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Precautions 1. during DG Ldg 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Heavy Weather preparation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Documentation Responsible Officer No intoxicated person in charge No unauthorised person around Stow where no damage easily Emg. Equipment ready (fire, pollution) Dry compartment to be used Cargo handling equip. to be checked Cargo handling in good weather Port permission, fire wires in place Packing + segregation as per IMDG Precautions NO smoking / fires etc Vessels position / route TRS position Stability FSE Inform all Secure anchors Secure lift appliances Secure cargo Secure loose gear Secure hatches W/T integrity Name of ship & CS Name of manufacturer No of persons Serial numberlength of painter Height of stowage Name of ship & CS Port of registry Nr. of persons Vent at least 15 mins Harness / lifeline ELSA at bottom SCBA at entrance Stop engines Raise alarm Inform master Batten hatches / gas free tanks Lower derricks Stability +ve FSE minimum Lock toilets Lock up / security

Electrical equip. in good condition Access to DG safe (in case to shift) Clothing (Safety) + SCBA stby Handling of cargo minimum Ventilation good + spark arresters B flag / Red light Explosive in designed safe compartment away fm heat, no bad packing 20. Tanks not to be overfilled 21. Label as per IMDG + in good condn. 22. Supplement: (IMDG)- EMS sec 1 MFAG sec 2 BC Code sec 2 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Secure gangway Secure bridge Secure halyards Secure awnings Heavy weather work routine Minimum manpower on deck Reschedule eta Logbook entry Rig lifeline Reduce speed - pounding

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

Liferaft markings

6. SOLAS pack type 7. Approving authority 8. Port of registry 9. Last serviced date Launching instructions 4. Serial Nr. 5. Dimension Retro-reflective tape 5. 6. 7. 8. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. O2 + HC content check Inform Lighting Man stby at entrance Display signals (NUC) Switch on deck lights + Ch.Off. duties Draught / trim Fenders Sound all tanks Documents to drydock Utilities Sound all blocks

Lifeboat markings

Pump room Entry

OOW groundg collision Entering Drydock

Leaving Drydock

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Repair list Plugs put back Sound tanks compare Check anchor Check no overhanging Check no obstructions

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Final checklist Masters satisfaction Last person to leave dock Re-calculate stability Permission to flood Stop flooding just before afloat + check overboard v/vs holding

Utilities in Dry Dock

1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Electrical power Cooling Water Phone DCP 2 x 45 kg Foam Applicator CO2 18 Kg x 1 2 hoses dual

4. 5. 6. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Gangway Toilet Bonding wire. Fire blanket Sand box Wire Cutter Fire Axe

Heli Ops Fire Equip.

Rescue Operation Preparation Pilot ladder

1. prepare hospital, bed stretcher,blanket clothing, food water, medicines Navigation - target info. Rendezvous Weather, tides, hand strg, radar, Commercial off stndby, look outs, binocular, camera, l-boat , l-raft, crane ,LTA, lighting, inform company update ETA, guest wrap, highlight danger, signalling equip & pyro techniques. inform MRCC, Step hard wood (ash, oak,elm,teak) without knot. Non slippery 400 x 115 x 25 mm spacing min 300mm to max 380 mm bottom 4 steps of rubber not more than 2 replacements 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Angle between runner not greater than 900, never exceed 1200 Cargo sling should be short Derrick not to be far apart & at good height Particulars of ship Name / address of owners Safety appliances for the nos of persons Signature of the surveyor LSA Fire detection and alarms systems Fire extinguishers Emg. Control quick closing v/v, stops Heavy Wx strops Painter Buoyant line 50m strong to tow l/boat 2 rescue quoits - 30 m buoyant line sea anchor with trip line min hawser 10m buoyant oars crutches hooks buckets Position Depth / nos of shackles Type of ground Tides rising, current rate Present weather Shelter Expected weather Any underwater obstructions Spreader (1200 2000 x 115 x 25 mm) Hard wood without knots 5th step must be spreader spaced not more than 9 step apart side rope : manila 18 mm, single rope , no knot, man rope 20 mm 4. 5. 6. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. SWL 1/3 of normal SWL Preventer taut outboard and not on same eye as slewing guys Preventer angle to horizontal not to be too high Emg. Electrical power Nav equipmments. Nav lights Pyrotechnics Misc - damage control & fire plans Ladder pilot, Accom, bulwark, pilot hoist. Stability info, EPIRB, SART, 2 way VHF bailer axe search light 18m object, from 180 m, 6 hrs wkg. Flashlight spare bulb & battery Radar reflector Whistle Immersion suit TPA First Aid Kit Compass and binnacle with light Swing room clear of surface object Proximity of traffic Proximity of Nav hazards Draught and under keel clearance Anchor nos Anchor holding position Length of stay Method of position fix Distance launch station

Union Purchase

Contents of SEQ Cert.

Rescue Boat Equipments

Anchor Plan

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Safety Officer (Min 2 yrs Sea service)

1. 2. 3.

Ensure COSWP & Employers Occupations Health & Safety procedures folowed. Impress safety consciousness in crew Investigate accidents, dangerous occurrence, hazards

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Loadline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Make recommendations Inspection Occup. Health & Safety insp. Every 3 months Make representation / recommendation to master Maintain record book of accidents and near misses Make available record book to representatives committee, master, MCA Stop work if dangerous and serious accidents could occur and inform Master Make inspection as reqd. by safety committee ventilator closing mechanism capable WT non-return valves onbd ok air pipes caps in place W/T cargo ports capable W/T below freeboard deck side scuttle below freeboard deck efficient internal WT 14. rails, bulwarks ok 15. lifeline rigged / ohauled 16. derust & paint Load Line / marks, deck line, draught marks Additional: 1. certificates and records for insp. 2. Master to provide adequate stab. Info onbd. 3. Adequate crew to open hatches, rig ladders, etc. 4. All keys available. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

7. 8. Stability 1. Info. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Heavy Lift

Access opening at end enclosed structure to be WT. dogs, clamps, gaskets to be in good condt Cargo hatches & hold access to be WT. cleats, wedges in good condt. Portable beams securing efficiency to be in good condt Hatch boards, steel bands 2 tarpaulins waterproof, approved type & quality OK if tarpaulins and portable hatch covers are usedsteel locking bars / section and if cover >1.5m length, 2 steel lock bar/ section machinery, space openings on exposed deck inspect manholes / flush scuttles WT

General particulars name, official nr., NRT, GRT, DWT, dimension, displacement, draught at summer loadline General arrangement profile view, and if necessary planned view compartments, tanks, stores, accommodation and disposition from mid-ship Capacities, vertical & longitudinal CG of compartments capable of carrying cargo, fuel, water and stores Estimate weight, and vertical & longitudinal CG of Pax, crew effects Estimate weight and vertical & longitudinal CG of max deck cargo + 15% allowance for absorption. DWT scale / diagram, - loadlines, DWT, displacement, TPC light to deepest draught. Hydrostatic table / diagram transverse height of meta-centre, MCTC Free Surface Moments of tanks and capable of carrying liquid and how to be used to find GM KN curves / tables for light to deepest draughts / if tables closely spaced to allow for interpolation. Pre-worked sea condition for light ship, ballast, arr/dep. Homogenous loaded arr/dep. Service loaded arr/dep. Drydock arr/dep to include for each condt. profile diagram indicating GM / GZ curve. Light ship + disposition of weight, warnings of dangers Special condition (cautionary notes) to maintain adequate stability Inclining experiment report showing calculation used for light ship info Stress (longitudinal) infor for >150m length ships. 1. Stability 8. Gangways 2. Rig derricks 9. Lifting points 3. Moorings 10. Guys / stays 4. Winch 11. Daylight operation 5. Data 12. Clear obstructions, decks of personnel 6. Mooring lines 13. Inform E/R, Galley, 7. Barges etc alongside 14. No slack tanks

CHIEF Officer Take Over

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Checklist Access Certificates Register (chain, wires etc) LSA & FFA

11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Survey of stores Past loading / discharging records Loadicator Reserves Defects

Running Aground Action Ch.Off


6. Ship's plans 16. Keys 7. Cargo plans 17. General info 8. Planned maintenance 18. Emergency equip. 9. Cargo pumping plan 19. Handing over notes 10. Pipe line plans 20. Misc. Damage Assessment Subsequent Action (Ch.Off) 1. WT Integrity 1. Sound all tanks 2. E/R wet or dry 2. Sound external Fore / Aft 3. Casualty 3. Signals aground 4. Pollution 4. Seal upper deck 5. Fire caution / main deck patrol Masters Advice 6. Tides calculate next HW / LW 1. Posn on chart 7. Investigate re-float details 2. Communication 8. Assess stability 3. Stability check 9. Standy vsl call in 4. Stby vsl / tug 10. Log book entries 5. MAIB 6. Dry dock / diver check Required by reg. 26 annexe 1 of MARPOL 73/78 Purpose guide to masters / officers steps to take in pollution Contains all info + special inst. For guidance and persons, tel nrs. Tlx nrs. To contact Approved by the administration cannot be altered without approval except section 5 + appendices which to be kept updated by owners

Preamble use, purpose, relation to shore based plan. Reporting requirements when (posn / time) - info reqd sample of reports forms provided - who (coastal state / port auth. / V/ls owners, reps., charterers, agents etc.) steps to control discharge Operational spill pipe leak, hull leak & Tk o/flow Spill due to casualty grounding, collision, fire / explosion, hull failure, excess list and trim (checklist to be provided for each, at least 1 drill every month. Info for damage stab. + damage longitudinal stress assessment to be provided.) National + local co-ordination assist master to initiate action by coastal state, local govt., interested parties, if no action to help master to organise response. Addition information. Information not required by MARPOL but maybe by some coastal state to be kept updated by owners to contain planned review procedure, training and drill, record keeping, public affair policy of company. SOPEP

Coastal state contacts Port contacts Ship interest contacts Ships plans and drawings expansion, cargo, bunker tank plans, cgo/bkr sndg plans, pumping arrangment plans.

OS dispersent Sawdust Rags Absorbent pads Oil kit bags Scoops Shovel Brooms & brushes Buckets Drums Rubber suits / boots / gloves Wilden pump with hoses 7. Spar ceiling 8. Dunnage 9. Fire smothering 10. Guard rails 11. Lighting 12. Survey and inspection

Hold Preparation

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Sweep Wash Suction bilge Drain pumps and pipe lines Lumber boards Chloride lime wash

Safe Access

Rigging Plan

Cargo block maintenance

Specifications 8. Lighting Manufacturer specs. 9. Clear of cargo ops, obstructions Roller + boarding platform 10. Life-buoy Net 11. Watchman Stanchions 12. No smoking Hand rails 13. Fire wallet Guides + ropes 14. Winch, motor, wire Position of outboard boom 7. Optimum position of preventer, guys to resist Position, size & SWL of blocks such forces Length, size SWL of cargo runner, guy, 8. Max headroom (bn hatch coaming & hook) preventers, topping lifts 9. Max angle between runners 4. Position, size of deck eye plate 10. Combined load diagram showing forces for load 5. SWL of shackle of 1T or SWL 6. Position of derrick producing max forces 11. Guidance for maint. Of derricks / rig 1. Swivel head: Free, corrosion, cracks, wear & tear 6. Distance piece: check 2. Shank: corrosion, deformed, cracks, markings 7. Grease nipple: clean, clear 3. Sheave: corrosion, cracks, worn grooves, free 8. Bush: wear & tear 4. Avoid paint: nipples, markings, moving parts 9. Cheek plates: deformed / buckling 5. Oil/lubricate moving surfaces, fill lube oil reservoir Up to 20t 20t to 50t 1. 2. 3. 4. SWL + 25% SWL + 5t Over 50t SWL + 10% 1 sheave blk = 4xSWL; Ancillary equip = 2xSWL 5. 6. 7. Repair list Rigging plan Plug plan

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. 3.

Proof (test) load Dry Dock documents

Dry dock plan Expansion plan Gen arrangement plan Gen. Particulars

Dry Dock logbook entry

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Lines Stern clear Pumping commenced Touched blocks Sitting on blocks

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

gangway gas free draining completed special shores utilities

Cargo handling 1. gear 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Cargo plan 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

regular depend on type of usage safety prior work & regular intervals Competent person Ch. Off. or C/Eng. Every 12 months or on completion of test thorough examination supplemented by stripping if necessary loose gear ID Nr. Of blocks, shackles, bridles, test SWL, proof load, name & status of competent authority competent person manage shore Co. on installation, major repair, 5 years SWL with static proof load or dynamometer Shift cargo 6. Extra cargo can be loaded en-route Planning sequence + gangs 7. Estimate time Arrange transport 8. Over- carriage + short delivery Heavy lift 9. Ventilation Cargo handling gear 10. Fire

Container Ship Planning

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1.

Stability Stress Stack weight + height Deadweight Dangerous cargo Port of rotation Clean

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Refrigerated containers Forecast of future cargo Ventilated cargo Half height + over height Lashing arrangement

Prepare Deep




2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Derust Rig heating coils + test Bilge clean + test Pressure test + check Empty half Heat or add chemical Wash

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Drain Dry Blank bilge + all inlets Coat tanks with paraffin wax Ullage pipe fit Thermometer install Valves (pressure) install Inspect and survey Rig Fire wire Fire equipment at manifold Access to barge Access to ford of v/l away fm manifold Vent of tank open Vent with flame arrester Switch on fog horn Engines on Standby Engines @ reduced speed Stop work on deck Obsever Rule 19

Bunker precaution

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Safety meeting Stability Poermission of Port Drip tray plug Scupper plug Rig bonding wire Call Masster Call Helmsman / Wheel on hand Call Additional lookout Switch on Radars Switch on Nav lights

Restricted Visibility

Fire Wallet

Maintenance of Cargo handling gear

1. 2. 3. 4.

Fire Plan 5. Expansion Plan Crew List 6. Ventilation Cargo 7. Stability information General Arrangement Weekly :- grease nipple, blocks, derrick heels, crane turntables + similar equip lubricated. 3 monthly :- ancillary equip like chains, hooks, swivels, blocks, shackles check 6 monthly :- Thorough check. derrick stripped, greased & re-assembled. Nipples -extracted. ID nos to tally with plan and location. All items to be certified. Winch ohaul by engineers. Rig plan to be amended if any part replaced. Ancillary equip to check thoroughly. Annual :- Derrick .. derust, ohaul & paint. Gooseneck ohaul. When in use, all equip, runner wires, winch to be inspected.

Oil Record Book entries

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Machinery Space Operation: Balasting / cleaning F.O, tanks Disch. ballast water fm F.O. tks Disposal of Oily residue Discharge Bilge Water Condition of ODME Accidental discharge Bunkering

Ballast / Cargo Operns

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Loading Oil Internal oil transfer Unloading Oil Ballasting Cargo /Dedicated Clean ballast tks Cleaning cargo tks incl C.O.W.

6. 7. 8. 9.

Disch ballast except SBT Disch water fm Slop tk. Close all v/v after disch fm Slop Disposal of residue

Oil Record Book Requirements

1. 2. 3.

400t + above All vls Part I (machinery space operations. 150t + above All tankers Part I&II (cargo / ballast operations) Entry also to be made if discharge due to 1. Safety. 2. Damage. 3. Accident or 4. Other exceptional Outside special area:


Entries without delay by Officer concerned on completed opetrations with sign. Master to sign after competed page. Date /time / Lat / Long / Qty

Garbage Rules

Special Area

Plastics, synthetic ropes / nets prohibited >25nm Dunnage lining, packaging (floats) >12 nm Foodwaste, paper, rags, glass, metal >3nm if foodwast commuted to <25mm size Helicopter Operations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Minimal personnel + Stby fire party Clear operational area of loose gear Display wind socks, Nav signals (RAM) Establish communications soonest Lower derrick, aerials, stays etc Display signal flag Homing radio signal VHF visual description of vsl

>12 nm foodwaste Special Areas: Antartic, Arabian Gulf, Baltic sea, Black sea, Carribbean & Mexican Gulf, North Sea, Red Sea 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 4. 5. 6. Rescue boat turned out Manual strg. Hook handler + safety clothing Crash box ready, rails turned down ICS guide for heli. opns VHF ships name, type etc. Ref. Posn, course & ETA Deck marking H

Identification of Vessel

Helicopter Navigation Action

Duty of Employer / Employee

RAM signal / shape 6. Wind 30o to port 7. Speed max A/c to rendezvous 8. UKC good, no shallows Posn. Clear of obstruction 9. ID of vsl Area No traffic 10. Confirm posn + ETA Report Wx at surface Shipowner / Master to ensure NO risk to health, safety of person Shipowner / Master to ensure NO risk to ship structure, fitting, equipment Shipowner to provide information / training / supervision to ensure safety of employee In port IMDG codes of Practice of handling Dangerous Goods to be followed Employee to take reasonable care for own safety and that of others. Dangerous cargo / marine pollutant decl. 5. Quantity (Nos + qty of pkgs) Correct technical name 6. Packing Cert. If applicable UN Number 7. Any other info reqd. by IMO Codes. Class if DG, Flash point if bulk liquid A signed declaration stating shipment properly classified, packaged, marked & labelled in accordance to IMDG Code and in proper condition for carriage at sea. A signed declaration stating shipment properly classified, packaged, marked & labelled in accordance to IMDG Code and in proper condition to minimise hazard to marine environment. A signed certificate stating packed, marked according to IMDG Code requirements required when packaged good shipped in container / vehicle. Mandatory list of Cargo plan showing Location of DG or MP Name 3. 4. 5. Class or Flashpoint Weight / volume Showing which DG good and which MP

Dangerous 1. Goods 2. Documentation 3. 4. DG Declaration Marine Pollutant Decl. Packing Certificate D.G. Cargo Plan 1. 2.

Markings / Placard

DURABLY marked means marking identifiable after 3 months immersion in SW even if package is marked if carried in container. Container to be placarded.


1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2.1

Document of Compliance IMDG Class

To be carried only in compartments where Electrical apparatus / cables designed to give minimum risk of explosion. Detonators segregated from explosives. Very low risk explosives, permitted on passenger vsls. Any vsl built after 1984 shall have D.O.C. to carry appropriate class of dangerous cargo, stating vsl complying with merchant shipping (Fire protection) Regs. 1984. Substance with mass explosion hazard Substance with mass projection hazard Substance with minor blast, minor projection hazard Substance with no significant hazard Very insensitive substance with mass explosion hazard Flammable gases

2.2 2.3 3.1 3.2 3.3 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1 5.2 6.1 6.2 7 8 9

Non flammable gas Toxic gas Flammable liquid low flash point (-18oC) Flammable liquid medium flash point (-18oC to 23oC) Flammable liquid high flash point (-23oC - 61oC) Flammable Solid Substance liable to spontaneous combustion Substance which when in contact with water emits flammable gases Oxidising substance Organic Peroxide Poisonous substance Infectious substance Radioactive Corrosive Misc. substance having hazard not covered by others.

On every sea going ship on which more than 5 workers are employed the company is required to employ a safety officer.


1. 2. 3. Endeavour to ensure that the provisions of the Code of Safe Working Practices are complied with. Endeavour to ensure that the employers occupational health and safety policies are complied with. investigate (1) every accident required to be notified by the Merchant Shipping Act (2) every dangerous occurrence (3) all potential hazards to occupational health and safety, and make recommendations to the master to prevent the recurrence of an accident or to remove the hazard. Investigate all complaints by crew members concerning occupational health and safety. Carry out occupational health and safety inspections of each accessible part of the ship at least once every three months. Make representations and, where appropriate, recommendations to the master (and through him to the company) about any deficiency in the ship with regard to (1) any legislative requirement relating to occupational health and safety (2) any relevant M notices (3) any provision of the Code of Safe Working Practices Ensure so far as possible that safety instructions, rules, and guidance are complied with. Maintain a record book describing all the circumstances and details of all accidents and dangerous occurrences, and of all other procedures required by his duties, and to make the records available for inspection by appropriate personnel. Stop any work which he reasonably believes may case a serious accident and inform the appropriate personnel. Carry out the requirements of the safety committee.

4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

9. 10.


INSPECTIONS TO BE CARRIED OUT BY A SAFETY OFFICER Checks to be made by safety officer:

1) Means of access- inspected, in safe condition, unobstructed. 2) Fixtures- due to which seaman may trip or cause particular overhead hazard. These should be painted and distinctly marked. 3) Guard rails- in place, secured and in good condition. 4) Proper illumination. 5) Ventilation adequate. 6) Machinery adequately guarded. 7) Permits to work issued as required. 8) Level of supervision adequate particularly for inexperienced crew.

Checks in machinery space:

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Is the engine room safe to enter? Is the machinery space adequately guarded? Safety operation instructions clearly displayed. Are lighting at different levels adequate. Is the area clear of combustible material, rags, etc? Level of supervision of inexperienced crew adequate. All personnel should be properly equipped. Means of escape- proper signs and adequate lighting. Mantainence of LSA / FFA equipment upto standard.

The investigation of accidents and dangerous occurrences will be an important part of the safety officers duties. The actual reporting of an accident will be carried out by the master but it is the statutory duty of the Safety officer to investigate the incident and to assist the master to complete the accident report form. Crew < 16 : one safety representative may be elected by the officers and ratings; Crew > 15 : one safety representative may be elected by the officers and one safety representative may be elected by the ratings.


