The Calculation of the Armature Reactance of Synchronous Machines

Member, A. I. E. E.

Synopsis.-This paper presents new and simplifiedformulasfor the armature leakage reactance of synchronous machines, and compares the results obtained with tests on 100 machines of varied types. The new form?nulas are characterized by novel expressions for the end leakage and for the "air-gap" or "differential leakage" reaclances. Forimulas for zero phase-sequence reactances are also

given. The definitions of armature leakage and armature reaction reactances used are those proposed by Doherty and Nickle in 1926, and as a result the leakage reactance has a much smaller value than has heretofore been assigned to it, thus requiring a rather fundamental revision of the ordinary conceptions of the flux densities existing in the various parts of a loaded synchronous machine.

I. INTRODUCTION T HE growing interest of operating engineers in machine reactances, (as system stability and shortcircuit phenomena become continually more important), together with the recent advances in the theory of synchronous machines, make renewed consideration of the subject of reactance calculation opportune at the present time. Papers on this subject have appeared in the JOURNAL'S pages at intervals over a period of more than 20 years, each paper marking a further refinement of methods and an advance in accuracy. At first, it was customary merely to estimate the numbers of leakage lines per ampere inch of embedded and free conductor, and multiply them by the respective lengths to obtain the reactance. Later, the reactance was segregated into several distinct elements that were separately calculated. These calculations due to their greater importance and in this case, the possibility of more accurate tests have reached greater precision in connection with induction machines than with synchronous machines. Adams"11'3'14 first developed formulas for induction motor reactances, and later Fechheimer9 and Doherty and Shirley7 developed formulas for synchronous machines. In 1926 Doherty and Nickle3 presented some fundamental extensions of the theory of synchronous machines, and proposed new, more precise, definitions of armature leakage reactance and of armature reaction reactance. The present paper adopts these new definitions and develops simple formulas for the accurate calculation of the two quantities, for salient pole machines. The reactance of armature reaction is here defined as the reactance due to the fundamental sine wave of air-gap flux produced by the armature current acting alone. It is calculated by means of the curves derived by Wieseman2 from flux plots. There are two distinct for it values occurring when the it, the direct axis value oceurring values for axis of armature m. m. f. coincides with the pole axis; and the quadrature axis value, occurring when the axis


of armature m. m. f., is midway of the interpolar space. The armature leakage reactance is defined as the difference between the total, or synchronous, armature reactance and the above defined reactance of armature reaction. The distinction between the leakage and the armature reaction components of the total reactance is quite an artitrary one, since no winding can have a definite value of leakage reactance except with respect to another winding. Some distinction of this character is very desirable, however, for convenience in calculating the transient reactance, and for other purposes. The armature leakage reactance as above defined, is as nearly equal as may be, to that part of the total armature reactance which remains the same under transient as under steady conditions of operation. Following Adams' treatment of the induction motor, the armature leakage reactance of a synchronous maehine will be divided into four parts; the slot, end, zigzag, and belt leakages. Formulas for each of these will be derived in turn. As the slot leakage has been quite satisfactorily treated by Adams"1 already, the discussion of it here will be abbreviated as much as possible, consistent with the derivation of a little more exact formula, and its extension to apply to zero phasesequence currents. None of the other three elements of the leakage has been adequately treated by previous writers, so they will be given more detailed consideration. The four divisions of the reactance found useful for induction machines are followed for the two reasons that they fit in very well with the new conceptions of leakage reactance, and that their adoption will tend to wind their unify the particular the total "air-gap leakage, due to harmonics of. the air-gap flux, is segregated into the two parts called zigzag and belt leakage, respectively, in order to permit the effects of the independent variables, number of slots, and numbDer of phase belts to be separately taken into account.



*Assistant Engineer, A-C. Engineering Department, General All previously published formulas for zigzag leakage Electric CSompany, Schenectady, N. Y. hv novdtecnieaino vrapn rmr h osdraino vrapn rmr For numbered references see bibliography,.aeivle Presented at the Winter Convention of the A. I. E. E., New York, and secondary teeth, and so have inadequately taken

N. Y., Feb1ruary 13-17, 1928.


into account the effects of flux fringing in the air-gap,




Transactions A. I. E. E.

