\

(
(
(
(
(
(
=



.

\

xy
y
x
xy
y
x
G
E E
E E
t
o
o
v
v
c
c
1
0 0
0
1 1
0
1 1
or



.

\

(
(
(
(
=



.

\

xy
y
x
xy
y
x
E
c
c
v
v
v
v
t
o
o
2
1
0 0
0 1
0 1
1
2
E
E
x
y
x
x
o
v c
o
c
=
=
v : Poisson Ratio
x
o
x
o
x
o
x
o
y
o
y
o
E E
E E
x
y
y
y
x
x
o
v
o
c
o
v
o
c
=
=
xy
t
xy
t xy
t
xy
t
xy
P
P
A
P
8
3. TRIANGULAR ELEMENT FOR PLANE ANALYSIS
Step.1: Description of the Problem
The problem is to obtain the deformation of a simple triangular element.
There are infinite variations for the deformation patterns.
Step.2: Assumption of deformation function
To fix the variation for the deformation patterns, we assume a linear function for the
deformation pattern.
y x y x v
y x y x u
6 5 4
3 2 1
) , (
) , (
o o o
o o o
+ + =
+ + =
(31)
In a matrix form,








.

\



.

\

=


.

\

6
5
4
3
2
1
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
o
o
o
o
o
o
y x
y x
v
u
(32)
Step.3: Relation between nodal displacement and element deformation
The displacements of the element nodes are expressed as,
etc.
x
y
9
Node 1:








.

\



.

\

=


.

\

6
5
4
3
2
1
1 1
1 1
1
1
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
o
o
o
o
o
o
y x
y x
v
u
(33)
Node 2:








.

\



.

\

=


.

\

6
5
4
3
2
1
2 2
2 2
2
2
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
o
o
o
o
o
o
y x
y x
v
u
(34)
Node 3:








.

\



.

\

=


.

\

6
5
4
3
2
1
3 3
3 3
3
3
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
o
o
o
o
o
o
y x
y x
v
u
(35)
It is summarized as,








.

\









.

\

=








.

\

6
5
4
3
2
1
3 3
2 2
1 1
3 3
2 2
1 1
3
2
1
3
2
1
1 0 0 0
1 0 0 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1
o
o
o
o
o
o
y x
y x
y x
y x
y x
y x
v
v
v
u
u
u
(36)
U = A
x
x1 x2 x3
y3
u1
v1
u2
v2
u3
v3
1
2
3
y
y2
y1
10
We can obtain the coefficients
6 1
, o o from the nodal displacements as,
= A
1
U (37)
Substituting Equation (37) into Equation (32), the relation between nodal
displacement and element deformation is,








.

\



.

\

=


.

\

3
2
1
3
2
1
1
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
v
v
v
u
u
u
A
y x
y x
v
u
(38)
u(x,y) = H(x,y) U
Step.4: Stiffness equation at the node
We obtain the relation between the nodal force and the nodal displacement, for example,
by using the Principle of Virtual Work Method.








.

\

=








.

\

3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
v
v
v
u
u
u
K
Q
Q
Q
P
P
P
(39)
F = K U
The process is summarized as follows:
(1) Translate external forces into equivalent nodal force,
F = {P1, P2, P3, Q1, Q2, Q3}
T
(2) Calculate the nodal displacements from the stiffness equation,
U = K
1
F
(3) Obtain the element deformation from the nodal displacement.
u(x,y) = H(x,y)U
P1
Q1
P2
Q2
P3
Q3
1
2
3
11
4. STIFFNESS MATRIX FOR TRIANGULAR ELEMENT
Stiffness matrix in Equation (39) can be obtained from the Principle of Virtual Work
Method, which is expressed in the following form:
}
=
V
T T
F U dv o c (41)
where, c is a virtual strain vector, o is a stress vector, U is a virtual displacement
vector and F is a load vector, respectively.
In case of the plane problem, the strain c vector is defined as,







.

\

c
c
+
c
c
c
c
c
c
=



.

\

x
v
y
u
y
v
x
u
xy
y
x
c
c
(42)
Substituting Equation (38) into Equation (42), the strain vector is calculated from the
nodal displacement vector as,








.

\




.

\

=







.

\

c
c
+
c
c
c
c
c
c
=



.

\

3
2
1
3
2
1
1
0 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0
v
v
v
u
u
u
A
x
v
y
u
y
v
x
u
xy
y
x
c
c
(43)
= B U
In the plane stress problem, the stressstrain relationship is expressed as,



.

\





.

\

=



.

\

xy
y
x
xy
y
x
E
c
c
v
v
v
v
t
o
o
2
1
0 0
0 1
0 1
1
2
(44)
= D
12
Substituting Equation (43) into Equation (44),
= D B U (45)
From the Principle of Virtual Work Method,
( ) ( ) F U U DBdv B U dv DBU U B
T
V
T T
T
V
=


.

\

=
} }
(46)
Therefore, the stiffness equation is obtained as,
}
= =
V
T
DBdv B K KU F , (47)
13
5. FROM ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX TO GLOBAL STIFFNESS MATRIX
Element Stiffness Matrix:
Element (1)








.

\









.

\

=








.

