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Part 0 UNITS: SYSTEMS, CONVERSION AND CONSISTENCY



0.1 INTRODUCTION SYSTEMS OF UNITS

Any measured quantity has a numerical value (e.g. 2.47) and a unit (whatever there are 2.47 of,
e.g. metres, seconds, kilograms, US dollars etc.).

A dimension is a property that can be measured such as length, time etc. There are seven base
dimensions, of which we will be concerned with the first five: length, time, mass, temperature, and
amount of substance (the other two are electric current and light intensity).

A system of units consists of the following components:
Base units for the base dimensions (e.g. metres, seconds etc).
Multiple units which are multiples or fractions of the base units (e.g. millimetres, minutes etc.).
These are used solely for convenience for quantities which are much smaller or larger than the base
unit.
Derived units which can be obtained from the base units (e.g. m
3
, Newtons, Joules etc.).

The most common systems of units are SI (Systme Internationale dUnits), CGS system
(centimetre, gram, second similar to SI), and the FPS system (foot, pound, second this system
includes both the Americal Engineering System and the similar British Imperial version). Table 1
shows the base units for these three systems, while multiple unit preferences and some common
derived units are shown in tables 2 & 3. You should always use SI units for your final answers,
however chemical engineering data often comes in other units and you need to be able to convert
between different units (see section 2 below). Other base units are often used, for example inches or
yards (1 yd 3 ft) for length, tonnes (1 metric ton 1000 kg) and tons (1 ton 1016 kg) for mass.

SI CGS system FPS units
Quantity Unit Symbol Unit Symbol Unit Symbol
Length metre m centimetre cm foot ft
Mass kilogram kg gram g pound lb
m

Time second s second s second s
Temperature Kelvin K Kelvin K Rankine R
Amount of
material
gram-mole mol or
g-mole
gram-mole mol or
g-mole
pound-mole lb-mol

Table 1. Base units for the SI, CGS and FPS unit systems.


Note that prefixes for multiples are part of the unit [i.e. mm
3
is (mm)
3
not m(m)
3
], and multiples
should be used only in the numerator of derived units (e.g. GN m
2
, not kN mm
2
).

2

Multiple unit preferences
tera T 10
12
centi c 10
-2

giga G 10
9
milli m 10
-3

mega M 10
6
micro 10
-6

kilo k 10
3
nano n 10
-9


Table 2. Multiple unit preferences. Note that the multiples
hecto, deca and deci (10
2
, 10
1
, 10
-1
) are not preferred.


Quantity Unit Symbol Equivalent
Volume litre
Imperial gallon
US gallon
barrel
l
Imp. gal
US gal
bbl
0.001 m
2
or 1000 cm
3

4.546 L
3.785 L
42 US gal
Force Newton
dyne
pounds force
N
dyne
lb
f

1 kgm s
2

1 gcm s
2

32.174 lb
m
ft s
2

Pressure Pascal
bar
standard atmosphere
pounds per square inch
mm of mercury
Pa
bar
atm
psi
mm Hg
N m
2

10
5
N m
2

1.01325 bar
lb
f
in
2

1
760
atm
Energy Joule
erg
calorie
British thermal unit
J
erg
cal
BTU
1 kgm
2
s
2
(1 Nm)
1 gcm
2
s
2
(1 dynecm)
4.184 J
252 cal
Power Watt
horsepower
W
hp
1 J s
1

746 W

Table 3. Some common derived units.


Some derived units have unusual conversion factors related to their definition. For example:
1 pound force (lb
f
) is defined as the weight of 1 lb
m
in the gravitational field on the surface of the
earth (32.174 ft s
2
), and 1 calorie is defined as the energy required to heat one gram of water by
1 C.
Conversion factors for most of the units which you will come across are given in appendix 1.
3

0.2 CONVERSION BETWEEN SYSTEMS OF UNITS

Tables of conversion factors (e.g. pages 1-4 to 1-20 of Perrys Chemical Engineering Handbook)
can be used to convert between different units. Conversion factors for most of the units which you
will come across are given in appendix 1. These conversion factors are ratios between different
units. For example the conversion factor between feet and metres is defined by:

1 ft 0.3048 m

The conversion factor is thus given by the ratio
0.3048 m
1 ft
.

Example 0.1: Express a length of 47 feet in metres.