and have been inapplicable to synchronous machines. Also, older formulas for end leakage have been frankly empirical in nearly all cases. All new formula for these elements will be derived by considering the leakage flux to consist of revolving magnetic fields, divided into a fundamental and a series of harmonics. In each case, the coefficient of the resulting formula will be derived from theoretical considerations alone, and no empirical multipliers will be used to bring the results into agreement with practise, although simplifying assumptions will be freely made as the occasion demands. Before proceeding to the derivation of the formulas, it is desirable to get clearly in mind the distinctions between the four elements of the leakage that have been specified. The end leakage reactance is due to the flux linking the end windings alone. The slot leakage comprises all of the flux crossing the slots due to the armature current, but does not include flux passing from tooth to tooth in the air-gap space. Evidently there is a slight error here, because the flux lines near the mouth of the slot do not pass straight across, but bulge outwards into the gap. The zigzag leakage comprises all of the space harmonics of the air-gap flux, due to the armature current in a one slot per pole per phase winding which induces fundamental frequency voltages in the armature. This includes the flux which crosses from tooth to tooth in the air-gap and interpolar spaces without actually reaching the field surface, and so takes up the leakage flux at the point at which the slot leakage lef t it. The belt leakage then comprises all the remaining fundamental frequency voltage producing space harmonics of the air-gap flux due to armature current. This last reactance is the additional reactance that an actual winding has above that which it would have if there were as many phases as slots per pole. Thus, the zigzag lealt age reactance is due to the deviation of the armature m. m. f. wave from a sinusoid, caused by the limited number of slots, and the belt leakage reactance is due to thQ further deviation caused by the limited number of phases. The belt and zigzag reactances together have been appropriately called5 the "differential leakage," since they are due to the deviations of the armature m. m. f. from the ideal sine wave. They may also be called "air-gap leakage," since they represent the difference between the total and the armature reaction components of the fundamental frequency voltage producing air-gap flux. As the differential leakage reactance varies with the relative positions of the axes of the armature m. m. f. and the poles, the armature leakage reactance varies likewise, and has a slightly higher value in the quadrature than in the direct axis.3 Formerly, the air-gap flux due to the armature current was divided into two parts, that due to the armature reaction, and that due to "tooth tip leakage."7 The armature reaction part was intended to represent the air-gap flux produced by the armature that links the

field, but the determination of this flux was erroneously based on the linkages of the armature by the air-gap flux due to the field.7 The remaining part of the total air-gap flux produced by the armature was then called tooth tip leakage. As the new definition of armature reaction includes most of this latter flux, we have abandoned the name "tooth tip" and called the small remaining part, the synchronous frequency voltageproducing harmonic fluxes, "differential leakage," as just described. Bearing in mind these conceptions of the leakage reactances which we are going to calculate, we can now proceed to the derivation of the formulas. The four components of the reactance will be taken up in the order of their difficulty, and subsequently the results of their application to actual machines will be compared with tests. II. SLOT LEAKAGE REACTANCE Only two-layer barrel-type armature windings in

op slots


cnd inu this paper, isice


t I


FIG. 1-SLOT LEAKAGE FLUX PATHS of single layer windings have reduced them to a place of only historical importance in polyphase a-c. machines of American manufacture. Consider the slot shown in Fig. 1. All the flux crossing the slot returns below its closed end through a path of negligible reluctance, and none of it links any of the other slots. The leakage reactance in ohms per phase, due to this flux is then equal to the product of the following factors: 1. The permeance of the path across unit length of slot. 2. The embedded length of slot, or L 3. The number of slots in series per phase, or S/q 4. The square of the number of series connected / qZ \2 conductors in each slot, or ( S / 5. The rate of change of the flux, or 2 r ft 6. A constant to reduce linkages per second to ohms, or 10-8