\

4
2
1
4
2
1
) 1 (
66
) 1 (
65
) 1 (
64
) 1 (
63
) 1 (
62
) 1 (
61
) 1 (
56
) 1 (
55
) 1 (
54
) 1 (
53
) 1 (
52
) 1 (
51
) 1 (
46
) 1 (
45
) 1 (
44
) 1 (
43
) 1 (
42
) 1 (
41
) 1 (
36
) 1 (
35
) 1 (
34
) 1 (
33
) 1 (
32
) 1 (
31
) 1 (
26
) 1 (
25
) 1 (
24
) 1 (
23
) 1 (
22
) 1 (
21
) 1 (
16
) 1 (
15
) 1 (
14
) 1 (
13
) 1 (
12
) 1 (
11
4
2
1
4
2
1
v
v
v
u
u
u
k k k k k k
k k k k k k
k k k k k k
k k k k k k
k k k k k k
k k k k k k
Q
Q
Q
P
P
P
(51)
Element (2)








.

\









.

\

=








.

\

4
3
1
4
3
1
) 2 (
66
) 2 (
65
) 2 (
64
) 2 (
63
) 2 (
62
) 2 (
61
) 2 (
56
) 2 (
55
) 2 (
54
) 2 (
53
) 2 (
52
) 2 (
51
) 2 (
46
) 2 (
45
) 2 (
44
) 2 (
43
) 2 (
42
) 2 (
41
) 2 (
36
) 2 (
35
) 2 (
34
) 2 (
33
) 2 (
32
) 2 (
31
) 2 (
26
) 2 (
25
) 2 (
24
) 2 (
23
) 2 (
22
) 2 (
21
) 2 (
16
) 2 (
15
) 2 (
14
) 2 (
13
) 2 (
12
) 2 (
11
4
3
1
4
3
1
v
v
v
u
u
u
k k k k k k
k k k k k k
k k k k k k
k k k k k k
k k k k k k
k k k k k k
Q
Q
Q
P
P
P
(52)
Global Stiffness Matrix:





.

\






.

\

+ +
+ +
=





.

\

4
3
4
3
) 2 (
66
) 1 (
66
) 2 (
65
) 2 (
63
) 1 (
63
) 2 (
62
) 2 (
56
) 2 (
55
) 2 (
53
) 2 (
52
) 2 (
36
) 2 (
36
) 2 (
35
) 2 (
33
) 1 (
33
) 2 (
32
) 2 (
26
) 2 (
25
) 2 (
23
) 2 (
22
4
3
4
3
v
v
u
u
k k k k k k
k k k k
k k k k k k
k k k k
Q
Q
P
P
(53)
F = K U
P
(2)
(1)





.

\












.

\

4
3
4
3
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
v
v
u
u
Condition Boundary
v
v
v
v
u
u
u
u
fixed u1=v1=0
fixed u2=v2=0
14
Set the load condition,





.

\

=





.

\

0
0
0
4
3
4
3
P
Q
Q
P
P
(54)
The displacement vector is then obtained by solving the stiffness equation,





.

\

=





.

\

0
0
0
1
4
3
4
3
P
K
v
v
u
u
(55)
15
6. HIGHER ORDER ELEMENT
The linear triangular element assumes the
deformation pattern to be a linear function
between two nodes.
It requires a large number of elements at the
place where deformation changes largely.
To reduce the number of elements, we
introduce the higher order elements, such as
the following second order elements where
the deformation pattern is assumed to be the
second order function of coordinate.
2
12 11
2
10 9 8 7
2
6 5
2
4 3 2 1
y xy x y x v
y xy x y x u
o o o o o o
o o o o o o
+ + + + + =
+ + + + + =
(61)
In a matrix form,





.

\



.

\

=


.

\

12
2
1
2 2
2 2
1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1
o
o
o
y xy x y x
y xy x y x
v
u
(62)
In order to define the second order function, we need
an additional node in the middle of each side of the
triangle. At the result, the total number of nodes in
one element is 6.
Before
deformation
After
deformation
Before
After
Before
After
v3
2
6
3
4
5
1
u3
v2
u2
16
The displacement of the element nodes are then expressed as,













.

\














.

\

=













.

\

12
8
7
6
2
1
2
6 6 6
2
6 6 6
2
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2
1 1 1
2
1 1 1
2
6 6 6
2
6 6 6
2
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2
1 1 1
2
1 1 1
6
2
1
6
2
1
1 
 0
1 
1 

 1

0  1
 1
o
o
o
o
o
o
y y x x y x
y y x x y x
y y x x y x
y y x x y x
y y x x y x
y y x x y x
v
v
v
u
u
u
(63)
u = A
From Equations (61) and (62), we obtain











.

\



.

\

=


.

\

6
2
1
6
2
1
1
2 2
2 2
1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1
v
v
v
u
u
u
A
y xy x y x
y xy x y x
v
u
(64)
u(x,y) = H(x,y) U
As the same as the linear triangular element, the stiffness equation is obtained as











.

\

=











.

\

6
2
1
6
2
1
6
2
1
6
2
1
v
v
v
u
u
u
K
Q
Q
Q
P
P
P
(65)
F = K U
17
The process is summarized as follows:
(1) Translate external forces into equivalent nodal force,
F = {P1, , P6, Q1, , Q6}
T
(2) Calculate the nodal displacements from the stiffness equation,
U = K
1
F
(3) Obtain the element deformation from the nodal displacement.
u(x,y) = H(x,y)U
18
7. INTERPOLATION FUNCTION
Suppose we have one dimensional element under loading. As discussed before, we
assume a linear function for the deformation pattern after loading,
x a a x u
1 0
) ( + =
or
( )


.