Length = 47 ft 0.3048 m = 14.3 m
1 ft

Notice that by retaining the units in the equation we ensure that the conversion factor is used
correctly.



Example 0.2: Express a speed of 72 mph in m s
1
, given that there are 5280 ft in 1 mile

Speed = 72
miles
hr
5280
ft
mile
0.3048
m
ft

1 hr
3600 s
= 32.2 m s
1



You will be familiar with the SI unit for the amount of material 1 mole is defined as the amount
of substance which contains as many elementary entities (e.g. atoms, molecules, ionic groups etc.)
as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of Carbon 12 (i.e. 6.02210
23
atoms, molecules or ions per mole).
This is sometimes called a gram-mole, consistent with the alternative and less familiar units
lb-moles. A lb-mole is defined as the amount of substance that contains as many elementary
entities (e.g. atoms, molecules, ionic groups) as there are atoms in exactly 12 lb
m
of Carbon 12.

To convert from lb-moles to g-moles, we use the same conversion factor as for converting lb
m
to g
(453.6g per lb
m
):

1 lb-mole = 12 lb
m
of C
12
1000 g 1g-mole = 453.6 g-mole
2.2046 lb
m
12g of C
12


Complications can arise when converting units of pressure and temperature, which are often
measured relative to an arbitrary value. Care must be taken when using such relative units.

0.2.1 Absolute and Gauge Pressure

Pressure gauges often measure pressures relative to the pressure of the surrounding air (barometric
pressure). Thus gauge pressure is zero at barometric pressure, while absolute pressure is zero at
absolute vacuum, the lowest conceivable pressure.

4

ABSOLUTE PRESSURE = GAUGE PRESSURE + BAROMETRIC PRESSURE

Note that barometric pressure can vary with weather, location and altitude. If the barometric
pressure changes, the gauge pressure will change for the same absolute pressure.

When the absolute pressure is less than the barometric pressure, the gauge pressure is negative,
indicating a vacuum.

Units of pressure sometimes indicate whether they are gauge or absolute by adding a g or a, in
particular:

bar bara absolute pressure in bar
barg gauge pressure in bar

psi psia absolute pressure in lb
f
in
2

psig gauge pressure in lb
f
in
2


[Note the difference between pound force and pound mass tables 1 and 3].

In addition, the difference in pressure between two different points is often measured.


Example 0.3: A pressure gauge reads 7.4 psig. Convert this to absolute pressure in Pa, assuming
that the barometric pressure is at standard atmospheric pressure. [1 kg 2.2046 lb
m
]

Absolute pressure = 7.4 lb
f
32.174 lb
m
ft s
2
(12)
2
in
2
1 ft 1 kg 1 Pa + 1.0132510
5
Pa
in
2
1 lb
f
1 ft
2
0.3048 m 2.2046 lb
m
1kgm
1
s
2


Absolute pressure = 1.5210
5
Pa


0.2.2 Units of Temperature

There are four temperature scales: kelvin (K), celsius (C), Rankine (R) and Fahrenheit (F).
The commonly used celsius and fahrenheit scales are defined using the freezing point (T
f
) and
boiling point of water (T
b
) at a pressure of 1 atm.

Celsius: T
f
is assigned a value of 0C T
b
is assigned a value of 100C
Fahrenheit: T
f
is assigned a value of 32F T
b
is assigned a value of 212F

The Kelvin and Rankine scales are defined such that absolute zero has a value of zero. A Kelvin
degree is the same as a Celsius degree, while a Rankine degree is the same size as a Fahrenheit
degree. Figure 1 shows a diagram which illustrates the relationship between the different scales.
The following mathematical relationships can be used:

T(K) = T(C) + 273.15 (1)

T(R) = T(F) + 459.67 (2)

T(R) = 1.8T(K) (3)

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T(F) = 1.8T(C) +32 (4)

T(C) = [T(F) 32] 5/9 (5)

When converting between different temperature scales you must be very careful to distinguish
between temperatures and temperature differences. This is because the Celsius and Fahrenheit
scales have different zero points (i.e. the temperature of 0C is not equal to 0F, but a temperature
difference of 0C is the same as a temperature difference of 0F. You cannot use simple conversion
factors when converting between temperatures, you must use equations 1 to 5 above.