the + 8 linkages due to it are one-quarter as much as they would be if this flux linked all the current. d3 ± __ di + 8 + = M KS As the mutual inductance of I. while the average height of a . ~~~~primary windings. therefore: l10 ( 4 w) and so the total slot reactance of a balanced. in the bottom of another ing it in the expression for the slot constant.d3 + 3 6 3 41 parabola is one-third its maximum height.1 ." function havihg values equal to For a fractional pitch winding.d2 d1-d21 1 r conductors in the slot of Fig.d2 di. The bracketed expression is the "slot constant. all the slots / q Z \ 12 d3 + 4 d -d ] ] have 0 = 0 deg.d2) cos 6 flux through path C links one-half the total current. 2). 1928 ALGER: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES 495 The permeance of the path for flux A linking all the and that of II is proportional to: d1. and so it is con. The otalsel-indctane o I i proortonalto: except for zero phase-sequence currents. by plotting the function KS venient to give it a special symbol.snglgbe in-phase components of voltage to be considered. then in the slot carrying m being any integer. 1 is: 40 ( wd lines per ampere per cm.006. full pitch.. so that the currents 3 in coil sides I and II are identical in magnitude and to: proportional is inductance phase. The linkages due Or. with respect to II.79 becomes 2.~-()J other will be canceled by the corresponding out-of 3JJ 4w phase voltage in the return coil side. when the pitch is q. (as shown in Fig. the slot constant varies linearly between many of the elements of reactance. (2) KS= 2 q more detailed analysis must be made. the out-of-phase component of voltage induced in each coil side by thle -___ {Ks.Feb. and so. where KS is a broken line tions. The second term is very small. 0. the currents in the q-m m 7r q at (1+cos two coil sides in some slots are not in phase. a pitch.[d3 + And if the winding is full pitch. = 109(fL) (S/q) t Xslot 8 wr2 12' Xsi0t .d2) 4 Ld+ 4 7r 4 d-d2 di d Hence. is (1-Ks) 3w J 12w ( W equal to that of II with respect to I. the constant 0. d1-d2 1r J as in the case of a multi-speed machine with two 4 d+ . there will be (under balanced conditions) a top as the final equation for slot reactance: conductor carrying current 0Q ahead of the current inl. leaving only the Th thr ter in thi exrsio. the slot constant for this case is: to C are. and when the pitch is j 12w slots have 0 = L 10'S q (1) ohms per phase all have 0 g For intermediate For dimensions measured in inches.79 f L q Z2 [ 12 d3+ 4 di .against per cent pitch. The expression outside the bracket is a quantity containing factors common to pitches. in future equa. the linkages per ampere produced by the flux in while their mutual [ 1 paths B and D are equal to the expression: (di . the flux density distribution is linear and the linkage 1 di 6 + + d3 + distribution is parabolic. unless there iS a large space between the top and bottom coil sides. When the winding pitch is 100 per cent. we have slot. M. and substitutthe return conductor of I.d2 1 . (Sq =10. If the current in coil side II lags that in I by 00. Thus. As all the 4 (4 d3 + d.these values. the total linkages due to the two currents ' 10 ( d w since with uniform current distribution over the height 00 out of phase acting together are proportional to: d2 2 di 1 . polyphase winding is equal to: 2 (w 1+ cos 0) + 2w (5 + 3 cos 0) d2 24w (3cos 0-1). length of slot 4 ld3+ 2 I 1 ±dll . all the 12w S / L q 180 deg.

. TABLE I unless the pitch is below two-thirds.667 1. which produce a leakage field flowing in radial planes. onetwo-phase.two-phase. belts 0 0..." The second kind is due to the peripherally directed end winding currents. 4.. Line to line. va1i s of pitch.333 0.... Line to line.... three-phase.00 Zero phase.. and so becomes the greater of the two....V4 eZ. E.. 2.00 . 120-deg. but that only occurs with pitches of 0.00 1. 60-deg. Hereafter it will be designated as the "peripheral leakage field..500 1. 3. onephase . reactance. one-three-phase. It is sometimes desirable to know the slot reactance for other conditions.three-phase. 3 AXIAL LEAKAGE FLUX OF END VVINDINGS due to the axially directed and winding currents only. E. 50 per cent. With single layer chain type windings.250 0..9rlv/- zwv 4/...00 0 1.500 0 .. a condition that always exists with two-phase. and is be considered as due to two kinds of field. Winding pitch The slot reactance given by (3).. belts Line to neutral... 90-deg. the peripheral leakage is greatly reduced by the proximity . or 100 per cent. The first FIG.9X/. to neutral..00 0.500 0..00 as for single-phase.. belts twoBalanced. applies when balanced polyphase currents Ki values flow in the windings. belts phase. belts 0 0.... This is so because the mutual slot reactance between any two phases. 60-deg.667 1. the axial leakage flux is greatly increased. two-phase.. The following table of special values of Ks covers most of the cases that are met with in practise. three-phase..00 These reactances can all be obtained from equation (3)..00 0... The appropriate val. This field flows in planes perpendicular to the shaft. plus one-third of the zero phase sequence The leakage reactance of the end windings will here iII. 2 2X/)(~ ues can readily be derived by the methods already employed... As shown by Park. belts For intermeldiate lated values. Line one-phase. if proper values of Ks are used. 120-deg." The peripheral leakage predominates for synchronous machines with barrel typ\e windings.1 the line to neutral reactance of a three-phase winding is always equal to two-thirds of the positive phase sequence opc.750 0 0 0 0 0 0.. For induction machines.. 120-deg. A and B.7 t. This will hereafter be called the "axial leakage field. as indicated in Fig. 60-deg. or for zero phase-sequence currents. 0 0 0 0..250 0.375 0.333 0.. END LEAKAGE REACTANCE it it j iz1 + < 91| kind is a revolving magnetic field of the same nature as those that are produced in the core length...750 1.250 0. 9C-deg. belts Zero phase. threephase. Balanced threephase. so that only the VALUES OF Ks FOR USE IN EQUATIO-N (3) first term is ordinarily of importance.667 1 ..500 0. unless the winding pitch is exactly 0. belts Zero phase .. and 100 per cent with threephase windings. It will be noted that the single-phase line to neutral slot reactance of a three-phase winding is not half the reactance between lines. belts 0 0 0 0. is only zero when there are as many slots containing an A coil side in the bottom and a B in the top as there are slots containing a B coil side in the bottom and an A in the top. 50.three-phase.750 1 .750 0. FIG..496 ALGER: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES Transactions A. three-phase..375 0.Line to line. and therefore to save space the details of the work will be omitted here.8r :_:- = -c C0... with the coefficients Connection Type of winding 0 1/3 2/3 1 Ks of Fig. 90-deg.750 one-phase.. shown in Fig. belts Balanced. however. ones phase.333 0. 120-deg.750 0.. Kh varies linearly between the tabu- I v I ~~~~reactance. I. 60-deg.. three-phase. belts phase .three-phase.