The safety representative has powers but no duties 1. Participate in any of the inspection or investigations conducted by the Safety Officer, provided that the latter agrees to such participation. 2. Undertake similar inspections or investigations himself, providing that notification of such activities has been given to the master. 3. On behalf of the crew on matters affecting occupational health and safety (1) consult with the master and the Safety Officer and make recommendations to them, including recommendations to the master, that any work which the safety rep believes may cause an accident should be suspended (2) make representation through the master to the employer (3) request through the safety committee an investigation by the Safety Officer of any such matter.



Inspect any of the Safety Officers records. Employer appoints a Safety Committee Safety Committees are mandatory on any ship which has elected safety representatives. The membership of the committee must include the master as chairman, the Safety Officer, and every safety representative.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Ensure that the provision of the Code of Safe Working Practices are complied with. Improve the standard of safety consciousness among the crew. Make representations and recommendations on behalf of the crew to the employer. Inspect any of the Safety Officers records. Ensure the observance of the employers occupational health and safety policies. Consider and take any appropriate action in respect of any occupational health and safety matters affecting the crew. Keep a record of all proceedings.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Films:- screening of safety movies Posters:- bringing particular dangers to the attention of the crew members Publications:- safety publications, safety on ships, personal survival at sea, etc. Informal talks:- talking to sections of the crew to bring awareness Maintenance of safety equipment:- involving as many people as possible in the maintenance of safety equipments. Fire patrols:- particular attention to be paid to patrolling the accommodations between 2300 hours and 0600 hours. Marine safety cards:- these cards highlight particular dangers on board ship. Accident records:- details of accidents should be posted on notice boards as an accident prevention aid. Days without accident board:- post notices stating the number of days since the occurrence of the last accident. Safety quiz:- open to individual with a suitable prize being awarded. Permit to work system:- importance of strict compliance with the permit should be emphasised.

At all times muster crew and take a head count. FIRE FIGHTING IN PORT: The senior fire officer should be presented with the wallet and may also require the following information 1. The exact location of the fire and the chances of it spreading to other compartments 2. Contents of dbs or deeptanks in the vicinity 3. What the ships staff are doing and how many pumps and hoses are in operation


4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

If any fixed firefighting installation is in operation The state of cargo operation The condition of fuel oil, ballast and fresh water tanks The ships communication systems The number of people on board Any peculiarities of the ships design

***** emcy stop box in alleyway main deck 5. If any person missing 6. Hold co2 order for search carry out 7. Once search carried out inject co2


Raise the alarm. Inform port authorities. Inform the Master. Cease cargo or bunker operations. Caste off bunker barge that is alongside. Non essential persons to be sent ashore. One man standby at the gangway with cargo plan, fire wallet, international shore connection to act as a guide for shore fire party. 7) Muster all crew- head count. Fire party briefed. 8) Proceed to scene off fire and investigate. 9) Shut down all ventilation. 10) Start emergency fire p/p. Try to fight the fire by conventional means. 11) Maintain boundary cooling at all times. 12) After fire brigade comes Hand over fire wallet. Co-ordinate closely and assist as required. Constant check on stability at all times. If cargo space fire- close and batten down hatches. If accommodation fire then isolate all electrical circuits. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Raise alarm. Inform master. Reduce speed. If fire is forward then bring wind to the quarter and if fire is aft then bring wind to aft. Muster all crew- head count. Fire party briefed. Proceed to scene off fire and investigate. Shut down all ventilation. Start emergency fire p/p. Try to fight the fire by conventional means. Maintain boundary cooling at all times.


10) Refer to the cargo plan with regard to the type of cargo on fire and if any dangers associated with it. 11) Commence boundary cooling and check adjacent compartment for additional fire risk. 12) Consider ballasting the adjacent tanks after calculation of GM of the vessel. 13) Inject fixed CO2. 14) Investigate port of refuge facility and inform port authorities.


1) Raise alarm. Inform master. 2) Muster all crew- head count. Fire party briefed. 3) Proceed to scene off fire and investigate. 4) Shut down all ventilation. 5) Start emergency fire p/p. Try to fight the fire by conventional means. 6) Maintain boundary cooling at all times. 7) Close all watertight and fire doors. 8) Isolate electrical circuits. 9) Boundary cooling. 10) Fire fighters to work in pairs properly equipped- investigate and tackle the fire by conventional means.


1) 2) First six points as above. Due regards to be given to the type of extinguishing agent being usedFoam- oil stoves. DCP- electrical fires. CO2 can be used as smothering agent.


1) Raise the alarm. 2) Inform the master 3) Reduce the vessels speed. Engage manual steering. Display n.u.c. lights. Weather reports, open communication with other vessels in the vicinity and send urgency signal. 4) Close all ventilation, fire and watertight doors. 5) Muster all crew- take a head count. Emergency fire p/p running. 6) Isolate all electrical units. Commence boundary cooling. 7) Fight fire by conventional means. 8) Main fire party to be properly equipped. Back up party ready at all times. 9) C/O not to enter as he monitors progress and communication with the bridge. Proper communication between bridge and engine room. Keep bridge informed accordingly of sequence of events.


At all times fire fighters to be well equipped with breathing apparatus and fireman suit. Checks on apparatus must be carried out prior to entering space. Releasing of CO2 at sea: CO2 is only released when fire is out of control. Before releasing: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Seal engine room. All ventilation to be closed. Fuels and boiler within engine room to be shut down. Evacuate and seal the engine room. Head count. Check out the amount of CO2 required to be injected as per the planned injection information (found in CO2 room and remote station). 6) Open fire cabinet door causing alarm to activate. 7) Operate fire handle mechanism to fire the pilot bottles, which fires the bank of bottles in the engine room. Ensure hold valves are closed. OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE 1. Evacuate all personnel 2. Batten down and seal ventilation 3. Stop all fans, fuel supply and boilers 4. Sound audible and visual alarm LIMITATION OF SYSTEM 1. Once used no replenishment at sea 2. Isolation necessary (asphyxiation) 3. No inspection to observe results


1) 2) 3) 4) CO2 arrangement plan. Procedure of firing. Number of bottles designated for each place protected. Number of non return valves.

After releasing: 1) Always advisable to wait before carrying out an investigation. 2) Maintain boundary cooling and observe temperature at various levels. 3) Once a distinct fall in temperature has been observed an internal inspection and assessment may be carried out. 4) Breathing apparatus to be donned when entering the space. Checks on breathing apparatus. 2/e and oiler to enter. 5) Inspection to be carried out with spray fire fighting equipment, safety line and communication checked prior to entry.


6) Once it has been confirmed that fire has been brought under control an additional assessment by chief engineer. 7) When both opinions agreed upon damage control party to be sent in for cooling down work. Learn CO2 arrangement system diagram, has been asked before. Precautions when using a CO2 extinguisher: 1) 2) 3) 4) Always read instructions before firing. Remove safety pin. Do not touch any metal part of the extinguisher. Direct nozzle away and fire.

Contents of a fire wallet: 1) General arrangement plan. 2) Shell expansion plan. 3) Ventilation plan. 4) Fire fighting equipment plan. 5) Position of all watertight doors. 6) Stability information, cargo plan cargo manifest- if dangerous goods carried. 7) Crews list. 8) Electric data. 9) A cargo plan with any dangerous cargo being specifically mentioned Operation of emergency fire pump: 1) Check lubrication. 2) Check salt water cooling. 3) Turn on fuel. 4) Decompress the cylinders. 5) Crank the fly wheel. 6) When fly wheel is freely rotating compress the cylinders. 7) Once engine starts firing adjust the throttle. CO2 Three way valve: 1) 2) 3) 4) Samples of smoke pass through a three way valve to the smoke detector system. This valve is shut but sample passes into the smoke detector. Once it is confirmed that there is fire open the valve. Smothering gas or CO2 can be injected into the hold via the valve.

Pre operational checks of breathing apparatus: 1) Ensure bypass v/v is fully closed. 2) Open cylinder valve to check if cylinders are fully charged, whistle will be heard as the pressure rises. 3) Close cylinder valve. Provided it does not fall to zero in less than 30 sec then the set is leak tight. 4) Demist mask visor with anti dim solution. 5) Don apparatus put on mask and open cylinder valves.


6) Inhale deeply twice or thrice to ensure that air is flowing freely from the demand v/v and the exhalation valve is functioning correctly. 7) Close cylinder v/v and inhale until air in the mask is exhausted. Now inhale deeply, the mask must collapse on the face indicating an airtight fitness of both mask exhalation v/v. 8) Reopen cylinder v/v. Class A: dry fires (wood, paper, textiles)~ water, dry powder. Class B: combustible liquids (kerosene, petrol etc.)~ foam, dry powder. Class C: electrical fires~ CO2, halon. Class D: fire in light metals. Class E: petroleum gases. Class F: spontaneously combustible materials~ water, foam and dry powder. Emergency stop valve: 1) This is usually of quick closing type. It fitted between the settling tank and the cold filters. 2) This valve has an extended spindle or of remote control type to the deck to enable the oil to be shut off in the case of a fire out break.

Permit to work form must be used for any jobs which might be hazardous. It states work to be done and safety precautions. Safety instructions are written down and given to persons associated with the job. The permit should contain a checklist to identify and eliminate hazards plus arrangements for emergency procedures in case of any accidents. The permit should be issued by a responsible officer and must ensure that all checks have been properly carried out and signed only when he is satisfied that it is safe to work.


An enclosed space will include cargo tank, ballast tank, cofferdam, bunker tank, fresh water tank, duct keel etc., which may contain toxic vapours or insufficient oxygen to support life. No one must enter an enclosed space without first obtaining permission from the Proper Officer. Any sort of entry into enclosed space should only be carried out when permission has been obtained by master or chief officer and persons entering are experienced. Before making entry the following to be checked and approved by the Master.


1) Adequate ventilation and illumination. 2) Atmosphere tested and found safe. 3) Spaces to be visited. 4) Space secured for entry. 5) S.C.A.B.A. sets available at entry (apparatus tested). 6) Responsible person available at all times at entry point. 7) Names of all personnel entering. 8) Communication person entering, tanktop, bridge 9) Anticipated time of completion of entry. 10) Personnel protective equipment to be used. 11) Where required breathing apparatus to be used. 12) Testing equipment available for regular checks: O2 Analyser - oxygen deficiency Explosimeter - measures explosive limits Tank Scope - measures oxygen in inert atmosphere Dragger Tubes - measures oxygen if correct tube fitted (also measures the presence of various toxic gases).

VENTILATIONS Ventilation (either forced or natural) to be carried out before entry is permitted. If forced ventilation is used then minimum of two air changes must take place. If potentially dangerous spaces allow for between 10-20 air changes per hour. If natural ventilation is only available space must be allowed to breathe for atleast 24 hours prior entry. Full ventilation may be ensured by filling the tank with clean sea water and pumping out to ensure fresh air enters the space. (This should be coupled by forced ventilation). No one must enter a cargo pumproom without the permission of the Proper Officer.



1. A permanently rigged rescue line and harness should be at the top of all cargo and transfer pumprooms (part of life saving appliance) (SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR ANY OTHER PURPOSE). 2. No fixed equipment fitted in the pumproom should be operated if the gas LEL is in excess of 40%. 3. Gas generation caused by oil in bilges may be reduced/minimised by spreading a layer of foam over the pumproom bilges. 4. Permission has been obtained from a Senior Officer. 5. Ventilation should be provided for at least 15 minutes and remains in use throughout the period of entry. 6. Means of communication must be established. 7. Lifeline and Harness is ready for immediate use. 8. A competent person is standby on top of the pumproom to call for assistance. 9. Advice the officer of entry and exit. 10. Obtain explosimeter reading from the Bottom platform that it is free of toxic vapours along with regular checks (incase of maintenance works) 11. At least one compressed B.A set is ready for immediate use on top. (in case of maintenance works) 12. Adequate illumination. 13. One scaba standby on top. 14. Elsa at bottom platform. 15. Explosimeter readings at various levels. 16. Additional B.A set is ready for use close at work. (incase of maintenance works) 17. Have resuscitation equipment ready for immediate use close at work. (incase of maintenance works). 18. Chief Officer should personally supervise incase of an emergency. 19. THE OXYGEN CONTENT OF AIR IS 21%. IF THE LEVEL FALLS TO APPROXIMATELY 17% THE ATMOSPHERE IS UNSAFE.

SAMPLE OF AN ENTRY PERMIT FORM 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Has the permission been obtained from the Chief Officer? Is the tank clean? Is the tank pressurised? Has the tank been inert, then gas-freed? Does the tank atmosphere contain at least 21% oxygen? Is the hydraulic cargo system shut down? Is the tank isolated from the inert gas main? Have notices been placed at tank hatches? Have notices been placed at the inert gas isolating valves? Have notices been placed on the cargo control? Is fresh air being supplied to the tank? Is one man stationed at the cargo tank hatch? Is breathing apparatus and a lifeline available?


Why should there be 21% O2 in the tank prior entry or hot work? Air that contains 21% oxygen will not support human life.

1) Conduct a safety meeting with master and c/e. discuss the bunker plan and which tank the bunkers is being taken in. 2) Accordingly calculate the stability of the vessel. Keep a check on the stability of the vessel and all stages of bunkering taking into account the free surface effect at various stages. 3) Emergency shut down procedure agreed. 4) ``B`` flag or red bunker light on. 5) Seal the deck. 6) Drip trays plugged. 7) 3 way communication- bunker station, manifold and tank. 8) Bonding wire and fire wire rigged. 9) Fire fighting equipment ready- fire extinguisher and fire hose pressurised with emergency fire pump. 10) Oil spill gear at manifold. 11) Display ``No Smoking`` signs and ``No unauthorised persons on board``. 12) Display emergency telephone numbers. 13) Two means of access- forward part of vessel and access from ship to bunker station. 14) Accommodation doors shut. 15) Air-condition on internal circulation. 16) Overboard to be checked regularly for any spillage. 17) Contingency plan for fire or oil spillage. 18) Entries in oil record book. 19) Tank vents open. 20) Flame arresters on vents.

Guidance Note For Cold Work Permit Starting / Finishing Time Must Not Exceed The Authorized Signatories / Responsible Officers Working Hours. Specific Location Of Cold Work Should Be Given. Description Of Work To Include Type Of Equipment To Be Used. This Permit Should Be Used For But Not Be Limited To The Following Cold Work: Blanking / De-Blanking. Disconnecting And Connecting Pipework Removing And Fitting Of Valves, Blanks, Spades Or Blinds. Works On Pumps Etc. Clean Up (Oil Spills).


In every ship of 30 metres or more registered length - there is carried on board the ship a GANGWAY which is appropriate to the deck layout, size, shape and maximum freeboard of the ship. In every ship of 120 metres or more registered length - there is carried on board the ship a ACCOMMODATION LADDER which is appropriate to the deck layout, size, shape and maximum freeboard of the ship. CHECKS FOR SAFE MEANS OF ACCESS 1) Gangway not to be at an inclination of more than 30 o to the horizontal. 2) Accommodation ladder not to be at an angle of inclination of more than 55 o to the horizontal. 3) Staunchions, rails, intermediate guides, lifelines to be properly rigged and free of damage. 4) Safety net free of damage and properly rigged. 5) Bottom platform horizontal to jetty. 6) Gangway area properly illuminated. 7) Lifebuoy with s.i. light and line, heaving line with rescue quoit available at access area. 8) Gangway free of any obstruction or slippery substance. 9) Gangway wires (free of damage) and all rollers moving freely. 10) ``No Smoking`` and ``No Unauthorised Persons`` signs displayed. 11) Fire wallet available at gangway. 12) Gangway not to be unattended at any times. What are you looking for at the top of the gangway in port? 1) Fire wallet and international shore connection.

PILOT LADDER: 1) A single length of ladder should be used. 2) Whenever the distance to the waterline exceeds 9m then a combination ladder to be used in conjunction with a pilot ladder. 3) Treads of the ladder must be made of hard wood (ash, oak, elm, or teak). 4) Steps (must remain horizontal at all times) Dimensions- not less than 48Omm x 115mm x 25mm. Spacing- not less than 300mm and nor more than 380mm apart. 5) Four lower steps to be constructed of rubber. 6) Side ropes consist of manila rope 18mm in diameter. 7) Manropes of diameter not less than 20mm in diameter. 8) Spreaders Dimensions- 1800mm 2000mm in length. They must be so fixed so that the lowest spreader comes no lower than the 5th step from the bottom.



Intervals between spreaders not to exceed 9 steps. The bulwark ladder must be well secured to the bulwark. Stanchion spacing- 700 800mm. Stanchion- not to extend more than 1200mm above bulwark.


Rotation Of Drills To Be Carried Out Every Month Boat Drill Fire Drill* (As Per List Of Drills Refered Below) Oil Pollution Drill**(As Per List Of Drills Refered Below) Emergency Drills***(As Per List Of Drills Refered Below) Every Two Weeks Once A Month Every Two Weeks
Fire Drill* The Following Rotation Of Fire Drills Are Recommended :

Every Two Weeks

Machinery Space Fire Accommodation Fire Galley Fire Paint/Chemical Locker Fire Fire/Explosion In Cargo Tanks Fire/Explosion In Bunker Tanks Fire In Pumproom Fire In Steering Gear Fire In Stores/Locker

Oil Pollution Drill*

All Pollution Drills Must Be In Accordance With Chapter 6 Of The Vessel Response Plan. The Following Rotation Of Drills Are Recommended :

Notification / Alerting (Communication) Drill Pre Arrival Checks Pipeline Leakage Towing Tank Overflow Cargo Or Bunker Transfer Grounding Fire & Explosion


Touching Bottom Hull Leak Excessive List Pumproom Room Rescue Escape Of Toxic Fumes/Cargo Leakage/Hose Burst At The Manifold Emergency Drills*** The Following Rotation Of Emergency Drills Are Recommended :

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
10. 11. 12.

Rescue From Cargo Pumproom In Hostile Atmosphere Rescue From Engineroom In Hostile Atmosphere Rescue From Cargo/Ballast Tanks In Hostile Atmosphere Manoverboard Structural Failure Main Engine Failure Steering Gear Failure Terrorism / Piracy Attack Helicopter Operations
Heavy Weather Damage Collision/Grounding And Damage Control Procedures Medical Emergencies.


Drug & alcohol policy Drug and alcohol abuse directly affects fitness and ability of a seafarer to perform watch-keeping duties. Sea-farers found to be under the influence of drugs or alcohol until they are not in proper condition and state of mind to perform their duties, should not be allowed to take in a watch duty at sea / port / anchor. The administration should consider developing national legislation prescribing a maximum of 0.04% blood alcohol level (bac) during watch keeping duty as a maximum standard on their ships. Prohibiting the consumption of alcohol within 4 hours prior to taking over cargo watch.


Drug & alcohol screening guide The administration should ensure that adequate measures are taken to prevent alcohols & drugs from impairing the ability of watch keeping personnel and should establish screening programs, which identify drug & alcohol abuse.
Respect the dignity privacy of an individual incase he fails the test and take into relevant

International guidelines, it should be brought to the notice of all individuals that 2 units of alcohol in an hour will result in bac of 0.04%. Alcohol metabolizes out of the body at an average rate of 1 unit of alcohol per hour. There should be no alcohol in your blood when you report on duty.


FACTORS DETERMINING PMS 1. The plan must be adaptable to various weather conditions. 2. The plan must be flexible so that changes of orders or cargoes do not upset it unduly 3. The length of voyages, routes and trades that the vessel is involved in must be considered. 4. The maintenance of safety equipment and emergency team training should be integrated with the overall maintenance plan. 5. The plan should be constructed so that the appropriate equipment is bought up to optimum condition for statutory and classifications surveys. 6. Dry-docking and repair period should be integrated with the plan. 7. Manufactures advice should be complied with and all manufactures maintenance logs should be completed. 8. The plan should include the availability of appropriate equipment for breakdown maintenance due to unforeseen circumstances. 9. Provisions should be made for spare part replacements due to wear and tear maintenance. There should also be a method for ordering spares as soon as replacement items are used. 10. The plan must be carefully thought out, well controlled, and an efficient recording system must be kept up to date. PLANNED MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE (a) short term maintenance weekly inspection and greasing (when possible) winches and windlasses oil baths, if any, in winches and windlasses wheels on steel hatch covers door hinges on mast houses ventilation system flaps and ventilators cleats on external weathertight doors anchor securing arrangements booby hatches to cargo holds sounding and air pipes fairleads, rollers


derrick heels

fortnightly inspection and greasing accommodation ladder and gangway lifeboat falls and blocks davit pivot points fire hydrants and monitors fire hose box hinges quick release gear on bridge wing life buoys all life buoys liferaft securing arrangements securing bolts on international shore connection steel hatch cross joints and quick acting cleats hatch gypsy drive wheels and followers hatch contractor panel fuses, electric cables and connections, motor heaters all external butterfly nuts all external electric cables and deck lighting arrangements

monthly inspection and greasing where necessary life boat falls for broken strands co2 cylinders in gang release system fire detection systems breathing apparatus and associated equipment ladders on masts and ventilation posts radar mast rigging fire gauze freeing ports scuppers hatchway non return valves ship side guard rails (b) long term maintenance three monthly inspection and/or overhaul all cargo gear navigation light connections hold ventilation systems

six monthly inspection and/or overhaul cargo winches strip all mooring rollers fresh water tanks all running gear, strip blocks and derricks cofferdams and void spaces


forepeak and afterpeak remove ventilator cowls and grease the coaming test dampers flaps and locking screws hold equipment such as spar ceiling, limberboards, double bottoms, manholes, wells bilges strum boxes


derust and repaint derricks end for end lifeboat falls watertight seals on hatchways loosen spare anchor securing bolts, lubricate all anchor parts and re-secure rotational cleaning and painting of store rooms, alleyways, cabins and mess rooms strip the windlass and aft mooring winch standing rigging

(c) operational maintenance to be carried out when necessary anchor cable marking check mooring ropes and wires before and after use all gantlines before being used on stages pilot ladder and hoists, gangways, accommodation ladders and associated equipment before and after use check anchor and cables stowed properly test fire fighting appliance before entering port test manual and emergency steering arrangements before entering coastal waters cargo securing arrangemets all cargo gears and hatch closing arrangements before and after use check hydraulic oil in any system fumigate and spray holds as necessary


Examine the ropes for chafing, cutting and internal wear. Keep away from direct sunlight, they should be stored underdeck for long voyages but if kept outside they should be kept covered with tarpolines or on gratings. Ropes should never be stowed away wet to prevent rotting. They should be free from grease oilstains and paint marks etc. They should never be surged to prevent wear and tare due to friction, some ropes have a low melting point and can permanently fuse and get damaged. Wire ropes should be regularly lubricated with patent lubricants such as surret fluid or wire grease.