The relationships between temperature differences are as follows:

1C 1.8F [ of course 1C 1K & 1F 1R] (6)

1K 1.8R (7)


Figure 0.1 Schematic diagram illustrating the relationship between the four temperature scales.

Example 0.4: Consider the interval 20F to 80F.
(a) Express the two temperatures in C and thus the interval between them.
(b) Calculate the temperature difference between 20F to 80F in C directly.

(a) Equation (5): T(C) = (T(F) 32) 5/9
So that T
1
(20F) =
\

|
|
20 32
1.8
C = 6.7C
T
2
(80F) =
\

|
|
20 32
1.8
C = 26.6C
and T
2
T
1
= (26.6 (6.6))C = 33.3C

(b) T(C) = T(F) 1C = (80 20)F 1C = 33.3C
1.8F 1.8F


Celsius Kelvin Fahrenheit Rankine
Normal Boiling
Point of Water
373.15
Freezing Point
of Water
Absolute Zero
0
- 273.15
100
273.15
0 0
32
212 671.7
491.7
- 459.7
6

Example 0.5: Convert 1.053 kJ lb
m
1
F
1
, the specific heat capacity of water is into units of
kJ kg
1
C
1
.

Specific heat capacity relates to a change in temperature and therefore temperature differences, and
the conversion factor (1C 1.8F) should be used (and not equation 4).

1.053
kJ
lb
m
F

2.2046 lb
m
1 kg

1.8F
1C
= 4.18 kJ kg
1
C
1



In general, equations (1 to 5) should only be used to convert between different temperature scales
(e.g. converting a temperature in F to C), while the conversion factors should normally be used to
convert from quantities expressed in one unit of temperature to another (e.g. specific heat capacity
or other thermodynamic properties).





0.3 DIMENSIONAL HOMOGENEITY

Every valid equation must be dimensionally homogeneous: that is all additive terms on both sides
of the equation must have the same units. It is a good idea to check the consistency of the units in
any equation you derive in order to reduce errors.

Consider an equation such as:

C(m
3
s
1
) = 3{2 + D(m)} (8)

where C is a volumetric flowrate in m
3
s
1
and D is a length in units of m.

If the equation is valid, what are the units of the constants 3 and 2?

Only quantities of the same units (and thus dimensions) may be added to (or subtracted from)
one another.

The constant 2 therefore must have the same units as D (m) if the equation is valid. The right hand
side of the equation: 3(2 + D) must have the same units as C. The constant 3 therefore has the
units of m
2
s
1
.

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Example 0.6: Derive an equation between C(ft
3
min
1
) and D(ft) from equation (8), where C(ft
3

min
1
) is the volumetric flowrate C(m
3
s
1
) expressed in ft
3
min
1
and D(ft) is length D(m)
expressed in ft. First we need to find a relationship between C in m
3
s
1
and C in ft
3
min
1
:

C(m
3
s
1
) = Cft
3
(0.3048)
3
m
3
1 min = 4.719 10
4
C(ft
3
min
1
) (A)
min (1)
3
ft
3
60 s

Similarly we can find a relations ship between D in m and D in ft:

D(m) = Dft 0.3048m = 0.3048 D(ft) (B)
1ft

In order to convert equation 8 into a relationship between C(ft
3
min
1
) and D(ft), we simply
substitute for C(m
3
s
1
) and D(m) using (A) and (B) above:

4.719 10
4
C(ft
3
min
1
) = 3{2 + 0.3048D(ft)}

Dividing through by 4.719 10
4
and taking 0.3048 out of the brackets on the right hand side we
obtain:

C(ft
3
min
1
) = 1938{6.562 + D(ft)} (C)

We can check the answer with an example: if D = 1 m, from (8) C = 9 m
3
s
1
. Now converting the
units of C and D we obtain C = 19070 ft
3
min
1
and D = 3.281 ft. Substituting D =3.281 ft into
(C) above we obtain C = 19071 ft
3
min
1
as before, confirming that the equation is correct (to four
significant figures).


A dimensionless quantity can be a pure number (e.g. 2, 1.3) or a combination of variables with no
net dimensions:


M(g)
M
0
(g)

D(cm)u(cm/s)(g/cm
3
)
[g/(cms)]


These combined quantities are called dimensionless groups.