*R. . V The procedure will be.-pole produced in a circular air core of one cm.v 73*7o 1-WIRAS . - = '.9. Machines. A Or: in gilberts. so the flux paths lie entirely in air. is equal to: And. finally. m. the total flux per . to determine A gP g the additional reactance due to the axial leakage. first to find the per7 ¢ (8) f Kp Kd Z 10-8 meance of a cylindrical air core to a sinusoidally dis2 tributed encircling m. U19Lh94. It makes _ the outor inside the is on air no difference whether the side of the core. acting on a uniform air-gap of length g is equal to: 3= . distributed around the periphery is equal to just twice the maximum m.9 ws ACE WZ/M o ?flhVy1 0 f. periphery Cr in iron of high permeability on the other side. axial length by a sinusoidal m. 4w A 4 7r =2 (10) (4) | l This equation assumes the flux to lie entirely in air %-and of the entirely core. acting on the periphery of an air cylinder of diameter D. The flux per pole due to unit armature reaction. as well as inside the cylinder.:/ 'Acz LS<44y gP (6) FIG.V. of this character produced by the end windings. and. f. m. Lawrence.. 1928 ALGER: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES 497 The first of these factors is given by the familiar of the primary and secondary windings. iv p D tan ae The magnetizing reactance due to the air-gap flux P L'(12) of an induction motor with uniform air-gap g is equal to the product of the following factors: 1.3'r A .9q.. in one reaction per ampere .' ?'E1 Po. the ratio of the flux produced by izing reactance of a polyphase armature winding in ohms per phase: 8 7r q f D LZ2 KP Kd2 X0= P2 g 109 0. m.9 £4'O (. the further step of subtracting the The product of these three factors gives the magnetmutual reactance of the two windings from the sum of their total reactance is necessary. and so: on one side of the 7 -< -- .. m. 4 END WINDING CUTRRENT RELATIONSHIP r4'P" a given sinusoidally distributed m." phase. the reluctance is doubled. If there _ is no iron present. YS'P?9c _o 8649'S 9A. second to find the effective The second factor is: m. m. f. f. m. where there is no mutual inductance between (10) the armature and field end windings. As shown by earlier writers3'6 l0. f.4r /i v0 7Wo Co. The maximum of the sine wave of armature page 108. 4.1)2= 10 (5) PLO The flux per pole produced by the same m. 4. m. For induction 7r P / 2 machines. and at is the angle 2.Feb. 87 DL third to determine thence the reactance due to the = (9) peripheral end leakage flux.319 Kp2 Kd2 D SM on 'The ratio of the axial length of the end windings is: (11) -1)2 Pg(7) 2 D q53 both ends of the machine to the core length where P is the number of poles of the m.Vqg . therefore. and so the expression: axial leakage usually predominates. f.8 7r A D 0W //A. indicated in Fig. acting on a uniform airgap of length g. f. f.'vPa rsWr S/NU4 /DA91. f. "Frinciples of Alternating-Current 3.aurA-oe: . R. m. to the flux produced by the same m.qrA . both inside and outside of the m. with air outside.7. The volts per phase due to unit flux per pole. where p is the fractional pitch. m. This completes the story for a salient-pole synchronous and the third* is: 2 q Z Kp Kd A machine. however. then. f. and neither does it make any difference what the radius of the periphery of the core is.

