area had been examined, this is SFN. Single Frequency Network is two or more transmissions that operate on the same frequency, broadcast the same program so as to ll gaps within or extend the service provided by a single transmitter. All transmitters in an SFN must be synchronized so that their broadcasts are frequency identical and bit identical. SFN operation therefore requires special equipment in the primary distribution network to ensure this synchronization using a universal time and frequency reference such as that available from the GPS satellite system. Considering an SFN, the distance between two adjacent transmitter stations determines the necessary length of the guard interval. Figure 1 shows the SFN and MFN.
H

(a) SFN

(b) MFN

Figure 1: Single Frequency Network and Multi Frequency Network.

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PIERS Proceedings, Cambridge, USA, July 26, 2008

2.2. The OCR Concept

The OCR allows rebroadcast of a TV signal, without frequency shifting, into an area previously unable to receive the originally transmitted signal. OCR consists of non-regenerative repeater and regenerative repeater. Non-regenerative repeater receives signal of transmitting station, simply amplies, lters and retransmit the signal. The received signal in the repeater service area consist of the signal of main transmitting station and signal of repeater itself, and each is regarded as delayed multi-path signal. The regenerative repeater demodulates perfectly the received signal of the transmitting station, re-modulates, and re-transmit the signal. OCR signal is not coherent with the primary signal. New signal acts like co-channel interference. In case of the co-channel interference reception is possible in situation that D/U ratio is more than 15 dB, In case of multi-path, because the equalizer of receiver compensate this, reception is possible in situation that D/U ratio is up to 5 dB. Usually Equalizers performance in the VSB receiver is decided according to lter Tap number. Forward transverse lter removes the Pre-ghost and decision feedback lter removes Post-ghost. Sampling rate of the VSB receiver equalizer is 10.762 MHz (T = 0.09292 s). So it is easily calculated by following equation. - Pre-ghost = 64-tap T = 5.947 s 5 s - Post-ghost = 192-tap T = 17.84 s 18 s As see in Figure 2, early model (Chip P) of Equalizer can handle Pre-ghost about 5 s, and could handle Post-ghost about 18 s, but present model can handle about 40 s.

Figure 2: Receiver performance according to the chipset. 3. SIMULATION OF SFN AND OCR 3.1. SFN Simulation

In single frequency network, we must forecast reception area according to the distance between transmitter and receiver, modulation, code rate, guard interval. In case that arrival time dierence of the receiving signals is within the guard interval, reception area is simply depended on path dierence between transmitter and receiver. But, in case that arrival time dierence exceeds the guard interval, two signals are acted by noise each other. So reception area should be decided by C/N ratio by modulation, encoding rate, channel characteristic etc. First, the position and transmit power are established, and modulation mode, the encoding rate, channel, guard interval are selected. And we simulate using position of two transmitters and attenuation value when obstacles are added. The following parameters for SFN simulation were described in detail. Input - Transmitter: Up to 3, position, transmit power - Transmission mode: Mode 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32 guard interval

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium, Cambridge, USA, July 26, 2008

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- modulation: QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAMs - The encoding rate: 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8 - Channel: Gaussian, Ricean, Rayleigh In case that two transmitting stations transmit the equal power of 30 kW with Figure 3, we can see the distribution of received power dierence from two transmitting stations. Figure 3(b) shows when obstacle exists.

a) power difference and reception area

b) obstacle added-reception area

Figure 3: SFN simulation (two station of 30 kW). 3.2. OCR Simulation

In OCR we must forecast reception area according to the distance between the main transmitter and repeater and repeater isolation. Because the regenerative repeater demodulates the received signal of the transmitting station, re-modulates and transmit this, much times are delayed. So this paper considers the non-regenerative repeater. In this paper, we designed to simulate the reception area of OCR Considering mentioned item in front. The following parameters for OCR simulation were described in detail. Input - Transmitter: Position, transmit power - Repeater: Up to 2, position, transmit power Output - Distance and power from transmitter and repeater - Power dierence from transmitter and repeater - Area of Pre-ghost and Post-ghost

a) power difference and reception area

b) obstacle added-reception area

Figure 4: OCR simulation (one main transmitter of 9 kW and two repeaters of 900 W).

As see in Figure 4, when one main transmitter of 9 kW and two repeaters of 900 W transmit, the Power dierence is big around the main transmitter.

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PIERS Proceedings, Cambridge, USA, July 26, 2008

4. CONCLUSION

In this paper we analyze the SFN and OCR that can eciently use limited domestic frequency resources and developed simulator to forecast reception coverage. In the developed simulator, SFN simulator considered channel required C/N ratio, dierent guard interval and modulation, and OCR simulator considered distance between the transmitter and repeater, isolation. Present proposed simulator supposed simple model that do not consider the eect of obstacle, using the basic propagation model. But we have plan to extend the simulator to consider Non-Line of Sight or simple topography factor.
REFERENCES

1. EN 300 744 V1.4.1, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Framing structure, channel coding and modulation for digital terrestrial television, 2001. 2. TR 101 190 V1.1.1, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Implementation guidelines for DVB terrestrial services; Transmission aspects, 1997. 3. ATSC Revision 1.0, Performance Assessment of the ATSC Transmission System, Equipment and Future Directions, 2001. 4. ETRI, DTV on channel repeater, 2000. 5. ETRI, The examination result terrestrial regenerative OCR, 2000. 6. ATSC, Guide to the use of the ATSC Digital Television Standard, Doc. A/54, 1995.