Exponents (such as the 2 in x
2
), transcendental functions (such as log, exp and sin) and
arguments of transcendental functions (such as x in sin x) must be dimensionless quantities.
For example 10
2
is OK but 10
2C
is meaningless.


0.4 COMPOSITIONS OF MIXTURES

Chemical engineers rarely work with pure materials, we mostly work with mixtures. We therefore
need the ability to accurately and unambiguously define the compositions of any mixtures that we
work with. In some problems in the EBL problem book the feed composition is given in units of %
w/w. Percentages can also be expressed in moles or volumes and there are many other ways to
represent composition information. Where reactions are involved it is often necessary to work in
moles in order to handle the reaction stoichiometry. For liquids the most common units are mass
8

and mole fractions (or %w/w and mol%). In order to convert from mass fractions to mole fraction
the following equations is used:

Mole fraction of i =
(mass of i)
(M
W
of i)

j

(mass of j)
(M
W
of j)
(9)


Example 0.7: A hydrocarbon mixture has a composition of 3.9 % w/w H
2
, 40.2 % w/w CH
4
and
55.9 % w/w C
2
H
6
. What is its composition on a molar basis ?

The problem can be solved by setting out a table of the components, their molecular weights and
mass of each component in (say) 100g of the mixture. The number of moles of each component is
then calculated by dividing its mass by the molecular weight. The mole fraction of each
component is then computed from the ratio of the number of moles of that component to the total
number of moles.

M
W
mass(g) moles mole fraction
H
2
2 3.9 3.9/2 = 1.95 1.95/6.32 = 0.309
CH
4
16 40.2 40.2/16 = 2.51 2.51/6.32 = 0.397
C
2
H
6
30 55.9 55.9/30 = 1.86 1.86/6.32 = 0.294
100.0 6.32 1.000


Concentrations are sometimes used for liquids, and these can be expressed either as molar or mass
concentrations (moles per unit volume e.g. molarity mol l
1
or mass per unit volume
e.g. mg l
1
). For gases volume concentration or volume fraction is often used. This is defined as:

v
i
=
volume of component i
total volume of mixture
(10)

%v/v = = 100 v
i
(11)

where the volume of component i is the volume that would be occupied by the pure component i
which is present in the mixture, at the same temperature and pressure as the mixture. The volume
fraction of a component is equivalent to its mole fraction for ideal gases (see section on partial
pressures below).

It is sometimes useful to use the average molecular weight of a mixture, which is the ratio of the
mass of a sample of the mixture to the number of moles of all species in the sample. In Example
0.1 above the average molecular weight of the hydrocarbon mixture can be obtained from the table
as
W
M = 100.0/6.32 = 15.8 g mol
1
. In general the average molecular weight can be calculated
from:




W
M =
i
y
i
M
i
(12)
9


where y
i
and M
i
are the mole fraction and molecular weight respectively of the ith component.


Example 0.8: Calculate the average molecular weight of air from its approximate composition of
79% N
2
and 21% O
2
.


W
M = 0.79 mol N
2
28 g N
2
+ 0.21 mol O
2
32 g O
2
= 29 g mol
1

mol mol N
2
mol mol O
2



0.4.1 Component Free Units e.g. composition on a dry basis

Common techniques for the analysis of gases frequently provide compositions on a dry basis
indicating the composition of the gas without water. For example a gas which contains 33.3 mole%
CO
2
, 33.3% N
2
and 33.3% H
2
O contains 50 % CO
2
and 50% N
2
on a dry basis.

Example 0.9: A stack gas contains 60.0 mole% N
2
, 15.0% CO
2
, 10% O
2
and the balance H
2
O.
Calculate the molar composition of the gas on a dry basis.

moles moles (dry basis) mole% (dry gas)
N
2
60.0 60.0 100%60.0/85.0 = 70.6
CO
2
15.0 15.0 100%15.0/85.0 = 17.6
O
2
10.0 10.0 100%10.0/85.0 = 11.8
H
2
O 15.0
100.0 85.0

Example 0.10: A stack gas analysis gives a dry basis composition of 65% N
2
, 14% CO
2
, 11% CO
and 10% O
2
. A humidity measurement shows that the mole fraction of H
2
O in the stack gas is
0.0700. Calculate the stack gas composition on a wet basis.

Consider 100 moles of wet gas. This will contain 7.0 moles of water and 93 moles of dry gas.