4. and (12). The peripheral currents in the upper and lower layers of the winding are out of phase in time by an angle equal to p 7r x. the pitch 7 x dx of the winding at any point is equal top x. (from equations (5) and (6) ). the leakage reactance of the end windings due to the fundamental of the peripheral field only is: Pg D [0. m. a ISilberstein. As the peripheral current extends over a radial depth equal to the depth of primary slot. 4. The sum of the values of 1/n2 for all the harmonics present in a full-pitch polyphase winding with an infinite number of slots is equal to 1/Kd2. since only the logarithm of . the reactance due to the nth harmonic is therefore approximately 1/n2 times that due to the fundamental for an air core. The effect of this error is to make the calculated reactance too high for very deep primary slots and too low for very shallow slots. in a small number of conductors are smaller in the end windings than in the core. E. for which the formulas are derived. which differs by 7r from the phase difference between the axially directed components of the same currents. The distribution factor Kd is the same for the end windings as for the The enter of gravity of this current area core portion. However. at any point to its r pD tan a 10 2P value in the core portion is. E. m.. where the m. or. m. Hence (16) is really based on the assumption that the primary slot depth is about equal to one-third the axial end projection. and if wide variations from this relationship occur. f. Cos P 7 x dx sin2 P 2 J 7r-p D tan ae /2tan p 7r/4 tapW/4) 2P p (13) harmonics may be approximately taken care of by simply omitting the factor Kd2 in the first member of equation (13). The component of end leakage reactance due to axial flux may be evaluated by considering the peripheral components of the end winding currents at any fractional distance x from the outer end of the winding." p. and greater for very short pitch windings. the resultant peripheral current at any point is proportional to and accordingly the value of F (p) is: F (p) sin2 0 p 2 dx= p 2pw (14) (14) sinpDpp2 _ pD tan a 1 + P5 / To evaluate the additional end reactance due to the irregular peripheral space distribution of the end winding m. For a full pitch winding with a large number of slots per pole. the equivalent diameter cannot be less than this. m. we may proceed as follows: The ratio of the nth harmonic flux per pole in an air core to the fundamental flux per pole is n times greater than the same ratio for a uniform air-gap. We will now make the assumption that the axial end leakage reactance is the same as if the peripheral current were concentrated in a conductor of circular crosssection at each end of the machine at the distance from the core ends given by (15).319Kd2DS1 9 XEP M L p2g Jt 2 D ) 7r p D tan al P L L [pD S Kd2 tan al jF (P) J F (p) = M L 2 p2 L where F (p) is that function of the winding pitch that corresponds for the coil end projection length to the function Kp2 over the core length. we will assume this diameter to be one-half the axial projection at each end. 87. as indicated in Fig. To evaluate F (p). Thus. the latter ratio being derived in the section of this paper on belt leakage. and 1/n4 times the fundamental for a uniform air-gap. Therefore. due to the unvarying widths of the phase cos P 2 belts. For reasons of simplicity. x Cos p 6 the square of the ratio of the m. is concentrated in a cylinder of zero thickness. as core equal to indicated in Fig.498 ALGER: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES Transactions A. I. and less than the axial length of the end projection on one end. but these errors are not (15) approx. from (12): 7r p D tan a 4p (16) important. since the finite slot depth makes the actual length of flux path much greater for the higher harmonics than in the ideal case. If x is expressed as a fraction of 1 the total axial winding projection on one end. The proper diameter of cross section to assume for these conductors is evidently greater than the depth of primary slot.t The actual effect of the harmonics is less than this for windings with pitches a little less than 100 per cent. Thus. f. the increase in end leakage reactance due to this effective diameter enters the final equation. then (16) will be correspondingly in error. Multiplying together (7). f. consider an elementary section of is accordingly located at a distance from the end of the the end windings at a distance x from the outer end. f. The tooth harmonics due to the concentration of the m. "Synopsis of Applicable Mathematics. (11).

