Zhou Hua, Yang Huayong The State Key Lab of Fluid Power Transmission and Control, Zhejiang University, 20# Yugu Road, Hangzhou, P.R. China zhouh@cmee.zju.edu.cn; yanghy@cmee.zju.edu.cn Olli Pohls Hytar Oy Water Hydraulics, Turjankatu 1 B, FIN-33100 Tampere, Finland olli.pohls@avs_yhtiot.fi

Water hydraulics is a new research area using filtered natural water or sea water as working medium in hydraulic systems instead of mineral oil with advantages of energy saving, fire resistance and no pollution. By the end of 1990s Zhejiang University decided to bring our state key laboratory to the very forefront of water hydraulics research by investing in a sophisticated and versatile test environment. The research objects, construction and control modes of the built Water Hydraulic Test Rig (WHTR) are introduced in this paper. Keywords: water hydraulic test rig, research objects, control modes, axial piston pump

water is the ultimate and most attempting choice. Industry’s interest in modern water hydraulics has also led to a steadily growing number of tasks to research institutes and universities involved in water hydraulics. Industry’s own investments in developing facilities for water hydraulics and founding of international associations and committees dedicated for promoting modern water hydraulics are worth mentioning in this context, too. In 1997, the State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power Transmission and Control (SKLOFP) of Zhejiang University decided to build a modern WHTR to test our own developed pumps and valves. We send out an inquiry to almost water hydraulics companies around the globe for the rig. Besides enabling study of basic physical phenomena the WHTR will also make it possible to develop water hydraulic components of our own. As the leading and most advanced North European water hydraulic systems engineering and manufacturing house Hytar Oy won the supplying contract, the heart of which is the by Hytar developed modern axial piston pump and motor capable of running even on sea water as the pressure media. Hence this writing tells about the modern WHTR, research objects, control modes and about the axial piston pump of Hytar’s.

For many decades water hydraulics has been used in applications where oil hydraulics has been ruled out because of its fire, explosion or product-spoiling risk. Well-known examples of these traditional application areas can be found e.g. from steel, mining, rubber or even offshore industry. Water hydraulics is also used in large fluid volume hydraulic systems such as press controls. However in afore-said applications pure water, or non-additive-containing water is rarely used as the pressure media, the vast majority of systems run on water-based fluids (HFA, HFB and HFC) of different kind instead. In 1990s industry throughout the world began to focus more and more in finding environment-friendly solutions for their processes and machinery. Since some form of hydraulics is today present at almost every machine, industry is very interested in substituting oil from hydraulic systems and, in that respect pure or tap



The following is research objects and subjects to be studied and researched with the aid of the water hydraulic test system [1]: • • Detection of performance and durability of water hydraulic pumps Testing of static and dynamic response of water hydraulic pumps

Supported by NSFC (No. 50005019 ) and '211' Engineering Fund of Education Ministry

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Use of manifold technology is beneficial and ideal from the avoidance of pipe fitting spills and maintenance point of view. The test system even includes an adapter and shaft coupling for rapid connection of SKLOFP’s own test pump with minimum of effort. pump and control valves of the test rig all present the latest state-of-the-art in the design and performance of modern water hydraulics. The WHTR (Fig. Fig. 2 of this paper.1) is an unique tailor-made test rig according to below technical specification: • • • • • • • • • p = 21 MPa Q = 40 l/min (pump).100 l/min (nominal design flow of valves) P = 45 kW (electric motor 380 VAC 50 Hz) n = 750 to 1500 RPM (frequency converter driven electric motor) V = 500 litres (water tank) PR = 2 kW (water heater in tank) PC = 45 kW (plate heat exchanger type cooler in return line) fluid: tap water @ max.3 Hytar cylinder (∅ 50/30-400) CONTROL MODE All measurement signals (torque. Furthermore the frequency converter ACS 600 of ABB Industry Oy used in the test system has its own display for rotational speed of pump. return line filter (10 µm abs. Furthermore below the tank can be found two inlet screens (80 MESH ≈ 177 µm) for pump and a reserve tank outlet line. The WHTR is a stand-alone type unit that carries all hydraulic and electric components and instrumentation on its steel-fabricated frame. High pressure piping and tank are manufactured of stainless steel. pressures) with LED display can be hooked to computerised data acquisition system via the terminal blocks in the electric connection cabinet of the rig’s. e. up/down speed ramps. +45°C versatile instrumentation with digital displays: torque (0-500 Nm) pump case bleed (DN 15 paddle wheel transmitter) return line flow (DN 40 paddle wheel transmitter) water temperature in tank (–50…+50°C) water temperature in pressure line (-50…+50°C) 3 off high pressure (0-250 bar) pressure (0-10bar) vacuum pressure gauge-switch (-1 . These on/off-signal cables are connected to the terminal blocks.• • • Obtaining of actual wear condition and wear particles of water hydraulic components Determination of cavitation characteristics of water hydraulic pumps and valves Study on typical velocity or force control system. directional control valves utilise ceramic spool valve technology as well as well-proven seat technology. Cylinder. temperatures.). A stainless double acting cylinder (∅ 50/30-400) manufactured by Hytar Oy (Fig. The PID control macro is used for controlling a process variable - .g. On/off control signals to the solenoid valves of the test rig come from the user’s control system or mere electric switches depending on the use or test set up of the test system. The WHTR is equipped with three filters: high pressure filter (10 µm abs. The frequency converter has a multiple choice of functions to be utilised upon user’s need: menu-programmable PID control. Circuit diagram of the WHTR is presented in Fig.). prevention of pump running dry or under vacuum etc. It also enables an easy and swift change between original control valves of the system and valves to be developed by the SKLOFP. flow rates.+9 bar) high pressure gauge-switch (0-250 bar). Following the practise of modern power hydraulics all high pressure control valves are mounted on/in a machined valve manifold allowing construction of a rather complex valve circuit in an utter dense package. 3) is also included in the scope of delivery to widen the research possibilities on the test system. The following describes the operation diagram and control mode and control signal connections for the PID control macro of the frequency converter.) and tank-fill filter (10 µm abs.