\

=
1
0
1 ) (
a
a
x x u (71)
The next step is to obtain the coefficients, a0, a1, from the nodal displacements. From
the relations:
1 1 0 1
x a a u + =
2 1 0 2
x a a u + =
or


.

\



.

\

=


.

\

1
0
2
1
2
1
1
1
a
a
x
x
u
u
(72)
U = A
The coefficients are obtained as, = A
1
U. Then, the relation between the deformation
and the nodal displacements is,
( )


.

\

=
2
1 1
1 ) (
u
u
A x x u (73)
Instead of the previous procedure, we introduce the interpolation functions to express
the deformation directly from the nodal displacements:
2 2 1 1
) ( ) ( ) ( u x h u x h x u + = (74)
The interpolation functions, h1 and h2, have the following characteristics:
=
=
=
1
1
1
, 0
, 1
) (
u x
u x
x h ,
=
=
=
2
2
2
, 0
, 1
) (
u x
u x
x h (75)
x1 x2
x
1 2
u1
u2
l
19
From these characteristics, the functions are easily obtained as,
l
x x
x h
=
2
1
) ( ,
l
x x
x h
1
2
) (
= (76)
One of the advantages of using interpolation functions is to reduce the burden to
calculate the inverse matrix of A in Equation (73).
In the same manner, if we assume a second order function for the deformation pattern,
the deformation can be directly expressed using interpolation functions as follows:
3 3 2 2 1 1
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( u x h u x h u x h x u + + = (77)
x1 x2
x
1 2
u1
u2
l
x1 x2
x
u1
x1 x2
x
u2
x1 x2
x
1 2
u1
u2
l
x1 x2
x
u1
x1 x2
x
u2
x1 x2
x
u3
h1(x)u1
h2(x)u2
3
h3(x)u3
h1(x)u1
h2(x)u2
Second order interpolation function First order interpolation function
20
8. NATURAL COORDINATE
1) Natural coordinate
When we measure the coordinate of
the pencil, the result is different
depending on the scale we use. In
this example, the coordinate of the
head of the pencil is 5.0 in xscale
and 9.5 in tscale.
As long as we have onetoone
relationship between two scales,
we can translate the value in one
scale to the value in another scale
anytime.
The total weight of the pencil will be calculated in xaxis as,
}
=
5
0
) ( dx x w W (81)
To translate it into taxis, we use the following relationships:
Global relationship:
) 7 ( 2 = t x (82)
Local relationship:
dt dx 2 = (83)
Substituting Equations (82) and (83) into (81), the total weight is expressed as,
( )
}
=
5 . 9
5 . 7
) ( 2 dt t x w W (84)
x
t =7 +0.5 x
t
x =2 ( t 7 )
1 2 3 4 5 6 0
x
8 9 10 7
t
6
w(x) : distribution of weight
x
x
w(x
x x+dx
dx
t
1
2
3
4
5
6 7 8 9 10
dt
2
x
0
21
Next we consider a more complicated scale to measure the total weight of the pencil.
The relationships between xaxis and taxis are:
Global relationship: ) (t x x = (85)
Local relationship: dt
dt
t dx
dx
) (
= (86)
Where dx(t)/dt represents the first derivative of x(x) by the variable t, which correspond
to the slope of x(t) at t. Substituting Equations (85) and (86) into (81), the total weight
will be expressed in taxis as,
( )
}
=

