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Tutorial 1 Conduction (Solutions)

Problem - 1
The fuel rod can be considered as a solid cylinder with a
uniformly distributed heat source.
q
g
= 74.52 MW/m
3
h = 56.79 kW/m
2
K
k = 0.03 kW/m K
T
ave
= 130
o
C (Average fluid
temperature while passing
through the jacket)

The Poissons equation:
0
2
+
k
q
T
g
In cylindrical coordinates
0
1
+

,
_

k
q
dr
dT
r
dr
d
r
g
Integrating twice with boundary condition
(i) r = r
o
, T = T
o
(ii) r = 0,
0
dr
dT
gives
( )
1
1
]
1

,
_

2 2
1
4
o o
o g
o
o
r
r
kT
r q
T
T r T
(1)
Maximum temperature occurs at the center and is given
by
( )
o
o g
T
k
r q
T T +
4
0
2
max
(2)
1
Fuel
rod
Jacket
W
a
t
e
r
W
a
t
e
r
To find T
max
, we need to know T
o

Making an energy balance at the surface of the rod
( )
w o o o
T T h r
dr
dT
k r

,
_

2 2
(3)
From Eq.(1):
931 . 0
2

o g
o
r r
r q
dr
dT
k
MW/m
2
From Eq.(3):

,
_

+

h
dr
dT
k
T T
o
r r
w o
= 130+16.4 = 146.4C
Hence
2
2
max
(74.52)(0.025)
146.4
4 4 30
g o
o
q r
T T
k
+ +


= 146.4+387.9 = 534.3C
2
Problem-2
Given conditions:
Operating power 4.5 W
R
T
= Case to ambient resistance = 28C/W
T
c,max
= Maximum allowable case temperature = 75C
A
f
= Area of the frame (heat sink)
R
t,c
= contact resistance between transistor and frame
= 0.75C/W
3
Al Frame
Transistor case
Thermal grease
and gasket
T
o
T
c
T

R
con
R
rad

T
T
o
T
c

T
R
t,c
R
T
For the transistor case temperature T
c
= 75C, the rate of
heat transfer directly to the surroundings
75 26
28
c
T
T
T T
q
R



= 1.75 W
In addition, heat is dissipated through the heat sink
(frame): (From electrical network analogy):
1
con
con
T T
q hA T
R
hA



( )
4 4
rad s a o
q AF T T


Assume, emittance = 1, Shape factor F
s-a
= 1
( ) ( )
2 2
1
o
rad
o o
T T
q
A T T T T

+ +
Here T
o
is not known
Assuming T
o
= T
c
=348K, as a first approximation
4
R
con
R
rad
R
t,c

T
T
o
T
c
( ) ( )
8 6 2 2
1
5.67 10 1500 10 348 299 348 299
rad
R

+ +

= 86.3C/W
6
1 1
11 1500 10
con
s
R
hA



= 60.6C/W
con rad sink heat
R R R
1 1 1
+
R
heat sink
= 35.6C/W
sink
, sink
75 26
0.75 35.6
c
heat
t c heat
T T
q
R R



+ +
= 1.34 W
Based on this result, the temperature of the heat sink (T
o
)
is calculated
sink
,
c o
heat
t c
T T
q
R

sink , o c heat t c
T T q R
= 75 1.340.75 = 73.99C
You can reiterate with this temperature until assumed
value of T
o
is approximately same as the calculated
value.
Using the above value of q
heat sink
= 1.34 W, we can see
that the total power that can be safely dissipated
= 1.75 + 1.34 = 3.09 W < 4.5 W
5
Without the heat sink, the transistor can only operate at
1.75 W.
To operate the transistor at the rated power of 4.5W, a
bigger heat sink is required.
Problem-3
(a) If the heat losses from the tip is considered negligible
(adiabatic tip),the rate of heat transfer is given by

tanh
f c b
q hPkA mL


T T
b b

= 120 25 = 95
o
C

2
80 0.002 245 ( / 4) 0.002
c
hPkA = 0.0196 W/K
6
T
b
= T
s
= 120
o
C
k = 245 W/m K
Fin:
d = 2 mm
L = 10 mm
T
a
= 25
o
C
h = 80 W/m
2
K

2
2
80 0.002
245 ( / 4) 0.002
c
hP
m
kA




= 653.06 (1/m
2
)
m = 25.55 (1/m)
mL = 25.550.01 = 0.255

tanh
f c b
q hPkA mL
= 0.0196950.2496 = 0.4645 W
(b) The efficiency of the fin

b f
f f
f
hA
q
q
q


max
A
f
= total surface area of the fin
In the most general case for which there is heat transfer
from the fin tip, the fin surface area should include the fin
tip area, i.e. A
f
= P*L + A
tip
. Only when there is no heat
transfer from the fin tip, e.g. in the long fin/adiabatic fin tip
case, A
f
= P*L.

f
A DL

(0.002)(0.01)
f
A
= 6.283x10
-5
m
2

5
0.4645
80 6.283 10 95
f


= 97.3%
(c) The effectiveness of the fin

2
,0
0.4645
19.45
80 ( / 4)(0.002) 95
f
f
c b
q
hA




(d) Area occupied by fin = N A
fb

where A
fb
= base area occupied by each fin = A
c,o
N = no of fins per m
2
Unfinned area = 1- N A
fb
= A
uf
Total heat transfer from finned and unfinned area
=
b uf f
hA Nq +
7
Heat transfer from 1 m
2
of plate
= 80(W/m
2
K) x 1 (m
2
) x 95 (K) = 7600 W
Hence, 76002 = N(0.4656) + 80 (1- NA
fb
) 95
Solving, N = 17,245
Problem - 4
For the thermocouple junction
k = 25 W/mK
c
p
= 380 J/kgK
= 8000 kg/m
3
Assumptions:
Uniform temperature of the junction at any instant of
time
8
Thermocouple
Thermocouple
Junction

T
= 250
o
C
Steam
h = 380 W/m
2
K
T
a at t=0
= 30
o
C
Negligible radiation effect
Negligible losses through leads due to conduction
Constant properties
The temperature variation with time is given by the
following expression
exp exp
s
i p
hA T T t
t
T T Vc

,
,

= time constant =
p
s
Vc
hA

2
s
A D
;
3
6
D
V

;
3
2
6 6
s
V D D
A D


8000 380
1
6 380 6
p
c
D D
h



D = 7.5x10
-4
m = 0.75 mm
Time required to attain temperature T = 240
o
C
( )
240-250
ln 1 ln
30-250
i
T T
t
T T

_
_

,
,
= 3.09 s
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