Default signals for the Actual Signal Display Mode of the Control Panel are SPEED.4 is the schematic diagram of the PID control mode selection for the system's parameters. Table 1) which was later launched as an axial piston motor as well [2-4]. Selection between the direct speed control and the process variable control is done with digital input DI3.T Frequency Converter M Shaft Coupling Fig. .5 Operation Diagram for the PID Control Macro AXIAL PISTON PUMP Besides the traditional application areas of water hydraulics Hytar Oy has always been most eager in seeking for non-traditional and new applications for modern water hydraulics or technology related to handling of pressurised water. a direct speed reference can be given to the ACS 600 through analogue input AI1. The process reference signal of the PID control macro is connected to analogue input AI1 and process feedback signal to analogue input AI2. 6. ACTUAL VALUE1.Q n.4 Schematic diagram of the PID control mode selection for the system's parameters Input Power Ref. toque.such as pressure or flow . As a token of its commitment to promote and widen application possibilities of modern water hydraulics Hytar Oy developed a fixed displacement axial piston pump (Fig. Fig. The rotation speed.by controlling the speed of the driven electric motor. Fig. Alternatively. and CONTROL DEVIATION. delivery pressure and flow rate of the pump should be controlled by the PID control macro. Then the PID controller is bypassed and the ACS 600 no longer controls the process variable. Speed PT DI1 DI2 DI3 DI5 DI4 AI2 A AO2 Current Cabinet RO1 RO2 RO3 Replay Outputs EXT1(rpm)=Direct Speed Control EXT2(%) = Process PID Control M 3~ Motor Fig.T n. Two analogue and three relay output signals are available on terminal blocks.5 is the operation diagram for the PID control macro. P .Q Control Mode Selection Input - PID Control Macro P . EXT1 n EXT2 AO1 AI1 PID Speed Actual value START/STOP(EXT1) START/STOP(EXT2) Speed/Process (EXT1/EXT2) Run Enable Const.

Vilenius M. The 6th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power. pressure and bleed connection upwards 40°C (100°F) Clockwise (Counter clockwise upon request) 26 kg (57 lb) CONCLUSION Once fully commissioned during autumn 2000 the Water Hydraulic Test Rig has given the Zhejiang University a versatile tool to carry out comprehensive research of modern water hydraulics and to study physical phenomena of water itself and. to promote the use of environment-friendly technology in our region of world. Denmark. The 6th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power. Diagnosis of Cavitation Inception in Water Hydraulic Piston Pump. Kuikko T. Ahola M. Lyngby. [4] Kuikko T. REFERENCES [1] Hua Zhou.. Sea Water Axial Piston Pump and Motor. Development of Sea Water Hydraulic Power Pack.. [2] Terävä J. Both of these two departments wish that the WHTR help to build both scientific and human bridges between different cultures across the world... (87 Psia) 10 µm (abs. Tampere. . September 26-29.6 Hytar Axial Piston Pump (App) / Motor (Apm) Table 1 Hytar APP pumps Model Displacement Max speed Min speed Max output pressure Min inlet pressure Max inlet pressure Filtration Mounting position Max operating temperature Direction of rotation Weight APP20R 20 cm3 1800 rpm APP31R 31 cm3 1800 rpm APP40R 40 cm3 1500 rpm (1800 rpm with boosted inlet) 600 rpm 210 bar (3000 Psig) 210 bar (3000 Psig) 160 bar (2300 Psig) 1. Zhejiang University is grateful of Hytar Oy carrying out successfully the manufacture of the test rig. Finland. International Workshop on Water Hydraulic Systems and Applications. 1999. May 26-28.. Huayong Yang.1 bar abs. (16 Psia) 6.Fig. [3] Pohls O. September 3-4.0 bar abs. May 26-28. Tampere. The 4th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power. Finland. 1999. Tampere. 1995. Kuikko T. Sea Water Hydraulic Axial Piston Machine. Rantanen O. Finland.) Horizontal.

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