For a wire rope care should be taken while breaking a new coil as the rope may get kinked or a person may get injured due to faulty handling. Break the coil as per instructions given in the seamanship manuals eg.the vertical swivel or the reel. Always use gloves whenever the handling of ropes is concerned. Sharp angles (nips) to the wire rope need to be avoided. Rollers need to be used when wires are being used as unnecessary chafing occurs. When turned on bits the top turns should be secured against springing off by a Light Lashing. HANDLING, MAINTAINENCE AND INSPECTION: Synthetic lines can pose a great danger to personnel if not properly used or handled. Handling of mooring lines has a higher potential accident risk than most other shipboard activities. The most serious danger is snap-back, the suddern release of static energy stored in the stretched synthetic rope when it breaks. Snap-back is common to all lines and even long wire lines under tension can stretch enough to snap-back with conciderable energy. Synthetic lines break without warning and there are no visible external signs regarding this danger. As a general rule any point within about a 10 degree cone around the line from any point at which the line may break is in danger. A broken ine will snap back beyond the point at which it is secured, possibly to a distance as far as its own length. TYPES OF LAYS OF WIRE ROPES: Right handed ordinary lay, strands are right handed while the wires are left handed. Left handed ordinary lay, strands left handed while the wires are twisted right handed. Right handed langs lay, strands and wire are both right handed. Left handed langs lay, strands and wire are both left handed. Cable laid wire rope, large and flexible 6 stranded rope. A wire rope is made of a number of strands laid around a central hart which itself may be a steel strand, steel wire rope, or be a rope of vegetable or synthetic fiber. Each strand in turn is composed of a given number of individual wires again laid round a central wire or fiber core. The more the number of wires in a strand the more the wire is flexible. Further flexiblity is achieved by introducing a fiber strand in the core of the wire rope. Eg. A hemp or coir strand is introduced in the centre at the cost of the strength, the flexiblity increases the strength decreases.


1) Good design, construction and of adequate strength for the purpose of which it is intended. 2) Slings to be of good construction. 3) To be used in safe proper manner and safe working load not be exceeded. 4) Persons operating to be competent and experienced authorised by a responsible officer. 5) After 1993 lifting plant to be tested every 5 years.


6) No lifting plant to be used unless it has been tested atleast once every 12 months by chief officer. 7) No plant to be used after installation or repair unless it has been tested then thoroughly examined by a competent person. 8) Each lifting appliance is to be clearly marked with the following SWL Means of identification. 9) Each item of the lifting gear is to be clearly marked with SWL. 10) Full account is to be taken of the principles and guidelines in CSWP chapter 17. Certificate obtained within 28 days of testing and retained on board for a period of 2 years. Lifting appliance given a static test using a proof load or a dynamometer (static test).


Lifting gear should be tested by a competent person 1. After installation 2. After any major repairs 3. Every 5 years Lifting appliance are usually given a static test using a proof load or dynamometer (static test) Proof load always exceeds the SWL (safe working load) by a given percentage or weight. Code Of Safe Working Practices states that a mass in excess of SWL should not be lifted unless: 1. A test is required 2. The weight of the load is known and is the appropriate proof load 3. The lift is a straight lift by a single appliance 4. The lift is supervised by the competent person who would normally supervise a test and carry out a thorough examination 5. The competent person specifies in writing that the lift is appropriate in weight and other respects to act as a test of the plant, and agrees to the detailed plan for the lift 6. No person is exposed to danger. Lifting plant must be thoroughly examined by a competent person (Chief Officer) 1. After testing 2. At least once every 12 months A through examination means a detailed examination by a competent person, supplemented by stripping the gear down for inspection if this is judged necessary


Register of ship lifting appliance and cargo handling gear: 1) Certificates and tests together with reports of examination. 2) Certificates and identity number recorded on certificate of loose gear- blocks, shackles, bridle etc.


3) When testing a lifting plant the following are recorded- name and status of competent person, SWL, proof load. 4) Details of regular maintenance, defects and repairs. Information regarding derrick strength if found- in the Register of Lifting Appliances and

Proof Load:
exceeds a SWL by a given percentage or weight to check the safety of a derrick or a crane. The proof load is to be applied by hoisting movable weights by using the cargo purchase and with the weights in the hoisted position the hoisted position the derricks are to be swung in both directions as far as possible.

Tests on Derricks:
SWL PROOF LOAD Upto 20 t: SWL + 25% (if less than 15t then dynamometer may be used) 20t 50t: SWL + 5 t 50t and more: SWL + 10%

Condemning of a wire:
1) 2) 3) In any 8 diameter when 10% of the strands are broken. For standing rig (steel wire rope)- 6 X 6 wires per strand. For running rigFlexible steel wire rope- 6 X 12/18/48 wires per strand. Extra flexible steel wire rope- 6 X 36 wires per strand.

The extra flexible steel wire rope has a fibre core for lubrication. Breaking Stress: 20 D2 / 500 Safe Working Load: Breaking Stress / 6 Union Purchase SWL: 1/3 SWL of single derrick Safe Angle Between Runners: 90o and 120o occasionally.

Code of safe working practise says that a mass in excess of SWL should not be lifted unless:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) A test is carried out. The weight and the proof load is known. Lift is a straight lift by a single appliance. Lift is supervised by a competent person. The competent person has given in writing that it is safe to do so. No person is exposed to danger.


Overhauling goose neck (yearly):

1) Ensure vessel provides stable platform (i.e. vessel should be at anchor free from any rolling or pitching). 2) Secure the derrick head in its crutch. 3) Remove and overhaul derrick heel block. 4) Secure a purchase of appropriate SWL on mast or Samson Post and to the derrick. 5) A direct lift can be obtained over the derrick heel by unshipping the derrick topping block and securing the purchase by a strap to the derrick heel. 6) Withdraw horizontal and vertical bolts and nuts and recondition them. 7) Unship the derrick and secure in its temporary crutch. 8) Clean all parts and check for- wear and tear, hairline fractures, and particular attention to the bolts. 9) All parts to be properly lubricated and reassemble the goose neck area to its operational condition. 10) Make relevant entries in ``Register of ship Lifting Appliances and Cargo Gear``.

Thorough examination:
Means a detailed examination by a competent person supplemented by stripping the gear down for inspection if judged necessary. A competent person to examine all gears. 1) Any test involving proof load. 2) Every 12 months thorough examination which includes- dismantling of all loose gear and hidden parts as judged necessary to arrive at a reliable conclusion as safety of plant is examined. 3) Certificate numbers. 4) Examination performed e.g. initial, yearly, 5 yearly, if any repairs or damage etc. 5) Declaration of competent person to be signed and dated. 6) Remarks to be signed and dated.

someone over 18 years in age possessing practical and theoretical knowledge and actual experience of the type of plant being examined. His job will be to discover any defects or weakness and assess their importance in relation to strength, stability, and function of the equipment.


1) Check swivel head and sheeve (also check grooves on sheeve for wear down) for free movement. 2) Examine side plate for distortion or buckling. 3) Check axil pin- ensure no play and check thread of pin. 4) Check split pin and distance piece. 5) Oil surface of blocks.


6) Do not paint grease nipples and statutory markings.


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Weekly: grease nipples on whinches, blocks, derricks cranes. 3 months: auxiliary equipment (chains, rings, hooks, swivels, blocks and shackles). 6 months: a thorough overall check of the above equipment. Grease nipples checked. Derrick: stripped and all auxiliary equipment gear taken apart examined greased and reassembled. Whinches to be overhauled with engineer. Location and identification number of each item complying with the rigging plan. Amend the rigging plan if any part of the gear has been replaced. Each item to have a certificate. 12 months: derust, paint and overhaul derrick gooseneck. All gear should be inspected before use.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Position and size of deck eye plates Position of inboard and outboard booms Maximum head room (i.e. permissible height of cargo hook above hatch coaming) Maximum angle between runners Position, size and SWL of blocks Length size and SWL of runners, topping lifts, guys and preventers SWL of shackles Position of derricks producing maximum forces Optimum position for guys and preventers to resist such maximum forces Combined diagram showing forces for a load of 1 tonne or the SWL Guidance on the maintenance of the derrick rig.


If possible this operation should be carried out when the vessel is at anchor. Before starting the job a temporary secure crutch for the derrick heel should be made so that the derrick is not left suspended on the lifting tackle. 1. Securely lash the derrick head in its crutch 2. Remove and overhaul the derrick heel block 3. Secure a purchase of appropriate SWL to a suitable position on the mast or Samson post and the derrick. A direct lift can often be obtained over the derrick heel by unshipping the derrick topping lift block and securing the purchase by a strap to the heel of the derrick 4. Lubricate and remove the vertical and horizontal pivot bolt nuts 5. Heave tight on the lifting purchase and take the weight of the derrick. 6. Lubricate, free and remove the pivot bolts. (A gentle tapping with the hammer may be necessary to dislodge the bolts 7. Unship the derrick heel and secure it in the temporary crutch


8. 9.

Clean all surfaces thoroughly and check all parts for signs of wear or hair cracks. Particular attention should be paid to the bolts. Thoroughly lubricate all areas and re-assemble the goose neck are to its operational condition.


1. Ensure stability of vessel is adequate and maximum heel is acceptable. (Eliminate free surface) (large GM small Heel)(monitor practically during operation via inclinometer) Rig extra mast stays as necessary. Carefully check condition of derrick and gear before use. (Ensure free rotation of sheaves. Oil and grease as necessary. Ensure SWL of all gear adequate and have valid test certificates) Rig fenders as necessary Ensure all moorings taut and have men standby to tend as necessary Put winches in double gear (for slow operation) Clear area of the deck where the weight is to be landed of all obstructions and lay heavy dunnage to spread load. Check ships data to ensure deck is strong enough to support load. (Deck load capacity plan) Clear are of all but essential personnel Ensure winch drivers competent and fully aware of who is to give directions. Secure steadying lines to corners of loads Remove rails if possible Cast off any barges alongside Inform all relevant personnel before lift begins Raise gangway before lift commences Use lifting points - otherwise sling it, using dunnage for sharp corners Set tight steam guys before lifting When all ready take weight slowly then stop and inspect all around before lifting further. Lateral drag- simultaneously slacken on topping lift and runner wire to keep plumbline intact. Derrick to be plumb over the weight at all times.

2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.


1. 2. 3. 4. Consult rigging plan, register of ship lifting appliances and cargo handling gear, deck capacity plan, stability information booklet. Or manufactures instruction Rig derrick accordingly Bring in a surveyor.

Can you load a 25t weight with a derrick of 25t SWL:

Practically speaking no. Due allowance is to be made for other parts of the lifting gearslings, shackles is also to be taken into account.


What would you do if you were to load a heavy lift on a tank top?
1) Check the deck load capacity plan. 2) Ballast the tank top for additional precaution. LATERAL DRAG (LOADING A HEAVY LIFT ON TO A TRUCK) SIMULTANEOUSLY COME BACK ON THE TOPPING LIFTS AND LIFTING PURCHASE TO KEEP THE PLUMBLINE INTACT. THE UNION PURCHASE SYSTEM: A simple derrick by itself is not of much use because if it is to discharge cargo it is to be plumbed over the hatch and then overside, to avoid this tedious action a system with two derricks called the union purchase system is used. Here the runner wires of both the derricks are coupled together to swivels to a union hook and worked in conjunction with each other. The inshore derrick is plumbed over the quayside and the other is plumbed over the hatch. The preventer and side guys are rigged so as not to obstruct the movement of the cargo between the hatch and the quay. The side guys can also be replaced by a schooner guy which remains clear of the cargo working area. When working the union purchase system the following precautions should be taken: The swl of a union purchase rig must be calculated in accordance with the classification societies or dock labour regulations. In the absence of the above, the code of safe working practices for merchant seamen recommend that the swl. Should not exceed one-third the swl. Of the smaller derrick. The operating angle of the derrick should prefrably be not less than 30 degrees to the horizontal and under no circumstances should it be less than 15 degrees. The maximum included angle between the cargo wires should not exceed 120 degrees so that forces in the rig are kept to a minimum. To ensure this the slings used in the operations should not be unduly long and winchmen must not lift the loads above the guard rails beyond the minimum required for safety. Runner wires should not be allowed to rub against the hatch coamings or guard rails as this will result in their deterioration. Winchmen should be experienced and should co-ordinate well.


Chain register, (form 99) It is a book which registers load bearing machinery, chains and wire ropes. Cover: 1. Name of the ship Port of registry. Owners name and address. Page i : contains instructions regarding examinations and Annealing. Part i : entries concerning four yearly examinations and annual examinations. Part ii : contains entries concerning through annual examinations of cranes, winches and hoists. Accessory gear other than derricks is also included. Part iii : for entries concerning the through annual examination of gear exempted from annealing. Part iv : for entries concerning the annealing of gear.


The last page contains some recommended factors of safety. Eg. chain/wire = 5 rope = 6 derrick = 9 Test certificates are attached to the register by means of gummed strips provided on the inside of the cover. The register is designed by the dockyard for 8 years and must be retained on board for a period of four more years after the new one comes into force. It is certified by the classification society.

DRY-DOCK PERIOD :- NORMALLY DOCKED ONCE EVERY 2 YEARS DOCKING WITH CARGO ON BOARD :- CARGO PLAN REQUIRED, ADDITIONAL SHORES/BLOCKS PLACED UNDER UNSUPPORTED CARGO HOLDS CHIEF OFFICER DUTIES 1. All hatches and beams stowed (to give continuity of strength) 2. Derrick and cranes down (to counteract roll) 3. Eliminate free surface 4. Adequate stability check (adequate GM to counteract the rise in G due to P force) 5. Consultation of draft and trim (on advice of the drydock manager) 6. Sound round all tanks 7. Security lock-up spaces 8. Lock-up toilets 9. Rig fenders 10. Dry-dock plan and shell expansion plans for shore positions 11. Obtain facilities:- water, power, bonding, access and garbage disposal 12. Sound round on the blocks 13. Prepare a repair list (to allow cost/time estimates. Allows officer to monitor and protect owners interest


STANDARD ITEMS: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Hull cleaning and surface preparation. Survey of ships bottom (sighting the bottom). Anchors- including ranging and marking, turned end to end. Chain locker- chipping, painting, bitter end and chain locker educting system. Sea v/v and sea chest to be inspected, overhauled and painted. Pugs to be taken from all bottom and peak tanks (the plugs to be labelled and retained by the chiefofficer and replaced before the dock is flooded) 7) Anodes- location, weight and size. 8) Inspection and overhaul and load test of lifting equipment. 9) Tank, hold and closing appliances to be to be inspected and overhauled. REPAIR ITEMS:


1) Renewal of piping. 2) Cargo handling equipment. 3) Hatch closing arrangement. 4) Bulkhead leaks. 5) Replacement of ships side rails. 6) Electrical cables. 7) Fire fighting equipment. 8) Hull structure damage 9) Instrumentation and control equipment refurbishing 10) Heavy weather damage 11) Overhaul of fire fighting and life saving appliance

Check and consult with the master the following: 1) General arrangement plan. 2) SHELL EXPANSION PLANS:- shows positions, frame numbers from aft and keel upward, remove shores/keel blocks in way of damaged areas. 3) DRYDOCK PLAN:- shows underwater appendages, hog, echo sounders, bilge keels, stabilisers and condensers. 4) Fire plan. 5) Repair list. 6) Plug plan. 7) Stability data. 8) Cargo plan if docking with cargo- inform shore authorities for shoring and position of shoring required. 9) Rigging plan. 10) Inform dock authorities in plenty of time regarding any projections on the hull. 11) Post docking information if any.

Stability aspect (chief officers duties before entering the dock): 1) Free surface effect in tanks to be removed or reduced. 2) GM to be positive when going to the dry-dock and throughout the critical period. When going out ships constants will change- mud, new plates, etc. 3) Consult dock authorities for required draft and trim. Generally a small trim by stern is required. More the trim the more the critical period. 4) All round sounding of all tanks. On board preparations: 1) Hatches and beams stowed in position. 2) Derricks and cranes stowed in position. 3) Adequate fendering required.


4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

FFA ready. Inform head of all departments. Inform c/e to take shore power facilities. Required notices posted. Security- lock up spaces. Rig fenders


Entering 1) Time the dock gates open. 2) Time vessel enters the dock (bow and stern). 3) Time stern clears gates. 4) Time dock gates close. 5) Pumping out commenced. 6) Time Lines ashore. 7) Time the vessel touches the blocks. 8) Time all sewn on the blocks forward and aft. 9) Dock draining completed. 10) Time gangway walkable. 11) Vessel certified gas free. 12) Note details of special shores/blocks 13) Utilities connected. WHEN COMING OUT: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Time when authority to flood certificate has been signed. Time flooding commenced. Time all lines cast off. Time dock gates open. Time vessel clears lock gates forward and aft.

WHEN IN THE DOCK: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Have documentation ready and repair list. Sound all tanks once again. Tank plugs when being removed sight their removal and retained. Close all overboard discharges. 2 means of safe access. Take over facilities from docking master.

FACILITIES FROM DOCKING MASTER: 1) 2) 3) 4) Toilets. Electric shore connection. Fire line pressurised, fire men on board. Emergency numbers.


5) 6) 7) 8)

Bonding wire. Garbage disposal. Gas free certificates. Hotwork permits.

WHEN COMING OUT OF THE DOCK: 1) Check that all repairs have been done to satisfaction. All departments to also to check. 2) Checks that all plugs removed to be placed back in position and have been visually sighted. 3) Any securing on echo sounder or logs to be removed. 4) Propeller and rudder to be clear of any obstruction. 5) Any loose objects or staging overhanging on ships side to be removed. 6) General check on the anchor- anchor secured and marked. 7) Check that the overboard is clear. 8) I shall be the last person to leave the dock. 9) All soundings to be same as before when the vessel entered the dock. 10) Recalculate stability, trim and +ve GM to be maintained throughout. 11) Go through the checklist- obtain satisfied and written from the master. 12) Sign Authority to Flood Certificate. 13) Flooding stopped before rising the forward to check if overboard valves are not leaking. WHY ENTER THE DOCK WITH A SMALL STERN TRIM: 1) Sole Piece is the strongest part of the ship. 2) Dragging ship head to centreline is easier. 3) Gradual loss of GM.

WORK ON CABLE: 1) Cable is ranged and inspected visually for any damage or hairline fractures by hammering each link. 2) If any part of the cable is corroded and worn more than 10% of diameter then it should be renewed. 3) Anchor is changed end to end- all parts of the cable experience equivalent stresses over the years. 4) Remarking of the cable. 5) Overhauling of the bitter end. Why do soundings have to be taken and recorded before entering a dry dock and leaving one? To ensure similar stability state at the time of leaving the dock as it was when entering.


Dangerous Space procedures should be observed 1. Check that no rungs are missing from any ladders 2. As many welds as possible should be checked 3. Inspect any protective coating and ensure that areas which are difficult to reach have been adequately covered 4. If sacrificial anodes have been fitted check the position of anodes agree with the plans and that the anodes are secure 5. Ensure that the sounding pipe is correctly located and that the striker plate has been fitted (have a sounding rod lowered through the pipe and view it touches the striker plate) 6. Check that the drain is correctly located and in the position indicated on the plan 7. Check that the air pipes and filling pipes have been fitted with appropriate plugs 8. Make sure that all loose equipment and shipyard rubbish has been removed 9. The pumping arrangement should be given a thorough inspection 10. The chief officer should be present with the surveyor at the Tank Test. (extension pieces are fitted to the filling pipes and the tank slowly filled until a head of 8 feet or 2.45 m above the top of the tank is obtained. Bulkheads cofferdams watertight seals on the manhole covers and all areas adjacent to the forepeak should be checked for leaks. The water in the tank then should be dropped to the operational level.)