. as it is _ _ Assuming the air-gap diameter.1) Zero phase ..|0. the peripheral currents at the two ends may be considered as flowing in a pair of parallel wires separated by a distance twice that given by (15).. Over the ordinary range of pitches from 0.. 5-END LEAKAGE REACTANCE COEFFICIENTS polyphase currents flowing in the armature winding.1 f q D Kp2 Kd2 Z2 (1 + 0.. large compared LeS | |7/| Y I 1 2+ 2 1 n 4 (1 + p 2/5)] henrys 20D [1 which is practically equal to: (8 4wrD (8... the problem reduces to that of calculating the reactive kv-a... ... m. of a length w D.. the reactances for proportional other winding connections may be taken as to the corresponding values of armature reaction.12 Kp2 Kd2 D in the (20) + special connection cases: p2 J 6 L 10° the condition of balaneed TABLE__________II__ We will take a = 60 deg. m.Feb. . with this distance.3 1M D 5 (3 p. with nearly negligible space harmonies.. and so one that .... fs. 60 or 120 Zero phase End = p2 L . As the derivation of this equation is based on the assumption that the end leakage fields are due to revolving m. we obtain for the total end leakage reactance: p D S tan a F (p) 2 p2 L XEnd = M p FIG.. Equation (20) then reduces to: 0. value for a full-pitch winding very closely. Then. 0.. We will.. separated by a distance twice that givenl by (15).. equal to: (19) 13.. therefore.. one pole pitch. D.3 .2 +p2) (5) 109 The total reactive volt-amperes due to the axial end leakage flux are.23 Single-phase..... 5.5 to 1. a value higher than the ||Value of coefficient usual angle of the ends.... therefore. that are entered broadside on.3 orthree-phase allows something for the straight portion beyond the Balanced polyphase.three-phase.... 2times the total axially directed current in adopt (21) as our final expression for the end leakage 2 v/ 2 reactance of a synchronous machine with a barrel-type primary winding.... 1928 ALGER: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES 499 considerable error in the diameter makes only a small error in the result.3 of equation (21) be changed in accordance with the following table may (1 + S p2) 0.. but one that checks the mean for equation (21) Winding Connection length of conductor on most windings. under \ {2 a/2) (2 1) ( Kp Kd q I Z) ( P Jt 7 2 -\/ 2 J 1 being agreement is very satisfactory. its r. of a single-phase transmission line consisting of round wires of a diameter given by (16). The current in this conductor varies cyclically around the periphery. The inductance of such a line is equal to: We will neglect the leakage flux that enters the ends of the armature core in an axial direction. qIZK.. and dropping the Kd2 factor of (13) as previously explained.2.. and carrying a current per conductor given by (17). the being .... line tO lineutral] two or three-phase core. the coefficient 0. or: Equation (21) gives the end leakage reactance.Kd largely canceled by opposing eddy currents in the punchings... The substitution of 0.|two 0.1) for the complicated function of pitch given in (20) is justified by the comparison of the two values shown in Fig..12 p2) XEA = P2 Adding (19) to (13). s. |two-phase ....3 (3 p .. On this basis..

I. and tabulate the results.CSC2 (22) s 2s where s is the number of slots per pole. as they are mutually dependent on each other. Other harmonics inducing other than fundamental frequency voltages in the armature winding. wave in a salient-pole synchronous machine consists of three elements: 1.leakage and zigzag leakage is that the former is due to the concentration of the m. and the formulas become inaccurate. usually two or three. The only accurate way to obtain the total differential reactance is to compute it for each case separately. but will be assumed to be merely the points along the periphery of the machine at which the current is concentrated and at which. produced by these fluxes in the stator winding is proportional to the current. wave is stepped. while the latter is due to its concentration in a definite number of slots. we will complete the work of determining the armature leakage reactance. if we now derive a formula for 2. it is also shown in Appendix A that the total useful inductance of such a winding. as a ratio to the inductance of one full pitch coil is: 4s (23) Qu= . therefore. at each point. or of a winding with as many phases as it has slots per pole. in a definite number of phase belts. above that of a similar machine. for example. 1 is the effect of the armature reaction. and as in the case of one slot per pole per phase. f. Under these conditions. If the flux wave produced by the stator currents alone be considered. it has been shown that the stepped wave of flux may be analyzed into a fundamental sinusoidal distribution of flux having the same number of poles as that for which the stator winding is connected. f. changes. even though the winding carries balanced sinusoidal polyphase currents. a change in the number of slots affects only the zigzag leakage. In this section we will consider the zigzag leakage. and 3. E. The air-gap length will be assumed uniform. f. as a ratio to the inductance of one full-pitch coil is: 1 Q =. and the fluxes are truly self-inductive. In the present discussion. m. And. with an infinite number of slots and of phases. while a change in the winding pitch affects only the belt leakage. m. wherein tables for some of the more usual regular windings are given. are proportional to the current in the windings. The per cent zigzag leakage reactance is the total per cent differential leakage reactance of a squirrelcage winding.500 ALGER: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES Transactions A. it is the total excess per cent reactance. No accurate dividing line can be drawn between the two kinds of leakage. The reactance due to these harmonic fields constitutes the "air-gap leakage. m. the "belt leakage" and the "zigzag leakage. A fundamental sine wave stationary on the rotor. until perfect agreement results when both the number of slots and the number of phases are infinite. due to the fundamental flux it produces. the shape of the wave of magnetomotive force along the air-gap surface is not sinusoidal. which is usually divided into two parts.' This has been done in Appendix A. to begin with. the agreement between the stepped figure and a true sinusoid becoming closer and closer as the numbers of slots and phases are made larger and larger." The distinction between belt. 2. for ordinary design proportions. the air-gap flux will vary along the periphery of the machine at any instant in a stepped wave shape exactly proportional to the m. they coalesce into the same thing. the back e. The computation of the total for any regular winding can be simply carried out by the means suggested by Chapman. or the harmonic fluxes produced by a squirrel-cage winding. The reason for making a distinction is that. and 3 may be disregarded. IV. A series of harmonics moving with respect to the rotor and also inducing fundamental frequency voltages. an ideal type of machine will be considered. As shown in reference 3. Thus. At any particular instant the shape of the m.3 There being no rotor currents by assumption. m. m. The per cent belt leakage reactance is the total excess per cent differential leakage reactance of a polyphase armature winding above that of a squirrel-cage winding with the same number of slots. therefore. the two are not separable. due to air-gap fluxes. whenever the number of slots per pole is small. inducing fundamental frequency voltages. ZIGZAG LEAKAGE REACTANCE Inasmuch as the stator windings of polyphase machines consist of coils arranged in a finite number of slots and connected in a finite number of phases. 2 constitutes an element of the leakage reactance. m. the air-gap flux produced by this stepped m. The definitions adopted will be as follows: The per cent differential leakage reactance is the total per cent reactance due to harmonic fluxes crossing the air-gap that are not of the fundamental number of poles. f. Of these. and the flux will be assumed to cross the gap radially. f. The slots will be assumed to have no real physical existence which might entail a variation in air-gap permeance. the m. plus an infinite number of harmonic flux waves having different numbers of poles. E. but it must be recognized that." or "differential leakage" reactance of the machine. Independent formulas will be developed for the belt and zigzag reactances. and of all of the harmonic fields. so that the independent effects of number of slots and of pitch can be more easily dealt with when the two parts are considered separately. It is shown in Appendix A by Chapman's method that the total inductance of a full pitch winding with one slot per pole per phase. the magnitudes of the fundamental. f. Or.