o
dt
dt
t dx
t x w W
) (
) ( (87)
Setting =1, =1,
( )
dt
t dx
t x w t f dt t f W
) (
) ( ) ( , ) (
1
1
= =
}
(89)
Such coordinate is called natural coordinate.
1 2 3 4 5 6 0
x
t
w(x) : distribution of weight
x
x
w(x
x x+dx
dx
t
1
2
3
4
5
dt
0
t
x =x(t)
x
22
2) Gaussian quadrature rule
If the integration range is [1, 1], the integration can be evaluated approximately by
npoint Gaussian quadrature rule which is generally expressed in the following form:
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1
1
2 2 1 1 n n
t f t f t f dt t f o o o
}
+ + + ~ (88)
where,
n
o o o , , ,
2 1
are the weighting coefficients. This formula requires a limited
number of function values, ) ( , ), ( ), (
2 1 n
t f t f t f , at the sampling points,
n
t t t , , ,
2 1
, to
evaluate the integration.
For example, the 3 point Gaussian quadrature rule is defined as:
) ( ) ( ) (
) 7746 . 0 ( 5556 . 0 ) 0 ( 8889 . 0 ) 7746 . 0 ( 5556 . 0 ) (
3 3 2 2 1 1
1
1
t f t f t f
f f f dt t f
o o o + + =
+ + =
}
(161)
where, 5556 . 0 , 8889 . 0 , 5556 . 0
3 2 1
= = = o o o
7746 . 0 , 0 , 7746 . 0
3 2 1
= = = t t t
1 0.7746 0 +0.7746 +1
f(t)
f(0.7746)
f(0)
f(0.7746)
t
23
9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENT
We now introduce the natural coordinate for the example of one dimensional element.
If we assume the linear transfer function x(t) between xaxis and taxis, x(t) will be
expressed as
2 2 1 1
) ( ) ( ) ( x t h x t h t x + = (91)
where
) 1 (
2
1
) ( ), 1 (
2
1
) (
2 1
t t h t t h + = = (92)
Actually, it satisfies the fact that
2 1
) 1 ( , ) 1 ( x x x x = = (93)
The deformation of the element is also
expressed as,
2 2 1 1
) ( ) ( ) ( u t h u t h t u + = (94)
Therefore, the functions ) ( ), (
2 1
t h t h are the
interpolation functions we introduced before.
The element where both the coordinate
transfer function x(t) and the deformation
function u(t) are expressed using the same
interpolation functions on the natural
coordinate is called Isoparametric element.
x1 x2
x
1 2
u1
u2
1 +1
t
1 +1
t
x
x1
x2 x(t)
t
1 +1
u1
u2
u1
u2
1 +1
1 +1
h1(t)u1
h2(t)u2
t
t
24
Advantages of using isplarametric elements are summarized below:
(1) The relation
=
=
n
i
i i
u t h t u
1
) ( ) ( does not require the calculation of inverse matrix.
(2) The relation
=
=
n
i
i i
x t h t x
1
) ( ) ( enables to use the numerical integration method.
(3) Both functions u(t) and x(t) are expressed using the same interpolation functions.
25
10. SYSTEMATIC FORMULATION OF INTERPOLATION FUNCTION
(1) One dimensional element
2 Node
( ) r h = 1
2
1
1
1 = r 1 + = r
1 + ( ) r h + = 1
2
1
2
1 = r 1 + = r
1 +
) 1 (
2
1
) 1 (
2
1
2
1
r h
r h
+ =
=
3 Node
) 1 (
2
1
) 1 (
2
1
2
1
r h
r h
+ =
=
) 1 (
2
1
) 1 (
2
1
2
2
r
r
2
3
1 r h =
As presented here, if you increase a node to define the second order function for the
deformation, the interpolation function changes in the following manners:
 Modify the existing interpolation functions, h1 and h2,
 Define a new interpolation function, h3.
26
(2) Two dimensional element
27
(3) Three dimensional element
28
11. STIFFNESS MATRIX FOR ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENT
Using a two dimensional isoparametric element, we will see the procedure to derive the
stiffness matrix.
The coordinate transfer function {x, y} is expressed using the interpolation functions as
follows:
4 3 2 1
4
1
4 3 2 1
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) , ( ) , (
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) , ( ) , (
y s r y s r y s r y s r y s r h s r y
x s r x s r x s r x s r x s r h s r x
i
i i
i
i i
+ + + + + + + = =
+ + + + + + + = =
=
=
(111)
The deformation function {u, v} is also expressed using the same interpolation functions.
4 3 2 1
4
1
4 3 2 1
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) , ( ) , (
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) , ( ) , (
v s r v s r v s r v s r v s r h s r v
u s r u s r u s r u s r u s r h s r u
i
i i
i
i i
+ + + + + + + = =
+ + + + + + + = =
=
=
(112)
Stiffness matrix can be obtained from the Principle of Virtual Work Method, which is
expressed in the following form:
}
=
V
T T
F U dv o c (113)
x, u
y, v
x
4
y
4
r
s
Node 1
Node 2
Node 3
Node 4
29
where, c is a virtual strain vector, o is a stress vector, U is a virtual displacement
vector and F is a load vector, respectively.
In case of the plane problem, the strain c vector is defined as,







.

\

c
c
+
c
c
c
c
c
c
=



.

\

x
v
y
u
y
v
x
u
xy
y
x
c
c
(114)
Substituting Equation (112) into Equation (114), the strain vector is calculated from
the nodal displacement vector as,











.

\








.

\

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
=







.

\

c
c
+
c
c
c
c
c
c
=







.

\

c
c
+
c
c
c
c
c
c
=



.

\

= =
=
=
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
v
u
v
u
v
u
v
u
x
h
y
h
x
h
y
h
x
h
y
h
x
h
y
h
y
h
y
h
y
h
y
h
x
h
x
h
x
h
x
h
v
x
h
u
y
h
v
y
h
u
x
h
x
v
y
u
y
v
x
u
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
xy
y
x
c
c
= B U (115)
In the plane stress problem, the stressstrain relationship is expressed as,



.

\





.

\

=



.

\

xy
y
x
xy
y
x
E
c
c
v
v
v
v
t
o
o
2
1
0 0
0 1
0 1
1
(116)
= D
30
Substituting Equation (115) into Equation (116),
= D B U (117)
From the Principle of Virtual Work Method,
( ) ( ) F U U DBdv B U dv DBU U B
T
V
T T
T
V
=


.

\

=
} }
(118)
Therefore, the stiffness equation is obtained as,
}
= =
V
T
DBdv B K KU F , (119)
If we assume the constant thickness of the plate (= t), using the relation tdxdy dv = ,
}
=
) , ( y x V
T
DBdxdy B t K (1110)
Since this integration is defined in xy coordinate, we must transfer the coordinate into
rs coordinate to use the numerical integration method. Introducing the Jacobian
matrix,
Matrix Jacobian
s
y
s
x
r
y
r
x
J ;




.