Precautions when going alongside to load a tanker: 1) 2) 3) 4) Stability aspectDetails of cargo. Disposition of cargo. GM, stresses, drafts. Ballasting of tanks- FSE. Bunker distribution. Draft restrictions or special requirements in next port. Ships main transmitting aerials off. Electric cables or portable equipment disconnected. Switch of radars when vessel comes alongside- 10cm radar could induce electrical potential into into nearby conductors at berth. 5) Proper lighting at berth. 6) Are sea and overboard discharge v/v sealed and closed. 7) Deck sealed. 8) All accommodation external doors, port holes etc to be closed. 9) Air-condition on re-circulation. 10) Start pump room ventilation atleast 15` before arrival. Blowers to be on continuously. 11) Ship shore bonding. 12) Proper means of access available between ship and shore. 13) Compliance of terminal safety and pollution regulations. 14) Placards No unauthorised personnel. No smoking signs. No naked lights. Emergency escape routes clearly shown. 15) Moorings- ship personnel are responsible and a continuos check is to be kept. 16) Emergency towing wire forward and aft. 17) Fire-fighting equipment Fire hoses connected to ships fire main one forward and one aft of the manifold and pressurised. Ensure that ship and shore international shore connection available for use at all times. Emergency fire pump standby at all times and ready for immediate use. In cold weather the freezing of water should be avoided by bleeding of water over-side or by crack opening the drain valve. Terminal fire fighting equipment ready at all times. Foam monitors directed towards the manifold. Portable fire extinguishers preferably of DCP. 18) Oil spill equipment available as per SOPEP manual. 19) Proper communication available Between shore tanks, manifold and CCR. Emergency contact numbers available. 20) V/l at all times ready to move under power.

21) Documentation-


Ships particulars. Bill of lading. Statement of facts. Empty tank certificates. Draft and trim. Maximum draft and trim expected. Quantity of cargo to be loaded or discharged. Nature of cargo (if discharging). Distribution of cargo on board (if discharging). If vessel has i.g. system and slop tank disposal system. Confirmation on the fact that the vessel if fully inerted. Any dirty ballast in slops. O2 content of tanks. Defects in hull, machinery etc. If any repairs that could delay the cargo operations. Details of statutory certificates and their period of validity. 22) Get vessel ready for tank inspection. 23) Discharge and loading plan agreed upon. 24) Obtain ship shore safety checklist. Transferring of engine room bilges into slops: Via the MARPOL connection. Transferring slops: Via the MARPOL line at manifold or cargo manifold. Gas freeing: Displacement method: makes use of a pipe opening at the bottom of the tank which displaces HC vapour at the bottom of the tank. Dilution method: relies on highly powered fans which blows air to the bottom of the tank thus diluting the petroleum vapour at the bottom of the tank. E.g. portable driven fans or eductor driven fans. For tank entry LFL must always be 1%. Limits of flammability: Upper flammable limit: 10% gas to 90% air. Lower flammable limit: 1% gas to 99% air. For reception of cargo: 40% LFL. In inerted condition: 1) Oxygen level in tank if below 11% will not support combustion. 2) Maximum permissible allowance is 8%.

Learn and understand the flammability range diagram.

Preparation of bulk cargo hatch prior loading: 1) Secure hatch openings and ensure safe access for grabs.


2) Remove spar ceilings and stow them safely. 3) Sweep out hold completely and remove all traces of previous cargo. Consider a fresh water rinse. Ensure that the hold is clear of all previous cargo prior to loading. 4) Bilges Well cleaned. Test suction. Cover bilge lid with burlap and cement. 4) Check water tightness and securing arrangements of hatches. 5) Check ventilation arrangement. 6) Ensure adequate lighting. 7) Check moisture content is below transportable moisture limit. 8) Check fire fighting / detection / alarm / and smothering system. 9) Where fire hazard risk avails no source of ignition. Display appropriate placards. 10) Post warning notices. 11) Rig shifting boards if necessary. 12) Rig cargo thermometers as necessary. 13) Remove unwanted dunnage. 14) Stability aspect Stresses. GM Stability adequate. Hazards of loading coal: 1) Emission of flammable gases (methane). Methane which is lighter than air tends to settle in the upper regions of the cargo space. Flammable range being 5% - 15%. 2) Some coals liable to spontaneous combustion, carbon monoxide is toxic and has a flammable range of 12% - 75%. 3) Liquefaction- cargo that is likely to shift if saturated with water.

Read through the MGN notices. CARRIAGE OF COAL.

Hazards: coal is categorised according to the hazards associated with it. Whenever coal is shipped from any place, the history of the previous shipments must be known, so as to be aware of the hazards of the particular type of coal. Coal may have any or all of the following hazards: 1) spontaneous heating: coal is very liable to spontaneus heating. Freshly mixed coal absorbs oxygen, forming peroxides which break up into carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.this is an exothermic reaction and the heat produced causes further oxidation and more heat. co (carbon monoxide) has a large flammable range (12% to 75%) by volume and besides is also highly toxic. If this heat is not dissipated then spontaneous combustion can occur. oxidation depends on the surface area available for absorbtion of oxygen, hence breakage of coal into smaller pieces while it is being loaded is to be prevented. if conciderable breakage occurs the smaller pieces shall accumulate in the centre of the hold while the larger pieces shall roll to the sides, this action aggravates the situation as the

large pieces of coal give way for the air to flow to the smaller pieces where spontaneous combustion is most likely to occur. Emissions of methane:coal emits methane immediately after loading and when newly worked or freshly broken. Methane is a flammable gas and when mixed with air forms an explosive mixture. It is lighter than air and therefore accumulates in the upper regions of the hold or other spaces. This gas can find itself into tanks cofferdams etc and pose a flammablity hazard so these compartments have to be well ventillated at all times and tested before man entry. Recommendations for tank entry procedures and check lists shall be provided in the bulk carrier code appenidx f. Corrosion: pond coal is the term given to coal left over from earlier mining operations which has been dumped into freshwater ponds and later reclaimed for shipment. It has a high moisture and sulphur content. This type of coal releases high temperatures from self heating and the sulphur content reacts with water to give off sulphuric acid resulting in corrosion of the ships hull. The ship should have instruments for measuring the p.h. content of the bilge waters and this must be done regularly. Liquefaction: it is a process where the moisture in the cargo migrates to the surface due to compaction and vibration resulting in the development of a flow state. This is particular in the case of coal slurry, coal duff and mud coal. The surface of the cargo behaves like a liquid and a transverse shift developes, if this occurs in reduced ships stability the condition is extremely dangerous. Precautions: Ventilation: surface ventillation is a important necessity during the carriage of coal for two reasons: To carry away any methane gas which may be carried away. To dissipate any heat which may be formed by the oxidation of the coal. Through ventillation must in no way be carried out as introduction of air into the cargo promotes oxidation and thereby spontaneous combustion. It is thus recommended that for the first five days after loading all ventillators should be utilised for removing the gas, thereafter the ventillators to the lower holds are to be plugged and opened only for 6 hours every two days. Each hold containing coal should have atleast two ventillators one forward and the other aft. The tween deck ventillators should be independent. Before discharging careful ventillation should be directed towards removing gases from both, the tween decks and the lower holds as a suddern influx of air before discharge into the hold may have disastrous effects. In fine weather hatches may be opened to facilitate surface ventillation. Attention to be paid to void spaces where accumulation of methane and carbonmonoxide can accumulate. Temperature: temperature pipes leading down to the bottom of the cargo are to be provided particularly below the hatchways. Monitoring of the temperatures at three levels in the holds to be done atleast once a day. Particular attention is to be paid to cargo stowed against hot bulkheads which is to be avoided if possible and the decks to be kept cool in tropical zones either by running deck water, rigging awnings or by laying out dunnage.


Temperature pipes are to be kept covered in to prevent the ingress of air into the hold. Spontaneous heating can become accelerated in some cargoes at temperatures as low as 38 degree c. At temperatures around 55 degree c. And rising the existance of a fire should be strongly suspected, and in such a situation the cargo spaces should be shut down and sealed against the entry of air and the master should seek expert advice and make for a suitable port of refuge. 3) fire: i) a sufficient number of safety lamps should be carried on all coal carrying vessels. all electrical cables and components situated in the cargo spaces should be free from defects and suitable for use in methane / dust atmospheres. Points of entry and exit of cables should be sealed to prevent the passage of gas into the adjacent compartment. If necessary all electrical circuits in spaces where gas accumulation is suspected should be isolated until the space is gas-freed. if there is evidence of the cargo burning the space should be closed, ventillation stopped and sealed against the entry of air. Boundary cooling to be carried out but no seawater or steam to be directly applied to the coal as coal directly reduces water to hydrogen and forms carbon monoxide - both flammable gases. Introduction of co2, high-expansion foam into the compartments is recommended. The hold is to be kept closed at all times and specialist advise is necessary before carrying out opening of the hold. Water or steam may be used in the hold in port in copious quantities, if no co2 or inert gas is available keeping in regard at all times the stability of the ship. the officers on the vessel should continuously monitor the methane,oxygen and carbonmonoxideconcentrations in the holds and in the spaces where the gases could accumulate with suitably calibrated instruments.

Shifting:a certificate is obtained from the shipper regarding the moisture content of the cargo. If this figure is suspected an onboard test to be carried out in accordance with section 8 of the bulk carrier code since it should not be more than the transportable moisture limit. Precautions should be taken to prevent the ingress of water in the hold and cargo work should be suspended and hatches in wet weather. Stockpiles must be drained and freshly tested for moisture content before loading. Hold bilges should be regurly pumped out. Trimming also prevents the air from penetrating the body of the hold. And since the load of coal could turn out upto 3% less, its bills of lading should be suitably claused. Prepration of holds: All cargo battens to be removed to prevent air pockets forming and helping the circulation of air. Boundaries of the cargo compartments should be resistant to fire and liquids.


No dangerous good shall be loaded unless the shipper has provided a dangerous good declaration. The declarations must give 1) the correct technical name of the goods 2) the identity of the goods 3) the UN number if applicable 4) the class in which the goods belong In addition the shipper must supply the following written information where appropriate: 1) the number and type of packages 2) the gross weight of the consignment 3) the net weight of the explosive content of class 1 goods 4) the flash point if 61 C or below. If goods are packed into a container or vehicle the vessel must be given a packing certificate for the container or vehicle. A stowage plan must be made which gives information noted above and also the location of where the goods are stowed.

CLASS 1 Explosives CLASS 2 Gases compressed, liquefied or dissolved under pressure 2.1 Flammable gases 2.2 Non flammable gases, being compresses, liquefied or dissolved but neither flammable nor poisonous 2.3 Poisonous gases CLASS 3 Flammable liquids 3.1 Low flash point 3.2 Intermediate flash point 3.3 High flash point CLASS 4.1 Flammable solids CLASS 4.2 Substances liable to spontaneous combustion CLASS 4.3 Substances which in contact with water emit flammable gases CLASS 5.1 Oxidising substances CLASS 5.2 Organic peroxides CLASS 6.1 Poisonous (toxic) substances CLASS 6.2 Infectious substances CLASS 7 Radioactive substances CLASS 8 Corrosives CLASS 9 Miscellaneous dangerous substances which presto a danger not covered by other classes Goods must be packed in accordance with the IMDG code.



The following requirement shall be complied with 1. The package must be clearly marked with the correct technical name of the goods and an indication must be given as to the dangers which could arise during the transportation of the goods 2. The markings must comply with the IMDG code 3. If the outer material of the package will survive three months immersion the marking must be durable 4. If the outer material will not survive three months any inner receptacles which will survive three months must be durably marked 5. If the goods are carried in a container or similar unit, then that unit must have distinctive labels on the exterior which comply with the IMDG code class label system Packing: 1) Shall be in good condition. 2) Of such a character that an interior surface with which the contents may come in contact is not dangerously affected by the substance being conveyed and capable of withstanding the ordinary risk of carriage at sea. 3) Where absorbent or cushioning is being used Capable of minimising the danger to which the liquid may give rise. Prevent movement and ensures that the receptacle remains surrounded. Absorb liquid in the event of breakage. 4) Receptacles shall have an ullage at the filling temperature sufficient to allow for the highest temperature during the voyage. 5) Cylinders or receptacles under pressure shall have been adequately constructed, tested and correctly filled. 6) Empty receptacles shall be considered as dangerous and be treated as dangerous cargo unless they have been cleaned and dried. Stowage: 1) Dangerous cargo should be stowed safely appropriately according to the nature of the cargo. Incompatible goods to be separated from one another. 2) Explosives to be stored in magazines and to be kept securely closed at sea. They should be kept far away from electricals. 3) Goods which give dangerous vapours should be stowed in well-ventilated places. 4) Ships carrying inflammable liquids and gases special precautions should be taken against fire and explosion. 5) Substances liable to spontaneous heating should not be carried unless adequate precautions have been taken.

CARRIAGE OF DANGEROUS GOODS ON BOARD A PASSENGER VESSEL No explosive can be transported on a ship carrying more than 12 passengers except: 1. Safety explosives


2. Any explosive the net weight of which is 10 kg or under 3. Distress signals up to a total weight of 1000 kg 4. Fireworks which are unlikely to explode violently. No dangerous goods should be allowed on board any vessel carrying more than 25 passengers IMDG CODE The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code is published by the IMO in five volumes. The code lays down certain basic principles concerning the transportation of dangerous goods EMERGENCY PROCEDURES FOR SHIP CARRYING DANGEROUS GOODS This is an IMO publication which gives information concerning the safety, first aid, and emergency procedures to be followed and action to be taken in the event of an incident involving certain dangerous goods. The Emergency Schedules (EmS) are divided into five sections 1. Group title with the emergency schedule number (EmS No) 2. Special equipment required 3. Emergency procedures 4. Emergency action 5. First aid GENERAL FIRE PRECAUTIONS WHEN CARRYING DANGEROUS GOODS 1. Reject any damaged or leaking packages 2. Packages should be stowed in a location which ensures protection from accidental damage or heating 3. Combustible material should be kept away from ignition sources 4. Goods must be segregated from substances liable to start or to spread fires 5. It may be necessary to ensure accessibility of dangerous goods so that packages in the vicinity of a fire may be protected or moved to safety 6. Enforce prohibition of smoking in dangerous areas 7. Post No Smoking signs or symbols 8. All electrical fittings and cables must be in good condition and safe guarded against short circuits and sparking 9. All ventilators must have spark arrestors of suitable wire mesh.



1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Prepare hospital to receive casualties Plot rendezvous position and possible search pattern Stand by communication officer and establish communication Pass own position and details with relevant search and rescue operation update to RCC Prepare rescue boat and emergency crew Obtain current weather situation Highlight navigational dangers to own ship Maintain own ship at operational status Navigate on manual steering Obtain update on target information Note activities in log book Maintain internal and external communication Brief operational personnels. (OOW, boat coxswain) Rig Guest wrap (a rope that extends from forward to aft). Plot position and prevailing currents estimate drift Post look-outs high as area is entered Provide information to engine room advice on standby manoeuvring speed Radar operational at various ranges, long range scanning and plotting on going Advise owners agents and reschedule ETA Update RCC/MRCC. Advice owners agents and reschedule e.t.a. Obtain weather reports.

CHIEF OFFICERS DUTIES: 1) Rig a good strong rope from bow to quarter (guest wrap). 2) Rig derrick on each side with platform cargo sling ready to help injured or helpless survivors out of water. 3) Rig fenders on each side- to bring lifeboats safely alongside. 4) Get rescue boat ready and crew standby, keep liferaft ready but do not inflate. 5) Check rescue boat equipment. 6) Proper communication between rescue boat and vessel. 7) Medical party and first aid party standby. 8) Ships signalling equipment and LTA standby. WHEN APPROACHING THE SCENE: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Post extra lookouts. Reduced speed and manual steering employed. Continuos radar watch. Get in touch with RCC and follow instructions. Make own vessel visible to survivors- at night signalling lamp and by day black smoke or use ships whistle. 6) Do not dump anything overboard- this may confuse the survivors. FACTORS THAT ARE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT WHEN CHOOSING ON SCENE COMMANDER:


1) 2) 3) 4)

On board communication equipment. Whether doctor or trained medical staff on board. Hospital and casualty treatment facilities. Vessels characteristics- freeboard, speed manoeuvrability ETA.

WHAT DETERMINES THE SPACING IN A SEARCH PATTERN? 1) Type of object being searched. 2) Meteorological visibility. 3) Track spacing may be decreased to increase the probability of detection or decreased to increase the area covered in a given time. 4) Sea condition. 5) Time of day. 6) Effectiveness of observers. INFORMATION PICKED UP FROM SURVIVORS: 1) 2) 3) 4) Ships name and call sign. Complement. Whether other survivors are still in the vicinity. Casualties- names.

Always remember to approach casualties from leeward and liferaft from windward. Learn diagrams of various search patterns. Read IAMSAR (International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue) manual also.
WHEN CAN A MASTER DECLINE TO PROCEED TO A SEARCH AND RESCUE: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Putting own vessel, crew or passengers in danger. Bunker capacity does not permit. Weather conditions are unfavourable. Loadline zone does not permit. When it is not practical to do so.

Objectives: 1. Observe safe operation of ships 2. Prevent pollution 3. Prevent loss of life and damage 4. Project environment Designated person from compare DPA designated person ashore Master responsible from ship Internal audits Reports non confirmatives NCR non conformance report Corrective action Log all activities Have an approved SMS (safety management system)


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Position of anchoring defined Depth of water and amount of cable State of tide HW/LW, rise of tide Type of holding ground Prevailing weather and shelter Underwater obstructions Rate of current Swinging room from surface objects Length of time vessel intend to stay Ships draft and UKC Use of 1 or 2 anchors Proximity of other shipping Local hazards outfalls etc. Current weather and expected Position fixing method Distance from shore by launch Types of anchors and holding power Wind direction Speed of approach Night or day signals


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Ask engine room for deck and windlass power. Anchor party standby. Checks to be madeWindlass oil, bottle screw, fair lead, capstan, bitter end and chain locker. All moving parts and gears on the windlass are well greased. Anchor lashings at hawse pipe and cement at spurling pipe is clear. Before switching on the windlass power ensure that the anchor breaks are tight and bow stopper is well secured and windlass is not in gear. Check overside is clear and anchor sighted. Anchor lights and shapes available. When taking in anchor deck water. Switch on windlass. Put windlass in gear, slacken on break and take slight weight on the bow stopper. Clear away the bow stopper. Lower away the anchor under power and leave the anchor hanging about 1m above water level. Tighten breaks and disengage windlass from gear. Inform bridge anchor is ready for letting go.



1) Do not let go anchor. 2) The anchor is then walked back all the way to the seabed. 3) As the vessel drops astern the cable will grow. The officer on watch should be aware of the amount of cable being paid out so that too much cable is not paid out till the bitter end. 4) Chief officer should be aware of the windlass capacity when picking up the anchoramount of cable paid out plus the weight of the anchor. LETTING GO IS NOT PROHIBITED BECAUSE: 1) Control could be lost due to excessive weight on the cable, thereby resulting in loss of anchor and cable making the vessel unseaworthy. 2) Possibility of serious damage or injury. When taking up the anchor you realise it is not coming up anymore? Drop astern to shallower waters thus relieving the weight of the chain on the windlass, then bring up the anchor. If for some reason it is not practical to do so. Action? Bring the anchor up using the derrick. ANOTHER VESSEL DRAGGING ANCHOR TOWARDS OWN VESSEL: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Inform master. Sound 5 or more rapid blasts on the whistle. Call on VHF- station identification. Engines to be ready for immediate manoeuvring. Anchor party standby. Pay out more cable. Go ahead and steam over own cable. Provide the vessel with a sheer with a hard over action. Make relevant entries in logbook.

MARKINGS ON AN ANCHOR: 1) 2) 3) 4) Makers name or initials. Progressive number. Weight. Number of certificate.

ANCHOR CERTIFICATE: 1) Type of anchor. 2) Weight excluding stock in KGs. 3) Weight of stock and head. 4) Length of shank and arm in mm. 5) Diameter of trend. 6) Proof load applied in tonnes. 7) Identification of proving house, official mark and government mark. 8) Number of test certificate. 9) Year of licence. 10) Number and date of drop test.


TEST ON CABLES: 1) Less than 12.5 mm cables to be tested. 2) Three links are taken from each length (27.5 m) for a tensile breaking test. 3) If this is successful then the total length of the cable will be subjected to a tensile proof test. Read clearing a foul hawse and tests on anchors form House. REMOVING A KENTER LUGS SHACKLE: 1) Remove lead pellet by using a punch and a drift. 2) Remove spile pin. 3) The stud can be extracted and then 2 halves of the shackle will be separated by means a top swage obtained
from the manufacturer.

Foul anchor. Anchor fouled by under water obstruction. Vessel is moved ahead under engines, veering cables until it grows well astern. When the vessel is brought upto with the cable growing astern, and the cable is taut, then work the engines ahead slowly and see if the cable breaks out slowly. In case it doesnot break out then steer the vessel slowly in an arc towards the anchor and try to rotate the anchor and break it out by constant movement. If still unsuccessful then try the above procedures using astern movements. If still not successful then rig up an anchor buoy and slip cable for later recovery. Anchor fouled with wire cable etc. Anchor and fouling to be hove well up into the hawse pipe. Use a fiber rope and pass it round the obstruction and heave both ends taut and make fast on the forecastle deck near maximum flare. Walk back anchor clears of obstruction. Heave the anchor into the hawse pipe. The obstruction which is now clear of the anchor can be released by slipping the fiber rope.