and so the greater the relative permeance for the peripheral the steps in the m. we will assume average values for the For the case of a salient pole synchronous machine. 4 2 Xa 7. 1928 ALGER: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES 501 Hence. magnetizing reactance in the direct axis is proportional we find the proper average value of Xa to substitute in to: equation (26) is: 3 Kp. f. above and below its average.5 be ascertained. therefore. a minimum air-gap two if an equivalent uniform value of air-gap length can per cent of the pole pitch. the the zigzag leakage. and obtaining a simple formula accurate enough for general to the case of a uniform air-gap length. we must take into account the fact that our spaces (high reluctance) when the poles are in the main ideal assumption of true rectangular m.9 Kpn2 Kdn2 Xan maximum armature current. is equal to: Xe- KP =iKdn :=2 (7 CcS1r2s-) (f7 -d p 2N) 92d Po' + 1/2( Pi d Xt=Xa( ~. waves for each coil is not exact. (24) may be developed into and vice versa. concentrated at a point in the center of the slot. the nth harmonic magnetizing reactance and on the second harmonic of permeance variation only. rotates backwards with respect to the fundamental.Feb. permeance coefficients. The effect of the variation of between the direct and quadrature axes. Xt. using these of slots per pole. f. of each axis. and that on the same basis the direct axis magnetizing Xa = Xad (27) I KPnKdn (KPnKdn 2 reactance for the nth harmonic is proportional to: . but to do so for the general case is small for large values of s. corresponding to a two-thirds the zigzag leakage can be found from the same formulas ratio of pole arc to pole pitch. with one slot per pole per phase. Actually..2( Po' ± 1/2 p2'). fundamental armature flux and the belt leakage flux therefore.2is always negative for the low order (belt or. The average permeance increases with the order of slot is distributed across the slot opening. then. As 7r/2 s is a small angle. m. and calculate only the average reactance.2 It may easily be shown that the product KP KPn2 V 7 (25) is always either negative or very small.2 Kd. assuming it to be the same in both axes. while they come over the interpolar Finally. the zigzag leakage. We shall harmonic of the permeance variation is less the greater assume that the average effect of this error is to reduce thevalue of n. f. gives the desired result.slightly sloping. and a maximum air gap 1. but are subtractive for Equation (26). For the quadrature axis. waves are not vertical. and these come over the 2 K2 2 n K K Xad pole faces (low reluctance) when the poles are in the quadrature axis. The bold assumptions at this point. This reduces all the harmonies aping the pole face. Clearly the error in the formula is general methods. values for each harmonic. We shall permeance due to the salient poles is to make the leave this relatively small variation out of account. It has been shown by Doherty and timesthe minimum. therefore. h nt2hroni anetiin reactaNc primary m. the magnetizing reactance to 5/6 of its ideal value. as follows: 2/3 pmn Iu 12 nd N =13 N Nickle3 that the reactance due to the nth harmonic of pil On3this bs. First. depenids on the average permeance. and the contrary is true for the total differential leakage reactance of a regular winding quadrature axis. Then. since the shorter the harmonic pole pitch. so that: magnetizing reactance expressions change sign. with the object of value of Xt thus found applies to a single winding. the numerical xt = 6S2 =6 S2 J (26) values of the two terms in the foregoing expression are additive for the belt leakage. m. the signs of a series of which only the first two terms need be the P2 terms in both the fundamental and the harmonic considered. greater in the main axis than in the quadrature axis. On this basis. the but to make the zigzag harmonic leakage fluxes greater ratio of the magnetizing reactance for the nth harmonic in the quadrature axis than in the main axis. The same authors have shown that the fundamental Multiplying the last expression by this factor. Hence. and that these two permeances have different varies about 15 per cent. This is to the direct axis magnetizing reactance of the fundatrue because the predominating portions of the high mental is approximately equal to: order harmonic fluxes are produced at the points of . use.CSC2 ir/2 s -4 s2(24)pN+n± where the plus signs are taken if the nth harmonic where X. m. is given by (11). or. m. the m. We will. the second preciably. but is positive for the tooth 5 Xa 5 ' P X (zigzag leakage) harmonics. but flux that reenters the primary iron without ever reach. f. especially the higher order ones. make some value a little low when s becomes less than 3. and that xt = 102 l1±+ 20 2± + 4S KdnKdn. approximately: leakage) harmonies. For the same reason. but it makes the calculated quite impractical. the It is quite feasible to carry through the indicated zigzag reactance of any winding with the same number numerical work for any particular case. by definition. instead of the harmonic.