\

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
= (1111)
the above integration is expressed in rs coordinate as,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
} }
c
c
=
1
1
1
1
) , (
) , (
, , , , , , drds
s r
y x
s r y s r x DB s r y s r x B t K
T
(1112)
where
s
y
s
x
r
y
r
x
J
s r
y x
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
= =
c
c
det
) , (
) , (
(1113)
31
1) Evaluation of Jacobian Matrix




.

\

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
=




.

\

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
=
= =
= =
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
y
s
h
x
s
h
y
r
h
x
r
h
s
y
s
x
r
y
r
x
J (1114)
2) Evaluation of the matrix B







.

\

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
=
x
h
y
h
x
h
y
h
x
h
y
h
x
h
y
h
y
h
y
h
y
h
y
h
x
h
x
h
x
h
x
h
B
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
(1115)
The derivatives
y
h
y
h
x
h
x
h
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
4 1 4 1
, , , , , are calculated as,
y
s
s
h
y
r
r
h
y
h
y
s
s
h
y
r
r
h
y
h
x
s
s
h
x
r
r
h
x
h
x
s
s
h
x
r
r
h
x
h
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
4 4 4 1 1 1
4 4 4 1 1 1
, ,
, , ,
In a matrix form,




.

\

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c




.

\

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
=




.

\

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
s
h
s
h
s
h
s
h
r
h
r
h
r
h
r
h
y
s
y
r
x
s
x
r
y
h
y
h
y
h
y
h
x
h
x
h
x
h
x
h
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1




.

\

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
=
s
h
s
h
s
h
s
h
r
h
r
h
r
h
r
h
J
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
1
(1116)
32
3) Evaluation of partial derivatives of the interpolation functions
) 1 (
4
1
) 1 (
4
1
) 1 (
4
1
) 1 (
4
1
4
3
2
1
s
r
h
s
r
h
s
r
h
s
r
h
=
c
c
=
c
c
+ =
c
c
+ =
c
c
,
) 1 (
4
1
) 1 (
4
1
) 1 (
4
1
) 1 (
4
1
4
3
2
1
s
s
h
r
s
h
r
s
h
r
s
h
+ =
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
+ =
c
c
(1117)
4) Numerical integration
Using the 3 point Gaussian quadrature rule, the stiffness matrix is calculated
numerically as follows:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
} }
} }
= =
=
=
c
c
=
3
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
) , (
) , (
) , (
) , (
, , , , , ,
i j
j i j i
T
s r F t
drds s r F t
drds
s r
y x
s r y s r x CB s r y s r x B t K
o o
(162)
where
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
) , (
) , (
, , , , , , ) , (
s r
y x
s r y s r x CB s r y s r x B s r F
T
c
c
=
5556 . 0 , 8889 . 0 , 5556 . 0
3 2 1
= = = o o o
7746 . 0 , 0 , 7746 . 0
3 3 2 2 1 1
= = = = = = s r s r s r
5) Assemble of finite element
To total stiffness matrix can be obtained to assemble the element stiffness matrix over
the areas of all finite elements.
=
m
m
K K (1120)
where m denotes the mth element.
33
12. STRESSSTRAIN AT GAUSSIAN POINTS
1) Stress and strain at Gaussian point
If you use the 3points Gaussian Integration Method, there are nine Gaussian points
( ) ( ) 3 , 2 , 1 , 3 , 2 , 1 , = = j i s r
j i
in an element.
The stress and strain at the Gaussian point, ( )
j i
s r , , is obtained from Equations (115)
and (117) as
U DB
ij
ij
xy
y
x
ij
=



.

\

=
t
o
o
o (121)
U B
ij
ij
xy
y
x
ij
=



.

\

=
c
c
c (122)
s =1
s =+1
s =s
2
=0
r =1
r =+1
r =r
2
=0
r =r
3
s =s
3
s =s
1
: Gaussian points
x, u
y, v
x
4
y
4
r
s
Node 1
Node 2
Node 3
Node 4
r =r
1
34
2) Principal stress at Gaussian point
2
2
1
2 2
xy
y x y x
t
o o o o
o +


.

\

+
+
= (123)
2
2
2
2 2
xy
y x y x
t
o o o o
o +


.

\

+
= (124)


.

\

=
y x
xy
p
o o
t
u
2
arctan
2
1
(125)
x
o
y
o
xy
t
1
o 2
o
x
o
y
o
xy
t
1
o
2
o
35
3) Displacement at Gaussian point
After obtaining the nodal displacement, the displacement at the Gaussian point
( )
j i
s r , , is obtained from Equation (112) as
=
=
=
=
4
1
4
1
) , ( ) , (
) , ( ) , (
i
i j i i j i
i
i j i i j i
v s r h s r v
u s r h s r u
(126)
x
o
y
o
xy
t
1
o
2
o
x
o
y
o
xy
t
1
o
2
o
36
13. MASS MATRIX FOR ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENT
1) Formulation
Under dynamic loading, the Principle of Virtual Work Method in dynamic problem =
DAlemberts principle is expressed in the following form:
0 = W Q o o (131)
}
=
V
T
dv Q o c o (132)
} 

.