Moles mole%(dry basis) moles (wet) mole% (wet)
N
2

65 0.6593.0 = 60.45
CO
2
` 93.0 14 0.1493.0 = 13.02
CO 11 0.1193.0 = 10.23
O
2

)
10 0.1093.0 = 9.30
H
2
O 7.0 7.00
100.0 100.00



10

0.4.2 Partial pressures and Daltons law

The partial pressure of a component in a gas mixture (p
i
) is that pressure which the component
would exert if present alone in the same volume as occupied by the mixture and at the same
temperature T. For ideal gases, the partial pressure of a gas can be used as a measure of
composition. All pure gases and gaseous mixtures can be assumed to behave ideally up to a
pressure of 10atm, so that

PV = nRT (13)

where the universal gas constant R = 8.3143 kJ kmol
1
K
1
. At standard temperature and pressure
(STP, 0C and 1atm) this gives a standard molar volume V/n of 22.414 m
3
kmol
1
.


Aside: It is often necessary to calculate the volume of a gas V at a temperature T and pressure P. A
good way of doing this is to apply the ideal gas law in the form:


P
1
V
1
T
1
=
P
0
V
0
T
0
= nR

so that

V
1
= V
0

P
0
P
1

T
1
T
0
= n22.414m
3
/kmol
P
0
P
1

T
1
T
0
(14)

where subscript zero indicates standard conditions. This avoids the need to correct units of
pressure.

Example 0.11: The volume of a balloon is found to be 2.50 litres at 25C and 765 mm Hg.
Estimate the volume of the balloon at STP and in the Sahara desert where the pressure and
temperature are 750 mm Hg and 45C

At STP V
0
= 2.5 litres 765 mm Hg 273.15 K = 2.31 litres
760 mm Hg 298.15 K

In the desert

V
1
= 2.5 litres 765 mm Hg 318.15 K = 2.72 litres
750 mm Hg 298.15 K


Consider a gaseous mixture consisting of n
A
kmol of component A, n
B
kmol of component B and n
C

kmol of component C at a total pressure P and absolute temperature T. The ideal gas law gives

PV = (n
A
+ n
B
+ n
C
)RT (15)

where V is the volume of the mixture. The definition of partial pressure gives

P
A
V = n
A
RT (16a)
P
B
V = n
B
RT (16b)
P
C
V = n
C
RT (16c)
11


Summing these three equations and comparing with equation (15) gives Daltons law

P = P
A
+ P
B
+ P
C
(17)

The total pressure of a gaseous mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases.



Dividing equation (16a) by equation (15) gives a more useful formulation of Daltons law

P
A
= y
A
P (18)

Equation (18) is important and useful, but is often forgotten or misunderstood.

For volume fractions we can write

Pv
A
= n
A
RT (19)

and dividing by equation (13) we obtain

volume fraction of A =
v
A
V
=
n
A
n
= y
A
(20)


Example 0.12: A mixture of acetone and nitrogen at a temperature of 35C and pressure of 6.3 atm
gauge is flowing at a rate of 1.2 m
3
s
1
. If the partial pressure of acetone in the stream is p
A
= 501
mm Hg and the ambient pressure is 765 mm Hg determine the flow rate of acetone in kmol min
1
.

First obtain total molar flow rate n using equation 14.

1.2 m
3
s
1
= n
22.414m
3
kmol

760 mmHg
(765 + 6.3760)mmHg

308.15K
273.15K


n = 1.2 m
3
273.15K 5553 mm Hg 1 kmol 60s = 20.8 kmol min
1

s 308.15K 760 mm Hg 22.414m
3
1min

p
A
= y
A
P =
n
A
n
P n
A
=
p
A
P
n

n
A
= 501 mm Hg 20.8 kmol = 1.88 kmol min
1

5553 mm Hg min

12

APPENDIX 0.1: CONVERSION FACTORS


Length: 1 m = 3.281 ft
= 1.094 yd
= 6.21410
4
mile

Volume: 1 m
3
= 35.31 ft
3

= 264.2 US gal
= 6.29 bbl (barrel)
= 220 Imp. gal
= 1000 litres

Mass: 1 kg = 2.205 lb
m

= 9.8410
4
ton (or long ton)
= 110
3
tonne (or metric tonne)
= 1.54310
4
grain
= 0.01968 cwt