Foul hawse:
Gear necessary for this operation shoud be made ready for slack water. It will include atleast three 20 / 25 mm wires, lashing wires or ropes, boatswains chair and equipment necessary for breaking a cable to a new stream thus giving about 6 hours of freedom. The hawse is clear by unshackling the sleeping cable and passing the end round the riding cable.

Procedure: Heave on both cables to bring the foul turns above water and lash both cables together below the turns with a natural fibre lashing.


This lashing will prevent the turns from working themselves further down the cables. Pass a wire preventer (25mm wire) around the sleeping cable down from the turns this will reduce the weight on the turns and serve to secure the sleeping cable should the end be lost. Walk back on the sleeping cable to bring the next joining shackle convienently forward of the windlass. Rig a temporary easing wire (25mm wire) at a point forward of the joining shackle so that it can take the weight of the sleeping cable when the joining shackle is broken. Run a wire rope messanger (25mm wire) from the windlass drum to outside. Take half a turn about the riding cable in the direction opposite to the foul turns in the cable with this messanger. Pass the end of the messanger up through the hawse pipe of the sleeping cable and secure it to the end of the sleeping cable. Heave away on the messanger and simultaneously ease away on the easing wire, heaving the end of the sleeping cable up towards the fairlead thus removing a half turn from the fouled cables. Follow the same procedure to remove the remaining turns. When we get a clear hawse, haul in the end of the sleeping cable and rejoin it. The preventer wire should be slipped and cleared, lashing should be cut or burnt away. Heave away on both cables picking up on any slack.

Global Maritme Distress Safety System.

Sea areas: In gmdss system the world is divided into four sea areas.: Area a1: Within the radio telephone coverage area of a vhf coast station which has continous dsc altering avaliable. Area a2: Excluding area1 but within the mf radio telephone coverage area of a coast station which has continous dsc altering avaliable. Area a3: Excluding area a1 &a2 &within the coverage of the inmarsat geostationary satellites i.e. 70degrees north to 70 degrees south. Area a4 : Areas outside a1 ,a2 ,a3.this is essentially the regions north or south of the 70 degrees lines of latitude (polar regions).



Sat c system has a capablity known as enhanced group calling which enables information providers to send messages for selective reception by egc recievers located in the four ocean regions. The information provider determines which receivers are to receive the message by including identifying information such as the nav area, met. Area and geographical areas for which the msi is intended along with the message individual receivers can be programed to use this information to select only the required messages and to delete all the others. Egc receiver operator to program the receiver with the geographical areas for which the msi shall be received. Authorised information providers include hydrographers offices, met office, rcc etc. 1) safety net: for maritime safety information. 2) fleet net: for the transmission of commercial information (allows registered information providers to broadcast messages to selected groups of ses.) egc messages can be addressed to ships in a particular area or to a selected group of ships eg. Broadcast news service. It is important therefore that position information is supplied to egc. Receiver either manually or through an interface,automatically. the manual position input shall have five co-ordinates needed to complete an enclosed area. Eg. If a square has four corners named a,b,c,&d with particular co-ordinates then we need to come back to a again to complete an enclosed area for reception. Egc is particularly useful for the reception of messages when the vessel is out of range of the navtex station or the region doesnt have navtex facilities eg. Australia. E p i r b: emergency position indicating radio beacon Basically there are three types of epirbs for general use commonly found on ships: 1) cospas-sarsat epirb. Inmarsat-e epirb. Vhf dsc epirb (ch 70 dsc).

Cospas-sarsat epirb: the system uses several satellites at a low earth orbit of 8501000 kms,each of the satellites making a complete orbit of the earth in about 100 minutes. The satellites are designed to receive on 121.5 and 406.025mhz It employs dopler shift principles using the relative motion between the satellite and an activated beacon to calculate the location of the beacon.once the beacon signal has been received it is relayed by the satelli8te to a specialised ground station called the local user terminal (l u t ), and thence to m.c.c. and m.r.c.c. Modes of operation: there are two modes of detection of the beacon by the system. Real time mode: in this type of mode a repeater on board the satellite relays the epirb signal directly to the ground where it is to be received and processed by the l.u.t. For this mode the lut and the epirb have to be in the footprint of the satellite. Global coverage mode: the satellite stores the signals activated from the 406 mhz epirb, sa the satellites path/footprint brings it in view of a lut. Information including


beacon i.d. frequency of detection and time of detection is continuously relayed down to the l.u.t. which after computing the position of the beacon shall relay the same to the rcc/mrcc. This mode is only for the 406 mhz epirb. Every 406 mhz epirb has a unique identity code which is a part of the signal, this code could be a call-sign,serial number or a mmsi number. This code is programmed by the supplier before it is installed on the vessel. It is imperative that the epirb is registered with the relevant authorities in the flag state so that information can be readily available to the authorities during a cricis. Specifications: The epirb shall be placed in an easily accessible position like the bridge-wing or the compass deck. Be capable of manual release and also be capable of being carried to the survival craft by a single person. Be capable of being floating free from a sinking vessel if it is fitted with a h.r.u. Be capable of being activated manually.

Epirb operation. It is a small self containded battery operated radio trasmiter (operation eye 48 hrs)which is both water fight & buoyant operations differ between model . However all beacons operate between the following: Off/safe: the beacon is switched off& will not transmit. Armed /auto: the beacon will auto matically switch on when it is to be released from the float free bracket (armed type) or will activate when itr gets in contact with contact with water as there are two mettalic contacts on the bottom(auto). On : the beacon will automatically switch on and transmit (manual mode.) Test: activates a built in test routine. The purpose of epirb to determine the position or the survivors/ distress vessel during sar operationsand as asecondary means of altering. It indicates that one or more persons are in distress may no longer be on board a ship or aircraft and that receiving facilities may not be avaiiable. 2)inmarst eepirb or lband epirb: It utilises the geo stationary satellite system. The transmission is made alternately im frequency ranges from 1644.3mhz &1644.5mhz&1645.5 00 -1646.5hz in order to be received from both the first &the following generations of inmarsat satellites. Upon activation the epirb trasmits a distress altert containing the ships station identity, position information either gps or manual &additional information (nature of distress).they cannot be used in area a4. It has a inbuilt gps. 3)vhf dsc epirb: Is operates on channel 70 &can only be used in area a1 All vhf dsc epirbs will have an inbuilt sart so that it can reveal its position to the vessels in the area where the epirb is activated.

# when the vhf dsc epirb is activated on the dsc it will only show nature of distress as undesignated and further epirb emission shall appear i: G.m.d.s.s. frequencies. distress.. Urgency.. Safety. r.t. 2182 4125 6215 8291 12290 16420 ch 16 (156.800) telex. 2174.5 4177.5 6268 8376.5 12520 16695

D.s.c. 2187.5 khz 4207.5 khz 6312 khz 8414.5 khz 12577 khz 16804.5 khz Ch 70 (156.525 mghz)


n a v t e x. khz english Tropical zones. Local languages. maritime safety information (telex). 4210 khz. 6314 8416.5 12579 16806.5 19680.5 22376 26100.5 D.s.c. routine calling.


Shipshore Ship-ship Shore-ship

2189.5 khz 2177 2177 khz khz

(or national)

(or national)


on scene communications. 2182 khz 5680 khz* 3023 * vhf ch 06 * 4125 * vhf ch 16 Stands for ship aircraft operations. Primary inter ship frequency is ch 06 Channel 16 may be used by aircraft stations for safety purposes only.



on board communications. Vhf ch 17 (156.850 mhz) Vhf ch 15 (156.750mhz)


e p i r b s.

121.5 mhz and 406 mhz l-band or 1.6 ghz vhf ch 70

cospas-sarsat inmarsat-e epirb. vhf

G.M.D.S.S: N A V T E X. Navtex is an automatic direct printing service for s.a.r., navigational/meteorological warnings and urgent information to ships. It is afine tuned and fully automatic receiver incorporating an audible alarm for priority message mode. The mode of transmission is f1b or telex (n.b.d.p.narrow band direct printing) The frequency used primarily is additionaly 4209.5 khz is used in tropical regions where there is a high degree of interferance due to static. The receiver can also use 490 khz for the receipt of messages in local languages after the full implimentation of gmdss. The unit consists of a printer, display and microprocessor. The processor unit allows the foll: To receive information from selected stations. To receive certain types of information only. Prevent printing of the message again. Store received messages. To prevent printing if message is not of sufficient strength or signal not good enough. All navtex messages are prefixed by a 4 character group. The first character denotes the transmitting station. Second denotes message category. Third and fourth are serial numbers for the message received in 4 h2ours. The serial no. 00 denotes urgent traffic and cannot be deleted. The world is divided into 16 navareas each having transmiting stations from alpha to zulu, the geographical boundary of each navarea and its station is given in alrs vol 3 / 5. Categories of messages. Message types a,b,d,l cannot be rejected. A = nav warnings. B = gale warnings. D = distress alerting + sar. Information.


L = nav. Warnings to suppliment message type a. The receipt of each message is indicated by a audio and visual alarm. Preamble of text: Eg, zczc ga23 zczc is the start of message, g is the identification of the transmitter,a is the type of message, 23 denotes the number of message. For a navtex reciever if login accept is carried the foll. Actions will be carried out by the reciever. Login accept: Prints header code of messages already received, Will print header code of rejected messages,ie. Transmitter not selected or message type not selected. Will print information of corrupted header. Will give information of corrupted message. Will print messages of an error rate of less than 33%. Login reject. Will print none of the above. Will print messages without any error. s.a.r.t.s. search and rescue transponders. The purpose of the sart is to indicate the position of persons or vessels in distress. They operate on 9 ghz(3 cm x-band radar) And only transmit when interrogated by the sar vehicles radar when within 5 nautical miles. The transmission produces a distinct line on the radar of about 12 blips extending out from the sarts position along its line of bearing. The interval between each blip is 0.6 miles. At 1 nautical mile the blips shall change to wide arcs and become complete circles as the sart is close to the interrogated sars radar.the blip closest to the sars radar is the actual location of the sart vehicle. Sarts should respond when interrogated by a mobile units radar with a scanner height of 15 mts at a distance of atleast 5 nautical miles. Also by a compatible x-band radar fitted to an aircraft operating at a height of 8000 feet at a distance of 30 miles. An audible alarm or a small light is incorporated into the device in order to draw the attention of the persons in distress that a rescue ship or aircraft is within close range. The battery should be able to operate for 96 hours on the stand-by mode and for a period of 8 hours on the transmitting mode. Sarts should be mounted as high as possible. Imo. Recommends that the sart shoule be mounted 1 mt. Above the sea level. Sart routine tests and mantainence.


Sarts should be tested once a month to obtain proper operation: # switch sart to test mode. # check that the visual indicator light operates. # check that the audible beeper operates. # set the sart to transmit. Check if concentric circles displayed on the radar. # check the battery expiry date. Source: gmdss manual G m d s s - survival craft portable vhf s It is used for comunication between survival craft and rescue craft. The equipment typically consists of a small handheld transceiver with an integral antenna. The foll. Are the specifications of the said equipment. Provide operation on channel 16 and one and any other channel. Be capable of operation by unskilled persons. Be capable of operation by a person wearing gloves. Single handed operation except for changing channel. Withstand a drop from a height of 1 mt. Mantain water tightness to a depth of 1 mt for 5 mins. Not affected by sea water and oil. Should be light weight, small in size and not having any sharp projections. Should have a primary battery ie. Non rechargeable And may in addition carry rechargeables as spares. Be of a highly visible colour (international orange or taxi of the same. Have the capablity of being attached to the users clothing. Carriage requirements: # # gmdss vessels over 500 grt gmdss vessels 300-500 grt 3 portable units. 2 portable units. yellow) or have a strip


1. 2. 3. Verify vessels position and consider re routeing Update weather report and plot storm movement STABILITY:- avoid slack tanks and eliminate free surface

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Rig life lines Fwd and Aft Warn all departments of heavy weather Close up deck vents, remove cowls Check cargo lashing:- heavy lifts, deck cargo, hazardous cargo. Anchors to be well secured- spurling pipe cemented, break tight, bow stopper well secured and additional lashing at the hawse pipe. Check deck securing, life-boats, water-tight doors Secure all derricks and cranes Batten down all dead lights (steering flat) Clear all deck of surplus gear Slacken of signal and whistle halyards Remove all awnings Drain swimming pools Establish heavy weather work routine Check securing on accommodation ladder Secure bridge against heavy rolling/pitching Reduce speed in ample time to avoid pounding Organise meal reliefs and watches Update position and pass to shore station (AMVER) Free board deck seal check - hatches and tank lids Reduce manpower on deck work Final checks on LSA gears - bridge rockets etc. Note all preparation in the Log Book Obtain weather predictions and update reports Engage manual steering in ample time Revise ETA if appropriate Adjust ballast tanks to provide optimum trim. Make relevant log entries.

WORKING PRECAUTIONS: 1) Do not secure any line passed down. 2) Do not touch whinchman, stretcher, hook or wire until earthed.


3) 4) 5) 6)

Do not fire rockets or line throwing apparatus. Do not direct strong light towards chopper. No radio communication during radio operations. Avoid wasting time as fuel is expensive.

NAVIGATIONAL REQUIREMENTS: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Alter course towards rendezvous position. Prepare deck reception. Continuos communication with chopper. Display r.a.m. lights. Continuously monitor own ships position and other vessels in the vicinity.

ENGAGEMENTS: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Display wind indicator. V/l on manual steering. Course altered to pilots instructions. Maintain maximum manoeuvring speed. Clear of all navigational obstructions and maintain adequate sea room. Log all events.

HIGH LINE OPERATIONS: This operation is employed when there is Exposed rigging. Rough seas. Numerous persons. 1) Aircraft will establish a high hover position clear of all obstructions. 2) Weighted heaving line is passed down towards the vessel. 3) Hoist wire will then be lowered down once deck crew have got hold of weighted heaving line. 4) Chopper will then traverse backwards to gain visual contact. 5) Aircrew man descends and deck crew to heave on heaving line. 6) Aircraft maintains station, aircrewman organises double hoist transfer for vessel.

PRECAUTIONS: 1) Display windsock. 2) Ensure all rigging and obstructions, loose objects about the helicopter landing area is clear. Loose objects could come in contact with the rotor blades. 3) Deck party correctly dressed and well equipped- wearing brightly colour waistcoats and protective helmets. 4) Communication between chopper, deck and bridge.


5) Fireman standby fully equipped. 6) Fire p/p running with adequate pressure on deck. 7) Fire hoses, extinguishers, foam monitors and portable foam applicators ready. Foam applicator nozzles pointing towards landing area. 8) The following to be standby Large axe. Crowbar. Wire cutter Red emergency signal torch. Marshalling battons at night. First aid equipment. 9) Rescue party detailed, manoverboard rescue boat ready for lowering. 10) Static hook hander is properly equipped- helmet, rubber gloves, and rubber soled shoes. 11) At night if operating adequate light available without blinding chopper. 12) Display proper lights or shapes. 13) Clear access to and from operational area. ADDITIONALLY REQUIREMENTS FOR TANKERS: 1) Ships with i.g. system- have pressure released from tanks within 30` of commencement of chopper operations and pressure released to slightly positive. 2) Tank openings closed. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BULK CARRIERS: 1) Surface ventilation ceased. 2) Hatch openings fully battened down. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR GAS CARRIERS: 1) Avoid vapour emissions on deck.

1) NUC lights. 2) V/l on hand steering. 3) Inform master.


4) Bring vessel head to wind. 5) Increase weights forward by filling up the forepeak and consider walking back anchor upto 4 to 5 shackles. This will increase the weight forward considering the pivot point of the vessel to shift forward resulting a sailing effect. 6) To reduce the rolling Winging out weights- increases the rolling period. Reduce GM by ballasting TST`s. Manoverboard 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Helm hard over on the side which the man has fallen. Release lifebuoy with smoke signal. If possible release the SART. Press GPS MOB button. Sound emergency alarm. Main engines for immediate manoeuvring. Inform master. Post lookouts. Sound emergency signal ``O`` on fog signal. Broadcast by VHF to all vessels in the vicinity. Hoist ICS flag ``O``. 9) Turn out rescue boat- muster crew and standby. 10) Continuos monitoring of vessels position on chart. 11) Update weather reports. 12) Log book entries. Collision 1) Stop engines and obtain an assessment of the situation. It may be prudent to maintain a few revolutions in the engines to avoid the other vessel form flooding and consequent sinking when both vessels are separating. 2) Sound emergency alarm. 3) Switch on deck lights and NUC lights. 4) Inform master. Inform engine room and all departments. 5) Broadcast message to all ships in the vicinity. 6) Carry out head count and damage assessment. 7) Muster damage control parties and detail duties. 8) Order bilge pumps and ballast pumps to start pumping out effected area. 9) Shut all watertight doors and fire doors. 10) Communication officer- standby to obtain weather report. Navigational officer to update vessels position and assist master as required. 11) Prepare survival craft for immediate launching if situation demands. Chief officers duties: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Internal sounding of all tanks- check watertight integrity. Machinery space wet or dry. Head count- check for casualties. Investigate pollution possibilities. Will consider ballasting to bring damaged portion above waterline.

Masters legal obligations:


1) 2) 3) 4)

Standby to render assistance. Exchange information with master of other informationGeneral particulars of other vessel. Port of departure. Port of destination. Report accident to Marine Accident Investigation Bereau (MAIB). Make entries in official log book.

EXTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS FOLLOWING EMERGENCY 1. Distress/Urgency signal 2. Exchange information with other vessel 3. MAIB 4. Company, Owners, Charterers 5. AMVER 6. Coast Gaurd / MRCC 7. Agents (port of refuge) 8. Tugs/Towing 9. Dry Docking 10. Weather reports

Grounding 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Stop engines. Sound emergency alarm. Display aground lights and switch on deck lights. Inform master and all departments. Broadcast warning message to all vessels in the vicinity and continuos VHF watch maintained. 6) Position on chart investigated and safe port options investigated. Chief officers duties: 1) Extent and position of damage. 2) Head count- casualties. 3) Check watertight integrity of hull- internal and external soundings. After soundings have been made air pipes and sounding pipes to be well secured. This will prevent oil pollution and water pressure causing the oil to rise upwards. 4) Condition of machinery wet or dry. 5) Shut all watertight doors and fire doors. 6) Obtain damage reports from all departments. 7) Refer to vessels damage stability information. 8) Damage control party mustered and reduce the ingress of water. 9) Consider the possibility of fire or oil pollution hazards. 10) Determine nature of bottom. Determine time of next high water. 11) Lifeboat ready and swung out. LSA / FFA equipment standby. 12) Appropriate entries made in logbook.


After grounding there is no damage to hull or watertight integrity. What will you do next? I will call for an underwater survey.

BEACHING: Is defined as taking the ground intentionally as occurs for 2 reasons To prevent the loss of the vessel when damaged below the waterline. When it is the intention to refloat after watertight integrity has been restored.

1) Take on full ballast before beaching. 2) Consider bow first if bow damaged and stern first if stern damaged at about 90 o to the tide. 3) Consider letting go the weather anchor first, this would prevent the vessel from slewing parallel to the beach. 4) Should the vessel be damaged stern then stern first approach would be desirable. In this case it could be made in the form of a Mediterranean Moor, letting go both anchors which may be used to heave the vessel of when the time comes. 5) Anti slew wires to be used in conjunction with the anchor. 6) Make internal and external soundings after beaching.
Suggestions to master when refloating the vessel:

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Master to be informed at all times. Calculate times of immediate high water. Consider reducing weights on board- deballasting and jettison as last option. Damage stability. Consider dropping an anchor to prevent a damaged ship from sliding into deeper waters. Tug to standby at all times when refloating.

Anti pollution measures following emergencies:

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Plug all scuppers. Repair damage and leaking areas. Pump out surplus to barges or other vessels or transfer to other tanks internally. Organise oil pollution barrier and chemical dispersants. Consider listing or trimming vessel to bring damaged portion over water line.


Preparation 1. Secure a wire pendant to an accessible point on the davit arm 2. Care to be taken and ensure that all the materials used are of sufficient strength to accept the weight of a fully laden boat 3. The boat falls should be retrieved at deck level and the nylon strop schakled to the linkage of the floating block Hoisting 1. Lower the falls to the boat 2. Attach the nylon strop to the lifting hook on the fore and aft of the boat 3. Lift the boat off the water and attach the hanging off pendant on top of the nylon strop

on the lifting hook 4. This will transfer the weight off the nylon stop on to the hanging off wire pendant Transferring of weight 1. This can be only achieved if the hanging off pendant is long enough to reach the lifting hook when the floating blocks are hard up at the davit head 2. Once this is achieved either cut the strop at the hook or unshackle at the other end Stowage 1. Continue to walk back on the falls 2. Connect the falls on to the lifting hook 3. Detach the wire pendant at the davit arm and secure boat 4. When lowering the boat next time detach the wire pendant from the lifting hook. CASTING OFF A BOAT WHEN THE PARENT VESSEL IS MAKING WAY 1. Once the boat falls has been released and the boat is held on the painter push the tiller toward the ships side 2. This action effectively gives the boat a SHEER 3. Keep the painter taut until the boat reaches a point of maximum sheer 4. Then briefly alter the position of the tiller so that the bow cants inwards towards the parent vessel 5. The result of this action will be for the painter to become temporarily slack which will permit its easy slipping 6. Push tiller towards the ship side again and gain sea room

1. Check that all access openings at ends of enclosed structures are in good conditions. All dogs, clamps and hinges to be free and well greased. All gaskets and water-tight seals should be crack free. Ensure that the doors open from both sides Check all cargo hatches and access to holds for weather tightness Check the efficiency and securing of portable beams If portable wooden hatch covers are used check that they are in good condition If tarpaulins are used at least two should be provided for each hatch and in good condition Inspect all machinery space opening on exposed deck Check that any manholes and flush scuttles are capable of being made watertight Check that all ventilator openings are provided with efficient weathertight closing appliance All airpipe should be provided with satisfactory means for closing and opening Inspect any cargo ports below the freeboard deck and ensure that all of them are watertight Ensure that non return valves on overboard valves are operating in a satisfactory manner Side scuttles and openings below the freeboard deck must have efficient internal watertight deadlights Check that all freeing ports are in satisfactory conditions All guard-rails and bulwarks should be satisfactory condition

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.