\

c
c
c
c
=
V
T
dv
t
u
t
u
F u W o
2
2
(133)
where F: body force, T: surface force, : density, : damping coefficient
Substitute following relationships into above equations:
u(x,y) = H(x,y)U
= B U
= D B U
( ) ( ) U DBdv B U dv DBU U B Q
V
T T
T
V


.

\

= =
} }
o (134)
U Hdv H U U Hdv H U dv F H U
dv
t
u
t
u
F u W
V
T T
V
T T
V
T T
V
T


.

\



.

\

=


.

\

c
c
c
c
=
} } }
}
o
2
2
(135)
Therefore, from Equation (131),
} } } }
=


.

\

+


.

\

+


.

\

V
T T
V
T
V
T
V
T
dv F H U U CBdv B U Hdv H U Hdv H
(135)
That is, the equilibrium equation is expressed as,
} } } }
=


.

\

=


.

\

=


.

\

=
= + +
V
T
V
T
V
T
V
T
dv F H R DBdv B K Hdv H C Hdv H M
R KU U C U M
, , ,
(136)
37
2) Evaluation of the matrix H and H
T
H
(
=
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
h h h h
h h h h
H (137)
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
2
4
2
4
4 3
2
3
4 3
2
3
4 2 3 2
2
2
4 2 3 2
2
2
4 1 3 1 2 1
2
1
4 1 3 1 2 1
2
1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
0 .
0
0 0
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
h
h sym
h h h
h h h
h h h h h
h h h h h
h h h h h h h
h h h h h h h
h h h h
h h h h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
H H
T
(138)
3) Numerical integration
The integration for mass matrix can be expressed in rs coordinate as,
( )
} }
}
}
=
=
=
1
1
1
1
) , (
det drds J H H t
Hdxdy H t
Hdv H M
T
y x V
T
V
T
(139)
The integration can be evaluated by the Gaussian Integration Formula as,
( )
ij ij
T
ij ij
i j
ij j i
J H H G
G t M
det
3
1
3
1
=
=
= =
o o
(1310)
38
4) Lumped mass model
The mass matrix obtained from the density of material is called the consistent mass
matrix using the same interpolation functions for stiffness matrix, mass matrix and
load vectors. Instead of performing the integrations, we may evaluate an approximate
mass matrix by lumping equal parts of the total element mass to the nodal points which
is called the lumped mass matrix. An important advantage of using a lumped mass
matrix is that the matrix is diagonal and the numerical operations for the solution of
the dynamic equations are reduced significantly.
Suppose that the consistent mass matrix is expressed as,
(
(
(
(
=
Cnn Cn Cn
n C C C
n C C C
C
m m m
m m m
m m m
M
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11
(1311)
The lumped matrix can be evaluated from the consistent mass matrix from the
following formula:
(
(
(
(
=
Lnn
L
L
L
m
m
m
M
0 0
0 0
0 0
22
11
,
=
=
n
j
Cij Lii
m m
1
(1312)
39
14. EIGEN VALUE PROBLEM
The free vibration equilibrium equation without damping is
0 = + KU U M
(141)
where K is the stiffness matrix and M is the lumped mass matrix in the form,
(
(
(
(
=
n
m
m
m
M
0 0
0 0
0 0
2
1
(142)
The solution can be postulated to be in the form
t i
e U
e
 = (143)
where  is a vector of order n, e is a frequency of vibration of the vector  .
Then, the generalized eigenproblem is,
 e  M K
2
= (144)
This eigenproblem yields the n eigensolutions ( ) ( ) ( )
n n
 e  e  e , , , , , ,
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
where the
eigenvevtors are Morthonormalized as,
= =
= =
= ==
=
j i
j i
m M
n
k
k j k i k j
T
i
; 0
; 1
1
, ,
    (145)
2 2
2
2
1
0
n
e e e s s s s (146)
The vector
i
 is called the ith mode shape vector, and
i
e is the corresponding
frequency of vibration.
Defining a matrix u whose columns are the eigenvectors and a diagonal matrix
2
O
which stores the eigenvalues on its diagonal as,
40
 