Force: 1 N = 1 kgm s
2

= 110
5
dyne (gcm s
2
)
= 0.2248 lb
f


Pressure: 1 N m
2
= 1 Pa = 1 kg m
1
s
2

= 1.45010
4
lb
f
in
2
(psi)
= 9.86910
6
atm
= 110
5
bar
= 7.5010
3
mm Hg or torr

Energy: 1 J = 9.47810
4
Btu
= 2.77810
7
kW-hr
= 0.2388 cal
= 10
7
erg (gcm
2
s
2
or dynecm)

Power: 1 W = 1.36010
3
hp

Temperature: T(F) = 1.8 T(C) + 32
T(K) = T(C) + 273
T(R) = T(F) + 459

Viscosity: 1 kg m
1
s
1
= 1 Pas = 1000 centipoise

Amount of material: 1 mole (g-mole) = 2.20510
3
lb-mole
= 110
3
kmol (kg-mole)

13

A FEW PROBLEMS TO TEST YOURSELF:

1. Unit conversion (Section 1 & 2):
(a) There must be millions of milliseconds in a week. How many are there?
(b) We are travelling at a staggering 38.1 feet per second announced the train driver. How
fast is the train travelling in mph?
(c) Convert 554 m
4
day
1
kg
1
into cm
4
min
1
g
1
.
(d) An American customer asks The density of your product is 921 kg m
3
, whats that in lb
m

ft
3
? What is your reply?

2. (Section 2.1) A pressure gauge indicates that the pressure inside a reaction vessel is 312.2 psig.
If the barometric pressure is 753 mm Hg what is the vessel's absolute pressure in kPa?

3. (Sections 1 & 2) You find a useful equation in an old text book. There is a sample calculation,
but you suspect that the value of the Universal gas constant used (0.073 atm ft
3
lb-mol
1
R
1
) is
wrong. What is the correct value in these units (atm ft
3
lb-mol
1
R
1
)? [R = 8.314 J mol
1
K
1
]

4. (Section 4) A gaseous mixture at 3 barg contains 32.9 mol% He, 40.7 mol% N
2
and 26.4 mol%
Ar. What is the composition of this mixture on a mass basis? If the barometric pressure is 758
mm Hg, what is the N
2
partial pressure p
N
2
?
MW (He) = 4.003 MW (N
2
) = 28.02 MW (Ar) = 39.95

5. (Section 4) A fuel has the following composition on a molar basis: 40.0% CH
4
,
24.0% C
2
H
4
, 16% C
3
H
8
, 10% CO
2
, 10% H
2
O. What is the composition of the fuel on a dry
basis? What is the composition of the fuel on a mass basis? What is the average molecular
weight of the fuel? [Relative atomic masses: O = 16, C = 12, H = 1]

6. (Section 2.2):
(a) Convert the temperature T = 85F to R, C, and K
(b) Convert the temperature difference T = 85C to K, F, and R

7. (Section 3) A seed crystal of diameter D(mm) is placed in a solution of dissolved salt, and new
crystals are observed to nucleate (form) at a constant rate r(crystals min
1
). Experiments with
seed crystals of different sizes show that the rate of nucleation varies with the seed crystal
diameter as

r(crystals min
1
) = 200D + 10D
2
where D is in mm.

(a) What are the units of the constants 200 and 10?

(b) Calculate the crystal nucleation rate in crystals s
1
for to a seed crystal diameter of 0.05inch.

(c) Derive a formula for r(crystals s
1
) in terms of D(in). Check the formula with the
result of (b).


14

Answers:

1. (a) 6.0510
8
ms (b) 26.0 mph (c) 38,500 cm
4
min
1
g
1
(d) 57.5 lb
m
ft
3


2. 2253 kPa

3. 0.730 atm ft
3
lb-mol
1
R
1


4. 5.7 %w/w He, 49.0 %w/w N
2
, 45.3 %w/w Ar, p
N
2
= 1.63 . 10
5
N m
2


5. 44.4 mol% CH
4
dry basis, 24.3 %w/w CH
4
, average molecular weight 26.4.

6. (a) 544R, 29C, 303K (b) 85K, 153F, 153R

7. (a) 200 crystals min
1
mm
1
, 10 crystals min
1
mm
2

(b) 4.5 crystals s
1

(c) r(crystals s
1
) = 84.67D + 107.53D
2