15. 16.

Derust and paint the deck line, loadline marks, load line and the draught marks Non return and overboard valves functioning properly.


Life saving appliances: 1) Lifeboat Stores and equipment. Particular attention to bottom boards and buoyancy material. Thwarts free of cracks. 2) Overhaul and grease which davits and blocks. Falls to be renewed or turned end to end. Repaint markings on the lifeboat. 3) When boats are in water run the boats ahead and astern. 4) Inflatable liferafts to be serviced within the last 12 months. 5) Lifebuoys- si lights, grab lines, markings well painted. 6) Lifejackets- lights, whistles and markings. 7) Pyrotechnics- expiry dates. Fire Fighting appliances: 1) Fire control plans legible. 2) Check fire hoses, nozzles and applicators in good condition. 3) Test emergency fire pump. 4) Overhaul all extinguishers. 5) Test and overhaul fixed fire equipment system. 6) Check breathing apparatus and firemans suit. 7) Check fire and smoke detection system. Other checks: 1) Emergency lighting system. 2) Check closing arrangements for- ventilators, skylits, doors and funnel. 3) Check navigational equipment. 4) Check pilot ladders and pilot hoists. In general all checks to be carried out as per the record of inspection form at the back of the SEQ certificate.


SPECIAL AREAS FOR DISCHARGE OF OIL 1. Mediterranean Sea 2. Baltic Sea 3. Black Sea 4. Red Sea 5. Persian Gulf 6. Gulf of Aden 7. Antarctic Area REGULATION 9 (ANNEX I) CONTROL OF DISCHARGE OF OIL Any discharge of oil into the sea is prohibited except when the following conditions are satisfied:For an oil tanker 1. The tanker is not within a special area 2. The tanker is more than 50 nautical miles from the nearest land 3. The tanker is proceeding en route 4. The instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content does not exceed 30 litres per nautical mile 5. The total quantity of oil discharged into the sea does not exceed for existing tankers 1/15000 of the total quantity of the particular cargo of which the residue formed a part and for new tankers 1/30000 of the total quantity of the particular cargo of which the residue formed a part 6. The tanker has in operation an oil discharge monitoring and control system and a slop tank arrangement From a ship of 400 tons gross tonnage and above other than an oil tanker and from machinery spaces bilges excluding pump-room bilges of an oil tanker unless mixed with oil cargo residue 1. The ship is not within a special area 2. The ship is proceeding en route 3. The oil content of the effluent without dilution does not exceed 15 parts per million 4. The ship has in operation a) 400-1000 tons gross tonnage an oil filtering equipment 5. above 1000 tons gross tonnage an oil filtering equipment with arrangements for an alarm system and for automatically stopping any discharge of oily mixture when the oil content of the effluent exceeds 15 parts per million OIL RECORD BOOK: Every oil tanker of 150 tons gross tonnage and above and every ship of 400 tons gross tonnage and above other than an oil tanker shall be provided with an Oil Record Book Part I (Machinery Space Operations). Every oil tanker of 150 tons gross tonnage and above shall be provided with an Oil Record Book Part II (Cargo/Ballast Operations).


Entries: The Oil Record Book shall be completed on any movement of oil in and out of the vessel , on a tank to tank basis if appropriate whenever any of the following operations take place in the ship: (A) For Machinery Space Operations (All Ships) 1. Ballasting or cleaning of oil fuel tanks 2. Discharge of dirty ballast or cleaning water from tanks 3. Disposal of oily residues 4. Discharge overboard or disposal otherwise of bilge water which has accumulated in machinery space. 5. Bunkering operations.

(B) For Cargo/Ballast Operations (Oil Tankers) 1. Loading of oil cargo 2. Internal transfer of oil cargo during voyage 3. Unloading of oil cargo 4. Ballasting of cargo tanks and dedicated clean ballast tank 5. Cleaning of cargo tanks including crude oil washing 6. Discharge of ballast except from segregated ballast tank 7. Discharge of water from slop tanks 8. Closing of all applicable valves or similar devices after slop tank discharge operations 9. Closing of valves necessary for isolation of dedicated clean ballast tanks from cargo and stripping lines after slop tank discharge operations 10. Disposal of residues CARGO RECORD BOOK Regulation 9 of ANNEX II to MARPOL 73 states that the Cargo Record Book must be completed, on a tank to tank basis, whenever any of the following operations are carried out: 1. Loading 2. Discharging 3. Cargo transfer 4. Transfer of residues to a slop tank 5. Tank cleaning 6. Transfer from slop tank 7. Ballasting of cargo tanks 8. Transfer of dirty ballast water 9. Any permitted discharge into the sea


1) every vessel of 12m or more in length shall display placards informing the crew and passengers of the disposal requirements of garbage. 2) every ship of 400grt and above certified to carry 15 passengers or more shall carry a garbage management plan and a garbage record book. 3) v/l`s which are exempted A vessel certified to carry 15 passengers or more if engaged in a voyage of one hour or less. fixed or floating offshore installations.


CONTENTS OF GARBAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN: 1) designated person who is incharge of carrying out the plan. 2) procedures for collecting, processing, stowing and disposing the garbage. GARBAGE SPECIAL AREAS 1. Mediterranean Sea 2. Baltic Sea 3. Black Sea 4. Red Sea 5. Persian Gulf 6. North Sea 7. Antarctic Area 8. Wider Caribbean CLASSES OF GARBAGE 1. Plastics 2. Floating dunnage lining and packing material 3. Ground down paper products, rags glass, metal, bottles, crockery, etc. 4. Paper products, rags ,glass, metal bottles, crockery, etc. 5. Food Waste 6. Incinerator Ash


1) 2) 3) when garbage is discharged into the sea, reception facilities ashore or other vessels. when garbage is incinerated. accidental or other exceptional discharge of garbage. time of occurrence. port or position of vessel at the time of occurrence. category of garbage and estimated amount in m3. reason of disposal and remarks.

OUTSIDE SPECIAL AREAS No plastics Floating materials - more than 25 nautical miles Food, crockery, bottles, rags, meal cans, etc. - more than 12 nautical miles Food, crockery, etc., comminuted to pass 25 mm screen - more than 3 nautical miles INSIDE SPECIAL AREA Food waste - more than 12 nautical miles IN WIDER CARIBBEAN REGION Food waste comminuted to pass 25 mm screen - more than 3 nautical miles.


Ship Board Oil Pollution Emergency Plan (SOPEP)

Every non-tanker of 400 grt or above and every tanker of 150 grt and above must have SOPEP on board in the form of a manual. The plan should consist of the following: 1) The procedure to be followed by master or another person having charge of the ship to report an oil pollution incident. When: If discharge exceeds MARPOL limits. Discharge to save life or property. Discharge resulting from damage. Threat or probability of discharge.

How: By quickest available means to coastal radio station, designated ship movement reporting system or RCC at sea. By quickest available means to local authorities in port. What: Initial report. Follow up report. Cargo / ballast bunker disposition. Characteristics of oil spilled. Slick movement. Weather and sea conditions.

2) List Of Authorities To Be Contacted In The Event Of An Oil Spill. Who: Nearest coast station. Harbour and terminal authorities. Ship owners / managers / P & I authorities. 3) A Detailed De{cription Of The Action To Be Taken Immediately By Persons On Board To Reduce Or Discharge Of Oil Following The Incident. In case of spills caused by casualties: Immediate action to preserve life and property. Immediate action to prevent escalation of the incident. Damage assessment procedures. In case of operational spills: Preventive measures and procedures. Actions in the event ofPipeline leakage. Tank overflow.

Hull leakage.

4) The Procedures And Point Of Contact On The Ship For Co-Ordinating Ship Board Action With National And Local Authorities In Combating The Pollution. Action required initiating response. Ships responsibility regarding monitoring clean up activities. Assistance that can be provided by the ship. Details of any materials carried on board to assist the cleaning on deck spills. Details of oil spill response arrangement and policies. Guidance on record keeping and sampling procedures.

5) List Plans And Drawings. Company organisational charts. List of key contactsCompany. P & I club and correspondents. Agents. Ships particulars. General arrangement plan. Table of tank capacities. Piping and pumping plan. Bunker disposition. Mid ship section plan. Plan indicating frame spacing. Damage stability data. Cargo stowage plan. Cargo certificates of quality. List and disposition of shipboard clean up material. Record of shipboard oil pollution emergency drills.

What he wants to hear: The points that are mentioned in bold, he should not go into details.



1) Check certificates and validity. 2) Register of ship lifting appliances and gear. 3) Ships plan. 4) Garbage record book. 5) Oil record book. 6) LSA/FFA maintenance record book. 7) Planned maintenance scheme checks. 8) General condition of ship and defects list. 9) Possession of all important keys. 10) Condition of stores inventories and requisition. 11) Overtime sheets. 12) Navigational equipment. 13) Deck log book. 14) Ongoing or future surveys. 15) Cargo aspect: Records of all past loading and discharges. Ship stability booklet, cargo plan, cargo manifest, ship stability booklet, Present situation regarding cargo and stowage. Expected time of completion and departure. Any draft restrictions in port of departure or arrival. Reserves on board- oil, ballast, fresh water, cargo etc. Loadicator- general operation, test condition, take custody of instruction manual and back up floppy.



1. 2.

Certificate of Registry (64 shares, 1st Master signs it) Official Log Book ( RGS, Name of ship, Port of registry, Official Number, Gross Tonnage, Registered Tonnage, Certificate Number of Master, Owners name and address, Date opened / closed) Safety construction certificate (must have a TYPE TESTED MAGNETIC COMPASS Before issuing this certificate)(VALIDITY - 5 YEARS) Safety radio telegraphy certificate (VALIDITY - 1 YEAR) Safety equipment certificate ( VALIDITY - 2 YEARS) (Record of Inspection) Load line certificate (VALIDITY - 5 YEARS) De-Rat exempt certificate (VALIDITY - 6 MONTHS) International Oil Pollution and Prevention (VALIDITY - 5YEARS) Manning certificate Register of lifting appliance and cargo gear Tonnage certificate (Panama/Suez) Anchor and cable certificate Certificate of limited liability Ships articles Discharge book if held Ships accounts and money Cargo plan & details (Manifest)(hazardous, heavy lifts, valuables) Sea worthy certificate (Passenger vessels) (VALIDITY - 1YEAR) Crew list and certificate of competency if held Safety Management Certificate


4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

21. Document of Compliance (copy only) (all in bold required by c/o when handing over in addition, the ships plans, soundings of all tanks, defect list, particular cautions.)



M- Notices: merchant ship notices which are published by the MCA and recommendations contained in it should be complied with. It is a method by which the MCA promulgates information, which is quickly brought to the attention of seafarers, management and those associated with the industry. They are divided into three categories: Merchant Shipping Notices (white coloured): convey mandatory information that must be complied with under UK law. In otherwards they explain and amplify statutory requirements. Marine Guidance Notices (blue coloured): SOLAS, MARPOL, etc. Marine Information Notes (green coloured): administrative information aimed at training establishments. Each notice will be affixed as follows: (M): for merchant ships (F): for fishing vessels
(M+F): for merchant ships and fishing vessels

Checklists - Bridge Procedures Guide
Bridge Checklist 1 - Preparation For Sea. Has The Operation Of The Following Equipment Been Studied & Fully Understood? Alarms. Bridge Lighting, Including Controls For Deck & Overside Illumination. Direction Finder. Echo Sounder. Electronic Navigational Position Fixing Aids. Emergency Arrangements In The Event Of Main Power Failure. Hazard Monitoring Equipment. Gyro Compass / Repeaters. Magnetic Compass. Navigation Lights, Including Emergency Navigation, Not Under Command & Other Signal Lights. Radar & Other Associated Plotting Aids. Safety Equipment (Eg. Pyrotechnics). Speed / Distance Recorder. Steering Gear Including Manual, Auto Pilot, & Emergency Change Over Arrangements. Telegraph Including Control Of Main Engines & (As Appropriate) Watertight Doors. Are You Aware Of The Location & Operation Of Ancillary Bridge Equipment (Eg. Binoculars, Signalling Flags, Meteorological Equipment)? Are You Familiar With The Stowage Of Chart & Hydrographic Publications?

Bridge Checklist 2 - Daily Checks & Tests.

(At Noon Or Other Convenient Fixed Times) Has The Following Equipment Been Tested / Checked?


Bridge & Engineroom Telegraphs, Including Revolution Indicators (Also Before Canal Transit). Bridge Telephones. Bridge Watch Mf Radio Telephone Receiver Clocks & Chronometers. General Emergency Alarm Signal. Radio Room Auto Alarm. Ships Whistle (But Not In Poor Visibility Or When Other Vessels Sre Nearby). Steering Gear Chnge Over Procedure.

Bridge Checklist 3 - Preparation For Sea. Has A Passage Plan For Intended Voyage Been Prepared Taking Into Consideration The Factors Listed In Checklist 7? Are Charts For The Intended Voyage & Other Nautical Publications Corrected Upto Date & Courses Laid Off? Has The Following Equipment Been Checke & Found Ready For Use ? Anchors, Including Clearing Away. Ancillary Bridge Equipment (Eg. Binoculars). Bridge Movement Book, Where Carried. Course & Engine Movement Recorder. Deck Power. Direction Finder. Echo Sounder. Electronic Navigational Position Fixing Aids. Gyro Compass & Repeaters. Magnetic Compass & Repeaters. Pilot Embarkation / Disembarkationarrangements. Radar & Associated Plotting Aids. Speed / Distance Recorder. Has The Following Equipment Been Tested & Found Ready To Use? a. Bridge & Engineroom Telegraphs, Including Revolution Indicators. b. Communications Facilities - Internal, External & Portable. c. Navigation Lights / Shapes, Including Emergency Navigation Lights & Lights / Shapes For Not Under Command & At Anchor. d. Ships Whistle. e. Signalling Lamps. f. Steering Gear, Including Manual, Auto Pilot & Emergency Change Over Arrangements & Rudder Indicators. g. Window Wipers / Clearview Screens. Have The Ships Clocks Been Synchronised? Is The Crew At Stations For Leaving Harbour?

Bridge Checklist 4 - Embarkation / Disembarkation Of Pilot. Have The Following Been Advised Of The Eta / Etd? The Master. The Engine Room.


The Pilot Station. Has It Been Agreed Which Side The Pilot Will Embark / Disembark? Has The Engineroom Been Advised Of The Time Of Stand-By? Have The Pilot Embarktion / Disembarkationarrangements Been Checked & Found Ready For Use? Has A Deck Officer Been Nominated To Meet The Pilot & Conduct Him To / From The Bridge?
Note: Where Embarkation / Disembarkation Involves The Use Of A Helicopter, The Guidance In The Ics. Guide To Helicopter / Ship Operations On Marine Pilot Transfer, Communications & Ship Operating Procedures Should Be Followed.

Bridge Checklist 5 - Master / Pilot Information Exchange. Has A Pilot Card Been Handed To The Pilot? Has The Pilot Been Informed Of The Location Of Lifesaving Appliances Provided For His Use? Have The Proposed Passage Plan, Weather Conditions, Berthing Arrangements Use Of Tugs & Other External Facilities Been Explained By The Pilot & Agreed With The Master? Is The Progress Of The Ship & The Execution Of Orders Being Monitored By The Master & Officer Of The Watch? Bridge Checklist 6 - Navigation, Deep Sea. Have All Charts & Nautical Publications To Be Used Been Corrected Up To Date? Have The Factors Listed In Question 2 Of Checklist 7 Been Taken Into Consideration In Preparing The Passage Plan? Are Navarea Warning Broadcasts Being Monitored? Is Participation In Area Reporting Systems (Eg. Amver) Recommended? Is The Ships Position Being Fixed At Regular Intervals & At Least Once Daily? Are Errors Of Gyro / Magnetic Compasses Being Checked Once A Watch? Bridge Checklist 7 - Navigation, Coastal Waters / Traffic Seperation Schemes. Have All Charts & Nautical Publications To Be Used Been Corrected Up To Date? Have The Following Factors Been Taken Into Consideration In Preparing The Passage Plan? Advise / Recommendations In Sailing Directions. Ships Draught. Effect Of Squat On Underkeel Clearance In Shallow Water. Tides & Currents. Weather Particularly In Areas Renowned For Poor Visibility. Available Navigational Aids & Their Accuracy. Position-Fixing Methods To Be Used. Daylight / Night-Time Passing Of Danger Points. Traffic Likely To Be Encountered - Flow, Type, Volume. Any Requirements For Traffic Seperation / Routeing Schemes. Are Local / Coastal Warning Broadcasts Being Monitored? Is Participation In Area Reporting Systems Recommended? Have Courses Been Laid Off Well Clear Of Obstructions? Is The Ships Position Being Fixed At Regular Intervals?


Are The Errors Of Gyro/ Magnetic Compasses Being Checked Regularly? Bridge Checklist 8 - Changing Over The Watch.
Note: Changeover Should Be Postponed When The Ship Is, Or Is About To Be, Engaged In A Collision Avoidance Manoeuvre Or A Navigational Alterationof Course.

Has The Relievng Officer Of The Watch Read The Following Directives? Standing Orders. Supplementary Masters Instructions. Navigational Warnings. Are All Members Of The Relieving Watch Capable Of Carrying Out Their Duties? Has The Relieving Officer Of The Watch Been Aquainted With Following Information? Position, Course, Speed & Draught Of Ship. Course Plotted On Ship. Prevailing / Predicted Tides, Current, Weather & Visibility. Operational Condition Of All Navigational & Safety Equipment On The Bridge. Gyro / Magnetic Compass Errors. Movement Of Vessels In Vicinity Effect On Own Ship. Identificatin Of Shore Lights, Buoys, Etc. Conditions / Hazards Likely To Be Encountered On Watch. Possible Effect Of Any Heel, Trim, Squat, Etc. On Underkeel Clearance. Is The Vision Of The Relieving Officer Adjusted To Prevailing Conditions? Bridge Checklist 9 - Preparation For Arrival In Port. In Preparing The Passage Plan For Arrival In Port, Have The Following Factors Been Taken Into Consideration? a. Available Port Information. b. Advise / Recommendations In Sailing Directions. c. Latest Weather Reports. d. Tides & Currents For Port / Adjacent Areas. e. Calculated / Known Minimum & Maximum Depths Of Water In Port Approaches, Channels & At Berth. f. Any Restrictions On Draught, Trim, Speed, Entry Times, Etc. Is It Neccesary To Rearrange Cargo / Ballast? Are All Relevent Charts & Nautical Publications Corrected Up To Date & Courses Laid Off? Have The Latest Navigational Messages For The Area Been Received? Has Eta. Been Sent With All Relevent Information Required By Local Regulations (Eg. Details Of Dangerous / Hazardous Goods Carried)? Has All Navigational Equipment Including Steering Gear Been Tested & Stabilisers Housed? Has The Following Equipment Been Checked? a. Course & Engine Movement Recorder. b. Synchronisation Of Clocks. c. Internal Communications Equipment. d. Signalling Equipment Including Lights / Flags. e. Deck Lighting. f. Mooring Winches. g. Mooring Lines / Wires / Heaving Lines.



Pressure On Fire Main. If Appropriate, Have The Checks In Checklist 4 Been Carried Out & A Pilot Card Completed? Has Manual Steering Been Engaged In Sufficient Timefor The Helmsman To Become Accustomed Before Manoeuvring Commences? Has The Crew Been Advised Of The Time Of Stand-By For Entering Port? Have Vhf. Channels For Varous Services (Eg. Vts., Pilot, Tugs, Berthing Instructions.) Been Noted & A Radio Check Carried Out? Is The Following Berthing Information Available? Whether Anchoring / Berthing Alongside. Which Side To Jetty. Whether Ship Acomodation Ladder / Gangway Or Shore Gangway Will Be Used. Size / Number Of Shore Connections. Derricks Required. Mooring Boats / Lines.

Bridge Checklist - 10 Anchoring And Anchor Watch: 1 Has An Anchoring Plan Been Prepared And Taken Into Account. Speed Reduction In Ample Time. Direction / Strength Of Wind, Current. Tidal Stream When Manoeuvering At Low Speeds. Need For Adequate Sea Room Particularly To Seaward. 2 Have The Following Been Informad Of The Time Of Stand-By For Anchoring? The Master. The Engine Room. The Anchor Party.