n
  
2 1
= u ,
(
(
(
(
(
= O
2
2
2
2
1
2
n
e
e
e
(147)
We introduce the following transformation on the displacement vector of the
equilibrium equation (136),
) ( ) ( t X t U u = (148)
Then,
R X K X C X M = u + u + u
(149)
Multiplying
T
u ,
R X K X C X M
T T T T
u = u u + u u + u u
(1410)
Using
2
, O = u u = u u K I M
T T
,
R X X C X
T T
u = O + u u +
2
(1411)
A damping matrix that is diagonalized by u is called a classical damping matrix.
(
(
(
(
= = u u
n n
T
h
h
h
C C
e
e
e
2
2
2
2 2
1 1
(1412)
where
i
h is the modal damping ratio of the ith mode.
Then, Equation (1411) reduce to n equations of the form
) ( ) ( ) ( 2 ) (
2
t r t x t x h t x
i i i i i
= + + e e (1413)
where ) ( ) ( t R t r
T
i i
 =
The initial conditions on X(t) are obtained from Equation (148) as,
0 0 0 0
,
= = = =
u = u =
t
T
t t
T
t
U M X MU X
(1414)
41
15. CLASSICAL DAMPING
Three procedures for constructing a classical damping matrix are described as follow:
1) Proportional damping
Consider first massproportional damping and stiffnessproportional damping,
M a C
0
= and K a C
1
= (151)
where the constants
1 0
, a a have units of sec
1
and sec, respectively.
For a system with massproportional damping, the generalized damping for the ith
mode is,
i i
m a c
0
= ,
i i i i
h m c e 2 / = (152)
Therefore,
i i
h a e 2
0
= ,
i
i
a
h
e
1
2
0
= (153)
Similarly, for a system with stiffnessproportional damping, the generalized damping
for the ith mode is,
i i i
m a c
2
1
e = ,
i i i i
h m c e 2 / = (154)
Therefore,
i
i
h
a
e
2
1
= ,
i i
a
h e
2
1
= (155)
i
h
e
K a C
1
=
i i
a
h e
2
1
=
M a C
0
=
i
i
a
h
e
1
2
0
=
42
2) Rayleigh damping
A Rayleigh damping matrix is proportional to the mass and stiffness matrices as,
K a M a C
1 0
+ = (156)
The modal damping ratio for the ith mode of such a system is,
i
i
i
a a
h e
e 2
1
2
1 0
+ = (157)
The coefficients
1 0
, a a can be determined from specified damping ratios
2 1
, h h modes,
respectively. Expressing Equation (153) for these two modes in matrix form leads to:
)
`
=
)
`
2
1
1
0
2 2
1 1
/ 1
/ 1
2
1
h
h
a
a
e e
e e
(158)
Solving the above system, we obtain the coefficients
1 0
, a a :
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
1
1 2 2 1
1
2
2
2
1
1 2 2 1 2 1
0
2
2
e e
e e
e e
e e e e
=
h h
a
h h
a
(159)
i
h
e
K a M a C
1 0
+ =
i
i
i
a a
h e
e 2
1
2
1 0
+ =
43
3) Modal damping
It is an alternative procedure to determinate a classical damping matrix from modal
damping ratios. From the definition of a classical damping matrix,
(
(
(
(
= = u u
n n
T
h
h
h
C C
e
e
e
2
2
2
2 2
1 1
( )
1
1
u u = C C
T
(1510)
Since , I M
T
= u u
( ) u = u
M
T
1
, M
T
u = u
1
(1511)
Therefore,
( ) ( ) M C M C
T
u u = (1512)
44
16. EQUATION OF MOTION UNDER EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION
1) Equation of motion under earthquake ground motion
Earthquake ground motions are defined as two components acceleration;
0
X
and
0
Y
, in X and Y
directions. The inertia forces at node i are defined as,
( )
( )
)
`
=
)
`
(
(
(
(
+
+
0
0
0
0
0
0
1 0
0 1
Y
X
MI U M
Y
X
M
v
u
M
Y v M
X u M
i
i
i i
i i
(161)
where
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
(
1 0
0 1
,
0 0
0 0
0 0
,
2
1
I
m
m
m
M
v
u
U
n
i
i
(162)
Equilibrium condition of the structure under earthquake ground motion is:
Finally the equation of motion is obtained as:
R
Y
X
MI KU U C U M =
)
`
= + +
0
0
(163)
Inertia force
Damping force
Restoring force
)
`
= +
0
0
Y
X
MI U M KU U C
45
2) Numerical integration by Newmark method
The incremental formulation for the equation of motion of a structural system is,
 { }  { }  { } { }
i i i i
p d K v C a M A = A + A + A (164)
where,   M ,   C and   K are the mass, damping and stiffness matrices. { }
i
d A , { }
i
v A ,
{ }
i
a A and { }
i
p A are the increments of the displacement, velocity, acceleration and external force
vectors, that is,
{ } { } { }
i i i
d d d A
+1
, { } { } { }
i i i
v v v A
+1
,
{ } { } { }
i i i
a a a A
+1
, { } { } { }
i i i
p p p A
+1
(165)
Using the Newmark method,
{ } { }( ) { }( ) t a t a v
i i i
A A + A = A
2
1
(166)
{ } { }( ) { }( ) { }( )
2 2
2
1
t a t a t v d
i i i i
A A + A + A = A  (167)
From Equation (167), we obtain
{ }
( )
{ }
( )
{ } { }
i i i i
a v
t
d
t
a
 

2
1 1 1
2
A
A
A
= A (168)
Substituting Equation (167) into Equation (166) gives
{ }
( )
{ } { } { }( ) t a v d
t
v
i i i i
A


.

\

+ A
A
= A
   4
1
1
2
1
2
1
(169)
Equations (168) and (169) are substituted into Equation (164), and we obtain
{ }
( )
 
( )
   
{ }  
( )
{ } { }   { } { }( )
(
A


.

\

+ +


.

\

+
A
+ A =
(
+
A
+
A
A
t a v C a v
t
M p
K C
t
M
t
d
i i i i i
i
1
4
1
2
1
2
1 1
2
1 1
2
   


(1610)
The equation can be rewritten as,
  { } { }
i i
p d K
A = A (1611)
where,
   
( )
 
( )
  M
t
C
t
K K
2
1
2
1
A
+
A
+ =


(1612)
{ } { }  
( )
{ } { }   { } { }( )
(
A


.