Is The Following Equipment Ready For Use? Anchors. Lights / Shapes. Sound Signalling Apparatus. Has An Anchor Watch Been Established? Have Instructions Been Issued To The Officer Of The Watch / Engineroom On The Folowing Matters? Determining And Regular Checking Of Anchor Position. Notice For Main Engines Especially If Weather Deteriorates.

4 5

Bridge Checklist - 11 Restricted Visiblity. Has The Following Equipment Been Brought Into Operation? Radar / Arpa Or Other Plotting Facilities. Manual Steering. Vhf.

Fog Signalling Apparatus. Navigation Lights. Echo Sounder, If In Soundings. Watertight Doors As Appropriate. Have Lookouts Been Posted? Have The Master And The Engineroom Been Informed. Are The 1972 International Regulations For Preventing Collisions At Sea Being Complied With, Particularly With Regard To Proceeding At A Safe Speed. If The Ships Position Is In Doubt, Has The Possiblity Of Anchoring Been Considered?

Bridge Checklist - 12 Navigating In Heavy Weather Or In Tropical Storm Areas. Have The Following Been Informed: Master. Engineroom. Crew. Have All Moveable Objects Been Secured At The Following Locations. On Deck. Below Deck. Ports, Dead Lights. Have Speed And Course Been Adjusted As Necessary. Has The Crew Been Warned To Avoid Upper Deck Areas Made Dangerous By The Weather? Have Safety Lines / Hand Ropes Been Rigged When Necessary. Have Instructions Been Issued On The Following Matters: Monitoring Weather Reports. Transmitting Weather Reports To The Appropriate Authorities Or, In The Case Of Tropical Storms, Danger Messages In Accordance With Solas 1974 Chapter 5 Regulation 2a.

Bridge Checklist
Navigating in ice: Have the following been informed of the ice conditions. Master. Engineroom. Crew.


Have watertight dors been shut as appropriate? Has speed been adjusted (momentum varies as the square of the ships speed) Have instructions been issued on the following matters. Monitoring ice advisory service broadcasts. Transmitting danger messages in accordance with solas 1974 chpt. 5 reg 2a.

Emergencies - bridge procedures guide International chamber of shipping 1) Main engine failure Inform master. Rudder & bow thruster used to best navigational aid. Prepare for anchoring if in shallow water. Exhibit not under command shapes or lights. Broadcast warning. 2) Steering failure Inform engine room & engage alternative / emergency steering. Inform master. Exhibit not under command shapes or lights. Appropriate sound signal made. If neccesary take way off ship. Broadcast warning. 3) Gyro failure / compass failure. Use magnetic compass or alternative means as heading. Inform master. Inform person responsible for gyro maintenance. Inform engine room. Consider effect of failure on other navigational aids.

4) a. b. c. d. 5)

Bridge control / telegraph failure. Switch to engine room control. Inform duty engineer / engine room. Establish emergency communications with engine room. Inform engine room. Imminent collision / collision. Sound internal emergency alarm. Manoeuvre ship so as to minimise effects of collision.


Close all water tight / automatic fire doors. Switch on deck lights. Vhf on ch. 16, if apropriate on ch. 13. Passengers mustered at emergency stations. Update vessel s positon available in radio room, satellite terminal & other automatic distress transmittets as neccesary. Sound bilges & tanks after sounding. Check made for fire & damage.


Stranding Stop engines. Sound internal & external emergency alarms. Watertight doors closed. Maintain watch on v.h.f. Ch. 16 Broadcast to other ships. Make sound signals. Exhibit lights / shapes Switch on deck lighting. Sound bilges & tanks. Take overside soundings. Update v/ls position available in radio room, satellite terminal & other automatic distress transmitters as neccesary.

7) a. b. c. d. e.

Fire. Sound internal / external emergency alarms. Notify all concerned of seat of fire. Ventilation, automatic fire doors & watertight doors closed. Deck lighting switched on. Update v/ls position available in radio room, satellite terminal & other automatic distress transmitters as neccesary. Flooding. Sound internal / external emergency alarms. Close watertight doors. Update v/ls position available in radio room, satellite terminal & other automatic distress transmitters as neccesary.



Boat / liferaft stations. General emergancy alarm signal sounded. Crew / passengers assembled at muster / survival craft stations.

10) Man overboard


Release lifebuoy with light, flare or smoke signal. Take avoiding action. Note position of lifebuoy as search datum. Inform master. Inform engine room. Post lookouts to keep person in sight. Manoeuvre ship to recover person as recommended by wheelhouse poster. Sound three long blasts & repeat as neccesary. Rescue boats crew assembled. Plot position of vessel relative to person overboard. Vesslels position available in radio room, up-dated as neccesary. Broadcast man overboard warning.

11) Search & rescue. Take d/f bearing of distress message. Re-transmit distress message. Maintain continuous listening watch on all distress frequencies. Consult iamsar. Establish communications between surface units & sar aircraft. Plot positions, courses & speeds of other assisting units. Radar made available for locating survivlal craft transponder signal.

Fire Fighting Appliance (cargo ships)
Capacity of fire pumps (Total required capacity not more than 180 m3/hr):
Each fire pump (other than Emergency fire pump) shall have a capacity not less than 80 % of total required capacity divided by minimum no of required fire pumps but in any case not less than 25 m3/hr. Each pump capable of delivering at least 2 required jets of water. G/S, Ball, Bilge pumps accepted as fire pumps provided: Not normally used for pumping oil. If used occasionally have suitable changeover arrangements fitted.

Emergency Fire pump:

Capacity not less than 40 % of total required capacity of the fire pumps but in any case not less than 25 m3 / hr. Capable of delivering 2 jets of water with minimum pressure (at a 3rd hydrant not a SOLAS requirement) not less than 2.1 bar. Diesel power source of pump started in cold condition of 0 C by hand or by power at least 6 times within a period of 30 minutes and at least twice within 1st 10 minutes. Tank to have sufficient fuel for at least 3 hours and reserve fuel outside main machinery space to allow the pump to run for additional 15 hours. (Total suction head and the net positive suction head of the pump to be such that they will provide for the required capacity and pressure under all conditions of list, trim, roll and pitch likely to be encountered in service) No direct access between engine room and emergency fire pump. If access provided, through and airlock.


Isolation valves in tankers to be fitted on the fire main on poop and tank deck at intervals not more than 40 meters to pressure integrity of fire main system. (Diameter of fire main: sufficient for maximum discharge from 2 pumps operating simultaneously except for cargo ships the diameter need be sufficient for a discharge of 140 m3 / hour.

Fire hydrants:
Number and position such that at least two jets of water not from the same hydrant can reach any part of the ship. One shall be from a single length of a hose. Engine room hydrant one on each side and one in tunnel.

Fire hoses:
Passenger ships: One fire hose for each hydrant. Cargo ships: One for each 30 meter length of the vessel and one spare but in no case less than 5 in nos.

(Length of hose not less than 18 meter if breadth of vessel more than 27 meter then hose length of 27 meter but not more) not in SOLAS. Fire nozzles:
All nozzles of dual purpose type i.e. spray and jet in corroborating a shut off. Standard nozzle size = 12mm, 16mm and 19mm. For accommodations and service spaces a nozzle side greater than 12mm need not be used. Machinery spaces more than 19mm need not be used.

CO2 Systems:
Cargo spaces: Quantity of CO2 available be sufficient to give a minimum volume of gas equal to 30 % of the gross volume of largest cargo space so protected by the ship. Machinery spaces: Quantity of CO2 available be sufficient to give a minimum volume of gas equal to 40 % of the gross volume of space (excluding casing) or 35 % of the gross volume of space (including casing). For machinery spaces, the fixed piping system shall be such that 85 % of the gas can be discharged into the space within 2 minutes. For the purpose of the above volume of free CO2 shall be calculated at 0.56 m3 / kg. Two separate controls shall be provided for releasing One control shall be used to discharge the gas from its storage container. The other to open the valve of the piping which conveys the gas to the protected space.

Fire extinguishers:
All of approved type and design capacity of portable extinguisher not more than 13.5 litres and not less than 9 litres. Spare charges for 100 % of extinguishers. Portable foam applicator consists of an air foam nozzle of an inductor type capable of being connected to the fire main by a fire hose and a portable tank of at least 20 litres. Foam making liquid and one spare tank. Rate of foam 1.5 m3 / minute. One of the portable fire extinguishers intended for use in any space to be stowed outside the entrance. Boiler room: One set of portable foam applicator unit required. At least 2 portable fire extinguisher At least 1 approved foam type extinguisher of capacity 135 litres. A receptacle containing sand or sawdust impregnated with soda. Any fixed fire-extinguishing system e.g. CO2, foam, water spray. Spaces with internal combustion machinery:


Any fixed extinguishing system. At least 1 set of foam applicator unit. Sufficient number of foam type extinguisher capacity 45 litres plus sufficient number of portable foam so placed that walking distance between extinguishers not more than 10 meters. High expansion foam: (fixed type system in machinery space) Sufficient to fill the greatest space to be protected at a rate of at least 1 meter in depth / minute. Produce a volume of foam equal to 5 times the volume of the space. Expansion ratio of not less than 5 liters/m2/minute. Sprinklers: Application rate of not less than 5 liters/m2/minute.

Fire mans outfit:

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Fire proof protective clothing outer surface waterproof. Boots and gloves of rubber or non-conductive of electricity. Rigid helmet. Electric safety lamp (approved type) minimum burning period 3 hours. An axe (approved type with cover) Breathing apparatus. SCBA at least 1200 litres capacity or capable of functioning for at least 30 minutes. Normal breathing rate 40 litres / minute. Fire proof line attached to harness. All ships at least 2 firemans outfits. To carry at least 4 sets of fire mans outfits widely spread. > for tankers.

International shore connection:

Outside diameter: Inside diameter: Bolt circle diameter: Slots in flange4 holes: Flange thickness: Bolts and nuts4 nos: Washers: 178 mm 64 mm 132 mm 19 mm in diameter minimum 14.5 mm each 16 mm in diameter, 50 mm in length 8 nos.

Fixed deck foam systems: (tankers low expansion)

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Capable of delivering foam to entire cargo tank deck as well as into a cargo tank if the is ruptured. Control station outside and away from cargo area and readily accessible, simple and rapid operation. Rate of foam not less than 0.6 litres/ m2/ minute. Sufficient supply of foam concentrate to produce foam for at least 20 minutes. ( IG system fitted) Foam supplied through foam monitors and applicators. (1250 litre/min) Capacity of any monitors at least 3 liter/m2/minute. Capacity of applicator not less than 400 litres/minute and throw not less than 15 meter

Inert gas systems: (cargo tank protection):

Maintaining O2 content less than 8 % by volume in any part of cargo tank. Positive pressure at all times. Maintaining O2 content less than 5 % in the IG main. System capable of delivering IG to cargo tanks at a rate of at least 125 % of the maximum discharge rate. 2 blowers : capacity 20000 m3/hr IG : capacity 1000 m3 / hr Vacuum : 200 mm wg High pressure : 1200 mm wg

Steering gear: (regulation 29)


All ships to be provided with main and auxiliary steering gear, independent from each other.

Main steering gear:

1) Rudderstock shall be 2) Adequate strength and capable of steering the ship at maximum ahead speed. 3) Capable of putting rudder over from 35 one side to 35 other side at its deepest draft and maximum ahead service speed and 35 on either side to 30 on other side in 28 seconds. 4) Operated by power and designed so as not to incur damage at maximum astern speed.

Auxiliary steering gear:

1) Adequate strength and capable of steering at a navigable speed. 2) Capable of putting the rudder 15 one side to 15 the other side in 60 seconds, when vessel at deepest draft and running ahead at maximum ahead service speed or 7 knots whichever is greater. Steering gear control from Navigation Bridge and locally. Auxiliary steering gear controls from locally and if power operated also operable from Navigation Bridge. Steering capability to be regained in not more than 45 seconds after the loss of one power system.

Emergency power: (capable of illuminating):

Passenger ships: not less than 36 hours Cargo ships: not less than 18 hours Navigation bridge, navigation lights, navigation equipment, aldis, whistle, accommodation, alleyway, stairway, machinery space, control stations, radio room, LSA gear, FFA gear, communication.

Tests and drills:

Test is within 12 hours of departure. Emergency steering drills once every 3 months.

Pilot hoists:
Construction1) A mechanical powered winch with brake. 2) Two separate falls. 3) A ladder consisting of a rigid upper part on which the pilot stands and a flexible lower past of a short length of pilot ladder which enables a person to board from or disembark a launch. Hand operating gear in emergencies. Safety limit switch. Emergency stops (capable to be operated by person in the hoist) Speed of hoist 15 30 meters / minute. Hoist securely attached to ships structure not side rails. Falls long enough to do the job and still have 3 times on the drum. Ladder section 1) Rigid part 2.5 meters long. 2) Non skid steps for safe access and safe hand holds 3) Spreader with rollers fitted at lower end to roll freely on shipside. 4) Flexible lower part must be 8 steps long. New hoists subjected to over load test of 2.2 times the working load. Operating test of 10 % over load. Every 6 months regular test rigging and inspection which includes a load test of 150 KGs. Entry in ships official log book.


Life saving appliances: Life buoys:

Length < 100: 100 < 150: 150 < 200: > 200: min no of life buoys = 8 min no of life buoys = 10 min no of life buoys = 12 min no of life buoys = 14

Requirements: 1) Outer diameter not more than 800 mm 2) Inner diameter not less than 400 mm 3) Constructed of buoyant material. 4) Mass not less than 2.5 KGs ( MOB not less than 4 KGs ) 5) Support 14.5 kg of iron for 24 hours in fresh water. 6) Withstand a drop into water from a stowage position to waterline in light condition or 30 meter whichever is greater. 7) Fitted with a grab line not less than 9.5 mm in diameter. Grab line secured at 4 equidistant points. Length not less than 4 times the outside diameter. Painted international orange / highly visible colour. Readily available on both sides of vessel. At least one at stern. No permanent securing. At least one buoy on each side fitted with buoyant life line ( 2 x stow height or 30 meter) At least the no of life buoys with SI lights ( 2 hours ) At least 2 with smoke floats ( 15 minutes ) Marked in roman - name and port of registry.

Life jackets:
Requirements 1) One for every person on board + 25 % extra. 2) Fitted with retro reflective tape + life jacket lights ( visibility 1 mile ) 3) For children 10 % of the no of passengers on board Construction 1) Correctly donning within 1 minute. 2) Capable of wearing inside out 3) Can jump from a height of 4.5 meters into water 4) Turn the body of an unconscious person in 5 secs 5) Lifts the mouth 128 mm clear of the water 6) Fitted with a whistle 7) Buoyancy not reduced by more than 5 % after 24 hour immersion in fresh water

Immersion suits:
Requirements 1. Unpacked + donned within 2 minutes 2. Permit the wearer to climb up and down a vertical ladder at least 5 meter in length 3. Jump from a height of 4.5 meter into the water 4. Cover the whole body with exception of face. 5. Core temperature does not fall more than 2C after a period of 6 hours in water of temperature 0 - 2 C 6. Turn the wearer face up in 5 seconds. Provided for every person assigned to crew rescue boat. Cargo ships for each life boat at least 3 suits or if necessary 1 for each person on board TPA for persons on board not provided for by immersion suits. Immersion suits and TPA not required if --7. Vessel had total enclosed life boats for 100 % of compliment on each side 8. Free fall life boat for 100 % of compliment 9. Engaged in warm climates


10. If vessel less than 85 meters than davit launched life rafts required 100 % of compliment

Rescue boats:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Capable of being launched from stowage position with parent vessel making a headway of 5 knots. Means of rapid recovery Capability to manoeuvre at 6 knots for 4 hours and tow the largest life raft with full compliment at 2 knots. Function recover persons from water, marshal survival craft. In a state of continuous readiness ( launching in 5 minutes ) Stowed clear of other survival craft.

Requirements 1. Length not less than 3.8 meters and not more than 8.5 meters. 2. Capable of carrying at least 5 seated persons and 1 lying down. Additional equipment 1. One buoyant line of 50 meter length for towing purpose. 2. Two buoyant rescue quoits with 30 meter line 3. Efficient radar reflector or SART. 4. Water proof 1st aid kit 5. TPA for 10 % or 2 of the total capacity 6. A search light 7. Walkie talkie

Muster and drills:

Boats and fire drill once a month Within 24 hours of vessel leaving port if more than 25 % of crew have not participated in a drill in the previous month Passenger ships : muster within 24 hours of embarkation

Training manuals:
Bridge, engine room, crew mess room, officers mess room. Lifeboats launched and manoeuvred in water once every 3 months, during a drill. Free fall life boats: if impracticable to launch every 3 months then should be davit lowered every 3 months, provided that the life boat is free fall launched at once in 6 months. Rescue boats : launched and manoeuvred once a month in any case once every 3 months

Onboard training:
Use of LSA and FFA to be given to new crew as soon as joining or within 2 weeks. Individual instructions on all LSA within 2 months Use of davit launched life rafts within 4 months

Maintenance and inspection

Page 87 of 100 Lifeboat falls: Turned end for end at intervals not more than 30 months ( 2 years ) Renewed not more than 5 years unless required earlier. Weekly inspections : All survival craft, rescue boats and launching appliances inspected visually Engines of life boats and rescue boats run ahead and astern for not less than 3 minutes General emergency alarm ( if not done daily ) Monthly inspections: All LSA, lifeboats and rescue boat equipment using checklist provided. Report logged Confidential Page 87 22/10/2006


Servicing of life rafts and HRU (life jackets inflatable, rescue boats inflatable) Every 12 months can be extended for additional 5 months but not more. Disposable HRUs ( HAMAR) 2 years life cycle.

Passenger vessels engaged in short international voyages:

Life boats for at least 30 % of passenger + life rafts for remaining. In addition life rafts for at least 25 % of passengers

Passenger ships engaged in international voyages additional requirements:

Lifeboats: partially or totally enclosed life boats for 50 % of total complement on each side. Life rafts may be substituted for boats but boats capacity should never be less than 37.5% of the total compliment Rafts must be davit launched In addition life rafts for 25 % of the compliment Rescue boat: one on each side.

Cargo ships additional requirements:

Lifeboats one or more totally enclosed on each side for 100 % of compliment. Life rafts to accommodate total no of persons on board if not readily transferable for launching on either side of ship, total capacity on each side for 100 % of compliment. If free fall life boat, then life rafts on each side for 100 % of compliment and at least one side of ship to have davit launched rafts.

Vessel less than 85 meter in length:

Life raft on each side for 100 % complement if life rafts are not readily transferable then additional life rafts to be provided so that total capacity on each side = 150 % of complement. Rescue boat can be counted for crew. Where survival craft are stowed in a position which is more than 100 meter from stern or stem, she shall carry additional life raft ( 6 person) forward or aft as practicable. Such life rafts are manually operated.

Marking on life rafts:

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Name and port of registry of ship ( not on container) Makers name or trade mark Serial number Name of approving authority Capacity SOLAS Type of emergency pack ( A ~ B ) Length of painter Drop test height ( maximum stowage height above water level) Launching instructions and last service date Life rafts : capable of staying afloat for a period of 30 days in all sea conditions Weak link breaking strain 2.2 0.4 kn. HRU automatic release of life raft @ depth of 4 meter. Life boat engines: capable of running to provide a speed of 6 knots for a period of 24 hours shall have a sufficient fuel to last 24 hours. To be capable of carrying a life raft of 25 person with full compliment and equipment with a speed of 2 knots.


Marking on the life boats:

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Dimensions Capacity Name and port of registry of vessel on each side of bow Lifeboat number on each side of bow and also on top of boat to identify from air. Retro reflective tape all round at intervals of 12

Fire protected life boats:

Capable of protecting the persons inside when enveloped in a continuos fire for not less than 8 minutes

Self contained air supply:

To provide breathable air with engines running for a period not less than 10 minutes pressure not less than outside atmospheric pressure and not more than 20 mbs above the outside atmospheric pressure.

Line throwing apparatus:

Capable of throwing a line with reasonable accuracy Have not less than 4 projectiles each capable of carrying the line at least 230 mm in calm weather. Include not less than 4 lines of breaking strength 2 Kn. Instructions and diagrams on separation ( pains wessex ) ( schermuly )

Pyrotechnics in life boats and rescue boat and life rafts:

6 hand flares 4 rocket parachutes 2 buoyant smoke floats

Hand flares: 1) Contained in water tight casing 2) Instructions and diagram on operating procedure 3) Burn bright red colour 4) Burning period not less than 1 minute ( 10 seconds in water submerged 100 meter below water Parachute flares: 1) Contained in water tight casing 2) Instructions and diagram on operation procedure 3) Reach an altitude of 300 meter ( fixed vertically) and eject paraflare 4) Burn bright red colour not less than 30000 candelas 5) Burning period not less than 40 seconds descent not more than 5 meter/ second Smoke float: 1) Contained in water tight casing 2) Instructions and diagram on operation procedure 3) Emit smoke of highly visible colour (orange) for not less than 3 minutes in calm water. No flame. 4) Not suspended in sea way (smoke for 10 seconds if submerged in water)

About cargo stowage:

Weight / area of cargo = loading expression in t/m2 If cargo = 30 t maximum loading of deck = 2.5 t/m2 Then minimum area over which the weight must be spread = 30/2.5 = 12 m2 And therefore use good dunnage and safer to add 5 % to the weight when calculating the area.


Go through Hanging of anchor. Clearing foul hawse. All moors. Advantages and disadvantages.

SOLAS appendix 3 Certificates and documents required to be carried on board ships:

All ships: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Certificate of registry International loadline certificate Intact stability --Minimum safe manning certificate Certificate for master, officers, and ratings International tonnage certificate Deratting or de-ratting exemption certificate Oil record book Cargo ship safety construction certificate Cargo ship equipment certificate Cargo ship safety radio certificate D.O.C. with ----- for ships carrying dangerous cargo Dangerous goods manifest or stowage plan For passenger ships: including no 1 to no 10 and also Passenger ship safety certificate validity: 1 year validity: 5 years validity: 5 years validity: life long ? ? validity: life long validity: 6 months to be kept on board for 3 years validity: ? validity: 2 years validity: 1 year ? ?

For ships carrying liquid cargo in bulk: including no 1 to 12 and also International oil pollution prevention certificate for the carriage of noxious liquids in bulk (NLS certificate) validity: 5 years Cargo record book validity: kept for 3 years Certificate of fitness for carriage of dangerous chemicals/liquefied gasses in bulk validity: 5 years Grain stability booklet for grain carriers (document of authorization for grain carriage) International oil pollution prevention (IOPP) 5 yrs Certificate of insurance of other financial security in respect of civil liability for oil pollution (CLC) Noise survey report Ship board oil pollution emergency plan ( SOPEP) vessels response to pollution prevention (VRPP) For oil tankers equal to or more than 100 GRT Other ships equal to or more than 400 GRT

Under ISM Code: 1. Document of compliance issued for every company complying with the ISM code copy of certificate to be held on ship 2. Safety management certificate issued for every ship complying with ISM ( also company must comply = DOC)

Objectives: 5. Observe safe operation of ships


6. 7. 8.

Prevent pollution Prevent loss of life and damage Project environment Designated person from compare DPA designated person ashore Master responsible from ship Internal audits Reports non confirmatives NCR non conformance report Corrective action Log all activities Have an approved SMS (safety management system)

will provide 1. 2. Advice Guidance

in order to improve 1. safety of shipping 2. safety of life at sea 3. prevent or minimize pollution numbered in sequence from MGN 1

info for a more limited audience e.g. info on training establishments Or equipment manufacturers Or which will be of use for a short period of time numbered in sequence from MIN 1 cancellation date typically 12 months

mandatory info which must be complied with under UK legislation these will relate to SIs and contain technical detail of such regulations numbered in sequence continuing the present numbers but using the initial letters MSN Safety Pollution prevention Other info of relevance to shipping and fish industries Salt Water Great Britain Inert Gas MSN MGN MIN White Blue Green

Three complimentary series

MIN 37 (M + F)
An investigation into capsize and stability of sailing multi vessels

MIN 38 (M)
Research project 391 Assessment of survival time of damaged Ro-Ro passenger vessels

MIN 39 (M + F)
Research project 397 Ships specific tagging of oil contaminated discharges Two types of tagging


1. Synthetic DNA 2. Non radio active isotopes What is tagging adding an identifying code to oil cargo and fuel This method was suggested after taking OIL SOURCE IDENTIFICATION Techniques such as hydrocarbon biomarker finger printing Inconclusive because of 1. Several ships used to carry the same cargo 2. Ships took bunkers from the same source

MIN 31 (M + F)
Current on 1st September98 Comprises annual list of MCA notices and includes a subject index. Shows all MSNs MINs and MGNs current on 1st September98

FSA (formal safety assessment)

Formal safety assessment technique have been developed by the MCA on recommendation of House of Lords committee

Will ban organizations in paint by Jan 2003 Recommend new testing procedures for monitoring the level of atmospheric pollution from ships North foreland light house in kent was the last manned light house in the UK Decommissioned (last month outdated information)

About cargo stowage:

Weight / area of cargo = loading expression in t/m2 If cargo = 30 t maximum loading of deck = 2.5 t/m2 Then minimum area over which the weight must be spread = 30/2.5 = 12 m2 And therefore use good dunnage and safer to add 5 % to the weight when calculating the area.

1. 2. 3.

Must have safety approved plate on every approved container stating Maximum operating gross weight Allowable stacking weight Transverse racking test load valve

Marks on a anchor:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Makers name or initials Progressive no Weight No of certificate Letters indicating the certifying authority

Anchor certificate:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Type of anchor Weight of anchor including crown shackle in kgs Length of shark in mm Length of arm in mm Weight of head of anchor No of test certificate No and date of drop test Spider band : derrick head Hounds band : mast head for preventer back stays


I.A.M.S.A.R. I.A.M.S.A.R. :International Aeronautical And Maritime Search And Rescue Manual. The primary purpose of the three volumes of the iamsar manual is to assist the states in meeting their own search and rescue needs, and the obligations they accepted under the convention on international civil aviation, the international convention on maritime search and rescue, and the international convention for the safety of life at sea. These volumes provide guidelines for a common aviation and maritime approach to organising and providing sar services. States are encouraged to develop and improvise their sar services, co-operate with neighbouring states, and to concider their sar services to be part of a global sar system. Each iamsar manual volume is written with specific sar system duties in mind, and can be used as a stand-alone document or, in conjunction with the other two volumes as a means to attain a full view of the sar system. Volume 1: the organisation and management volume, discusses the global sar system concept, establishment and improvement of national and regional sar systems and cooperation with neighbouring states to provide effective and economical sar services. Volume 2: the mission co-ordination volume, assists personnel who plan and co-ordinate sar operations and exercises. Volume 3: the mobile facilities, volume is intended to be carried aboard rescue units, aircraft, and vessels to help in performance of search, rescue or on-scene co-ordinator function and with aspects of sar that pertain to their own emergencies. This manual is published jointly by the international civil aviation organisation and the i.m.o. Contents of volume iii: Abbreviations and acronyms. Glossary. Section 1: overview. Section 2: rendering assistance. Section 3: on scene co-ordination.

Types of search patterns: Expanding square search (ss): Most effective when the location of the search object is known within a relatively close limit. The commence search point is always the datum position. Often appropriate for vressels or small boats to use when searching for persons in the water or other search objects with little or no leeway.


Due to the small area involved this procedure must not be used simultaneously by multiple aircraft at similar altitudes or by multiple vessels. Accurate navigation is required; the first leg is usually oriented directly into the wind to minimise navigational errors. It is difficult for fixed wing aircraft to fly legs close to datum if track spacing is less than 2 miles. Sector search (vs): Most effective when the position of the search object is accurately known and the search area is small. Used to search a circular area centered on a datum point. Due to the small area involved, this procedure must not be used simultaneously by multiple aircraft at similar altitudes or by multiple vessels. An aircraft and a vessel may be used together to perform independent sector searches of the same area. A suitable marker (for eg. A smoke float or a radio beacon) may be dropped at the datum position and uysed as a reference or navigational aid marking the centre of the pattern. For aircraft, the search pattern radius is usually between 5 and 20 miles. For vessels the search pattern radius is usually between 2 and 5 miles and each turn 120 deg normally turn to stbd.

Track line search (ts): Normally used when an aircraft or vessel has disappeared without a trace along a known route. Often used as initial search effort due to ease of planning and implementation. Consists of a rapid and resonably thorough search along intended route of the distressed craft. Search may be along the side of the track line and return in the opposite direction on the other side (tsr). Search may be along the intended track and once on each side, then search facility continues on its way and doesnt return (isn). Aircrafts are frequently used for ts due to their high speed. Aircraft search height usually 300 - 600 mts during daylight or 600 - 900 mts at night.

Parallel sweep search (ps): Used to search a large area when survivor location is uncertain. Most effective over water or flat terrian. Usually used when a large search area must be divided into sub areas for assignment to individual search facilities on scene at the same time. The commence search point is in one corner of the sub area, one half track space inside the rectangle from each of the two sides forming the corner. Search legs are parallel to each other and to the long sides of the sub area.


Multiple vessels may be used for: # parallel sweep by 2,3,4 and 5 or more ships.

6) radar search: When several assisting ships are available, a radar search may be effective, esp when the position of the incident is not known reliably and the sar aircraft may not be available. No prescribed pattern has been provided for this contingency. The osc should normally direct the ships to proceed in loose line abreast, mantaining a track spacing between ships of the expected detection range * 1.5. Pls refer to iamsar for detection ranges Visual search: Individual search patterns have been designed so that an osc. Can rapidly initiate a search by one or more crafts. There will be a number of variables that cannot be foreseen. Search patterns based on visual search have been established which should meet many circumstances. They have been selected for simplicity and effectiveness and are discussed later in this section. Note: Track spacing: Most search patterns consist of parallel tracks or sweeps covering a rectangular area. The distance between adjacent tracks is called the track spacing. Correction factors based on weather conditions and search object are provided in a table. Multiplying the uncorrected track spacing (su) by the apropriate weather correction factor (fw) produces the recommended track spacing. S = su * fw . Changes in weather, number of assisting crafts, etc., may occur, making it prudent to alter the track spacing. The smc must ensure that all searching ships and aircraft maintain safe seperations from one another and accurately follow their assigned search patterns.

Section 4: on board emergencies. Medico: Medico messages request or transmit medical advice from and to a vessel at sea. Each medico message may be addressed to rccs or communications facilities from ships at sea. The messages should be prefixed dhmedico so that communications personnel know to handle them as medico messages. The itu list of radio determination and special service stations lists commercial and government radio stations which provide free medical message service to ships. These messages are normally delivered to hospitals or other facilities with which sar authorities or the communications facilities has made prior arrangements.


Sar services may provide medical advice either with their own doctors or via arrangements with doctors outside the sar organisation. There are several commercial enterprises which provide international subscription and pay per use medical advice to vessels at sea. Replies to messages should indicate the medical facility which provided the medical information.

Medevac: If medical evacuations are being concidered the benefits must be weighed against the inherent dangers of such operations to both the persons needing assistance and the rescue personnel. When medical assistance is required, information is sent as per format provided in this section to be sent to rcc. Other information may be necessary in certain cases. The final decision about whether it is safe to conduct an evacuation remains ultimately with the person in command of the rescue facility tasked with conducing the evacuation. Persons overboard: There are three situations, namely: Immediate action: the person overboard is noticed from the bridge and action is taken imediately. Delayed action: the person is reported to the bridge by an eyewitness and action is initiated with some delay. Person missing action: the person is reported to the bridge as missing. When the possiblity exists that the person has fallen overboard the crew must attempt to recover the individual as soon as possible.the factors affecting the speed of recovery include: # ships manoeuvering characteristics. # wind direction and sea state. # crews experience and level of training. # capablity of the engine plant. # location of the incident. # visiblity level. # recovery technique. # possiblity of having other vessels assist.

Initial action: Throw a life ring over the side as close to the person as possible. Sound three prolonged blests on the ships whistle, hail person overboard. Commence recovery manoeuvre. Note position, wind speed and direction and time. Inform master of the vessel and engine room. Post lok-outs to keep the person in sight. Set off dye marker or smoke flares. Inform radio operetor and keep updated on the position. Stand by the engines.


Prepare lifeboats for possible launching. Distribute portable vhf radios for communication between bridge, deck, and lifeboat. Rig pilot ladder to assist in the recovery. Standard methods of recovery: # williamson turn: Makes good original track line. Good in reduced visiblity. Simple. Takes the ship farther away from the scene of the incident. Slow procedure. Rudder hard over (in an immediate action situation only) to the side of the casualty. After deviating from the original course by 60 deg. The rudder hard over to the opposite side. When heading 20 degs short of the opposite course, rudder to midship position and the ship to be turned to opposite course. # one turn (single turn or anderson turn) Fastest recovery method. Good for ships with tight turning characteristics. Used most by ships with conciderable power. Very difficult for single screw vessels. Very difficult because approach to person is not straight. Rudder hard over (in an immediate action situation only) to the side of the casualty. after deviation from the course by 250 degs rudder to midship position. Stopping manoeuvre to be initiated.

scharnov turn: Will take vessel back to her wake. Less distance is covered hence saving time. Cannot be carried out effectively unless the time elapsed between occurrence of the incidentand the commencement of the manoeuvre is known. Not to be used in an immediate action situation. Rudder hard over. After deviation from the original course by 240 degs rudder hard over to the oposite side. When heading 20 degs short of the opposite course, rudder to midship position so that ship will turn to the opposite course.

Appendices: Appendix a: regulation v/10 of the international convention for safety of life at sea, 1974.

Appendix b: search action message. Appendix c: factors affecting observer effectiveness. Appendix d: standard format for sar. Situation report (sitrep). Appendix e: sar briefing and debriefing form.

Standards For Training & Certification For Watchkeepers

Stcw 78 Adopted On 7th July 1978 Which Came Into Force On 28th April 1984, This Convention Had Limited Knowledge And No Skilled Training Programs. Transparency Of The Certification Was Seen Lacking So A New Convention Called Stcw 95 Was Adopted By The Imo On The 1st Feb 1999. Stcw 95 Comprises Of 17 Articles Of 36 Mandatory Regulations Laid Out In 8 Chapters As Compared To Stcw 78, Which Comprised Of 17 Articles Of 25 Mandatory Regulations Laid Out In 6 Chapters.

Stcw 78 General Provisions Master Deck Dept Engine Dept Radio Personnel. Sp. Req. For Tankers Proficiency In Survival Craft

Stcw 95

Radio Comm. & Radio Personnel Special Training For Persons On Ships Emergency Occupational Safety, Medical Care & Survival Functions. Certificates For Officers Defining Functions. Contains 2 Regulations

Reg. Viii/1 Deals With Fitness Of Duty Reg. Viii/2 Deals With Watchkeeping Arrangements And Principles To Be Observed.

Knowledge Regarding Certificates

The Old Certificates Issued Under The 78 Convention Shall Be Valid Only Until 1st Feb 2002. Thus Before This Day All 78 Convention Certificates Holders Should Renew Their Certificates By Doing A Refresher Course And Updating Training And Assessment As Well As Additional Modular Courses Specified Under The Provisions Of Stcw 95. New Certificates Shall Be Valid For 5 Years And In Order To Revalidate The Certificate The Seafarer Will Have To Meet The Standards Of Medical Fitness & Establish Continued Professional Competence As Required By The Imo.

Information Regarding The Rest Periods For A Candidate

Chapter Viii: Standards Regarding Watchkeeping. Section A-Viii/1 Fitness For Duty All Persons Who Are Assigned Duty As Officer In Charge Of A Watch Or As Rating Forming Part Of A Watch Shall Be Provided A Minimum Of 10 Hours Of Rest In Any 24 Hour Period.


The Hours Of Rest May Be Divided Into No More Than Two Periods, One Of Which Shall Be Atleast 6 Hours In Length. The Requirements For Rest Periods Laid Down In Paragraphs 1 And 2 Need Not Be Mantained In The Case Of An Emergency Or Drill Or In Other Overriding Operational Conditions. Not Withstanding The Provision Of Paragraphs 1 And 2, The Minimum Period Of 10 Hours May Be Reduced To Not Less Than 6 Consecutive Hours Provided That Any Such Reduction Shall Not Extend Beyond Two Days And Not Less Than 70 Hours Of Rest Are Provided Each Seven Day Period. Administration Shall Require That Watch Schedules Be Posted Where They Are Easily Acessible.

Ballast water management plan; Harmful Aquatic Organisms In Ballast Water

An Mepc Working Group On Ballast Water Reported Progress In Developing Draft New Regulations For Ballast Water Management. It Is Intended To Include These In A New Annex To Marpol, To Be Adopted At A Conference Provisionally Scheduled For 2000. Implementation Guidelines For The Proposed Annex Are Also Being Developed, Which Are Expected To Be Included In A Code Related To The New Annex. The Proposed New Annex Vii Is Aimed At Addressing The Environmental Damage Caused By The Introduction Of Unwanted Aquatic Organisms In Ballast Water, Used To Stabilize Vessels At Sea. Globally, It Is Estimated That About 10 Billion Tonnes Of Ballast Water Is Transferred Each Year. The Water Taken On Board For Ballasting A Vessel May Contain Aquatic Organisms, Including Dormant Stages Of Microscopic Toxic Aquatic Plants - Such As Dinoflagellates, Which May Cause Harmful Algal Blooms After Their Release. In Addition, Pathogens Such As The Bacterium Vibrio Cholerae (Cholera) , Have Been Transported With Ballast Water. As Ships Travel Faster And Faster, The Survival Rates Of Species Carried In Ballast Tanks Have Increased. As A Result, Many Introductions Of Non-Indigenous Organisms In New Locations Have Occurred, Often With Disastrous Consequences For The Local Ecosystem - Which May Include Important Fish Stocks Or Rare Species. The Mepc Approved A Questionnaire To Be Sent To Member States To Obtain Information On Current Domestic Laws And Regulations On Ballast Water Management. It Is Intended That The New Internationally Binding Regulations Would Avoid A Situation Whereby Individual Governments Adopted Their Own Rules To Prevent Contaminated Ballast Water Affecting Their Local Ecosystems. Meanwhile, The Mepc Noted The Different Options For Introducing The Proposed Regulations. The New Annex To Marpol, As Originally Proposed, Could Be Adopted Via A Protocol To Add A New Annex To Marpol 73/78, Or It Could Be Adopted As A New Annex Via Amendments To Marpol 73/78, A Simpler Process. Another Option Is For A Diplomatic Conference To Adopt A New Convention On Ballast Water Management, Under Which The Terms For Entry Into Force Would Be Determined By The Conference, Instead Of Having To Comply With Existing Entry Into Force Terms Established By Marpol 73/78. The Mepc Agreed To Consider A Legal Framework For The New Regulations At Its Next Session In November.

This Information Is Sourced From The Net.

More Info From The Net

Marine Environment Protection Committee 40th Session 18-25 September 1997


Committee Tackles Ballast Water Problem

The Committee Discussed Measures To Deal With The Problem Of Harmful Aquatic Organisms Transported In Ballast Water And Approved A Draft Assembly Resolution On Guidelines For The Control And Management Of Ships Ballast Water To Minimize The Transfer Of Harmful Aquatic Organisms And Pathogens, For Submission To The 20th Assembly For Adoption. There Has Been Increased Awareness In Recent Years Of The Environmental Damage Caused By The Introduction Of Unwanted Aquatic Organisms In Ballast Water, Used To Stabilize Vessels At Sea. Examples Of Introductions Of Non-Indigenous Organisms In New Locations Include The Introduction Of The European Zebra Mussel (Dreissena Polymorpha) In The North American Great Lakes, Resulting In Expenses Of Billions Of Dollars For Pollution Control And Cleaning Of Fouled Underwater Structures And Waterpipes; And The Introduction Of The American Comb Jelly (Mnemiopsis Leidyi) To The Black And Azov Seas, Causing The Near Extinction Of The Anchovy And Sprat Fisheries. Human Health Has Also Been Badly Affected, With The Transportation Of The Bacterium Vibrio Cholerae (Cholera) To Latin American Coastal Water, Probably Through Discharges Of Ballast Water From Asia, And The Introduction Of The South-East Asian Dinoflagellates Of The Genera Gymnodinium And Alexandrium, Which Cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning, To Australian Waters. The Draft Guidelines, Which Have Been Drawn Up By A Working Group On Ballast Water, Are Aimed At Minimizing The Risks Of Introducing Harmful Aquatic Organisms And Pathogens While Maintaining Ship Safety. Some States Have Already Introduced Mandatory Management Of Ballast Water To Prevent The Introduction Of Exotic Species. Guidelines For Preventing The Introduction Of Unwanted Organisms And Pathogens From Ships Ballast Waters And Sediment Discharges Were Adopted By The Committee In 1991 And Subsequently As An Assembly Resolution A.774(18), But The Revised Version Incorporates Further Recommendations On Tackling The Problem, Including How To Lessen The Chances Of Taking On Board Harmful Organisms Along With Ballast Water. The Recommendations Include Informing Local Agents And/Or Ships Of Areas And Situations Where Uptake Of Ballast Water Should Be Minimized, Such As Areas With Known Populations Of Harmful Pathogens Or Areas Near To Sewage Outlets. Ships Should Operate Precautionary Practices, Through Avoiding Loading Ballast Water In Very Shallow Water Or In Areas Where Propellers May Stir Up Sediment. Unnecessary Discharge Of Ballast Water Should Also Be Avoided. Procedures For Dealing With Ballast Water Include Exchange Of Ballast Water At Sea And Discharge To Reception Facilities, While The Guidelines Note That In The Future Treatment Using Heat Or Ultraviolet Light Could Become Acceptable To Port States. Imos Maritime Safety Committee (Msc) And The Committee Have Already Approved Guidance On Safety Aspects Relating To The Exchange Of Ballast Water At Sea, Which Outlines Procedures For Exchanging Ballast Water And Point Out Safety Issues Which Need To Be Considered, Such As Avoidance Of Over And Under Pressurization Of Ballast Tanks And The Need To Be Aware Of Weather Conditions. The Committee Approved A Programme Of Work For The Ballast Water Working Group, Which Includes Developing Draft Regulations On Ballast Water Management To Be Adopted As An Annex To Marpol At A Conference Of Parties To The International Convention For The Prevention Of Pollution From Ships, 1973, As Modified By The Protocol Of 1978 (Marpol 73/78), The Main International Convention Dealing With The Prevention Of Pollution From Ships. The Conference Is Scheduled To Be Held In The Year 2000.