\

+ +


.

\

+
A
+ A = A t a v C a v
t
M p p
i i i i i i
1
4
1
2
1
2
1 1
   
(1613)
46
17. INDEPENDENT FREEDOM
1) Freedom Vector
Exercise 1)
Please obtain the freedom vector of the following structure.
2 1
3 4
X
Y
200 mm
P = 500 N
1000 mm
P
P
50 mm
E = 22000 N/mm/mm, v = 0.1666
Initial Restrained freedom =1 Numbering
1
X
0 1 0
1
Y
0 1 0
2
X
0 0 1
{F } = 2
Y
0 0 2
3
X
0 1 0
3
Y
0 1 0
4
X
0 0 3
4
Y
0 0 4
2 1 3
X
Y
5 4 6
47
2) Location Matrix
2 1
3 4
X
Y
200 mm
P = 500 N
1000 mm
P
P
50 mm
E = 22000 N/mm/mm, v = 0.1666
1
X
1
Y
2
X
2
Y
3
X
3
Y
4
X
4
Y
P1 K11 K12 K13 K14 K15 K16 K17 K18 U1
Q1 K21 K22 K23 K24 K25 K26 K27 K28 V1
P2 K31 K32 K33 K34 K35 K36 K37 K38 U2
Q2 = K41 K42 K43 K44 K45 K46 K47 K48 V2
P3 K51 K52 K53 K54 K55 K56 K57 K58 U3
Q3 K61 K62 K63 K64 K65 K66 K67 K68 V3
P4 K71 K72 K73 K74 K75 K76 K77 K78 U4
Q4 K81 K82 K83 K84 K85 K86 K87 K88 V4
Element stiffness matrix
Total stiffness matrix
U2 V2 U3 V3
P2 K33 K34 K35 K36 U2
Q2 = K43 K44 K45 K46 V2
P3 K53 K54 K55 K56 U3
Q3 K63 K64 K65 K66 V3
1 2
3 4
0
0
1
2
3
4
0
0
Location
matrix
Element node number should be
in anticlockwise order.
48
Exercise 2)
Please obtain the location matrix of the element of the following structure.
Freedom vector
1 2
3 4
2 1
3 4
1
X
0
1
Y
0
2
X
1
{F } = 2
Y
2
3
X
0
3
Y
0
4
X
3
4
Y
4
Node number
1 > 1
2 > 2
3 > 4
4 > 3
1
X
0
1
Y
0
2
X
1
2
Y
2
3
X
3
3
Y
4
4
X
0
4
Y
0
Location matrix
2 1 3
X
Y
5 4 6
49
Answers 1) and 2)
1) Freedom vector
2) Location matrix
2 1 3
X
Y
4 6
5
2
1
3
4
Initial Restrained freedom =1 Numbering
1
X
0 1 0
1
Y
0 1 0
2
X
0 0 1
{F } = 2
Y
0 0 2
3
X
0 1 0
3
Y
0 1 0
4
X
0 1 0
4
Y
0 1 0
5
X
0 0 3
5
Y
0 0 4
6
X
0 1 0
6
Y
0 1 0
1 2
3 4
1 2
3 4
1
X
0
1
Y
0
2
X
1
2
Y
2
3
X
3
3
Y
4
4
X
0
4
Y
0
1
X
1
1
Y
2
2
X
0
2
Y
0
3
X
0
3
Y
0
4
X
3
4
Y
4
50
Total stiffness matrix
(
(
(
(
+
(
(
(
(
=
88
78 77
28 27 22
18 17 12 11
66
56 55
46 45 44
36 35 34 33
. . k sym
k k
k k k
k k k k
k sym
k k
k k k
k k k k
K
Total mass matrix (in diagonal form)
(
(
(
(
+
(
(
(
(
=
88
77
22
11
66
55
44
33
. . m sym
m
m
m
m sym
m
m
m
M
Inertial force
(
(
(
(
=
)
`
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
,
0
0
I
Y
X
MI U M
1 3
X
Y
4 6
2
5
2
1
3
4
51
18. SKYLINE METHOD
Usually, the total stiffness matrix [ K ] is symmetric and sparse as shown below.
Therefore, to save memory size and to reduce calculation time for linear equation solver,
the elements in the upper triangular part of the matrix under the Skyline (thick line)
are stored in an onedimension vector.
1 K11
2 K22
3 K21
4 K33
5 K23
6 K44
7 K43
8 0
9 K14
10 K55
11 K45
12 K35
13 K25
14 K66
15 K56
16 K77
17 K67
18 K57
19 K47
20 K37
21 K27
22 K17
23 K88
24 K78
25 K68
26 K58
27
0 1 1 3 3 1 6 3
Skyline height
1 2 4 6 10 14 16 23 27
Diagonal element order
Total stiffness matrix [ K ]
Stiffness vector
Skyline
6
Band width ( =the maximum skyline height)
52
Exercise 3)
Using the same structure in Exercise 1), please compare
1) skyline height,
2) diagonal element order and
3) band width
between the following two cases with different node order.
Case 1
Case 2
2 1 4
X
Y
3 5
7 6 9 8 10
3 1 7
X
Y
5 9
4 2 8 6 10