the number of turns in series per phase times the pitch by definition. as the belt leakage is small by comparison with the in producing nth harmonic flux is measured by Nn = KPr. Kd N. and flux. But. as the magnetizing reactance is equal to the squirrel-cage. n2 Imn N2n has so little admittance for these voltages that this damping effect can be neglected.z2 cases. Kdn the pitch and distribution factors. in the case of a And. a definite so we will assume for this case: and an infinite number of slots. zigzag leakage. unless s is large. fundamental entirely be opposed assumed first This is especially necessary in the case of fractional flux and then entirely by nth harmonic flux. n total flux per pole. XB =O()well known that a winding with q phase belts per pole For regular windings with an infinite number of slots produces only those harmonics whose orders are equal per pole. then extend over several of the slots to which the latter are N1 due. produce damping currents in it. And. the same way the effectiveness of the stator winding ever. to necessary is it not important. and as in this case the are where are errors these accurate. E. high frequency voltages in the secondary. BELT LEAKAGE REACTANCE The belt leakage reactance is due to the increase total. as the former are primarily due to the phase belts which and if B is the air-gap flux density. as here the belt leakage increases greatly. having squirrel-cage secondary windings. of the magnetizing currents in the two cases will be the and as it varies considerably. I. for all these harmonics. depending on the partic. the dismagnetizing reactances of all the harmonic m. How. A measure of the effectiveness of or thee three times to two wo o the belt ncresesto eltleakge increases theleakage limiting value. As a first step. tmesitsof the nth harmonic. E. while for induction machines the stator factor. as the squirrel-cage admittance for these high aK 222 2 %X order harmonies is small. = 4 N1 The harmonic fields corresponding to the belt leakage n are of lower orders than those of the zigzag leakage. and since the nth harmonic has n times the fundamental number of poles.502 ALGER: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES Transactions A. Further. the harmonic fields due to the primary winding induce poles to magnetize as there are for the fundamental. the induced currents are sufficient to greatly reduce the belt leakage harmonic fluxes. When the slots finally become equal the stator winding in produeing fundamental flux is to one per pole per phase. Hence. The ratio of the applied voltage to the magnetizing current. the ratio slots per pole. When the Xai number of slots per pole is very large. as outlined and iS to the iS applied a winding primaryby voltage to ~~~~~~~~~If zen 1X in Appendix A. the belt leakage becomes zero. is fairly formula belt leakage KP. fs. it will be necessary to calculate the in differential leakage caused by reducing the number of phase belts per pole. and of the magnetizing reactances of all the harmonics existing with a definite number of phases. then ular sequence of large and small numbers of slots per If is the phase belt employed. poles or N1 =K1 Kd1 N it is not considered practicable to present any adequate formula for the belt leakage in the general case. As the effect of the number of slots is and distribution factors for the fundamental number of further complicated by variations in the winding pitch. m. to a small number. tabulate the results for all useful windings. Therefore. tribution factor with an infinite number of slots is For synchronous machines the stator only need be simply equal to one nth of the fundamental distribution considered. zigzag leakage fluxes are only slightly reduced in usual t (2 1 / KPn2Kd. we may write: itsthsaorwnignpodcgfuamtlfuxs n .ratio of Xa to Xa. or a salient-pole field winding. For accurate results. if the the magnetizing current in the second case is: latter is short-circuited. compute the total differential leakage reactance. since all the harmonic fields must = B B1N in the producing voltages fundamental frequency create winding. and rotor belt leakage must be added to obtain the V. this effect can ratio Xa where X is the magnetizing reactance be readily calculated. the belt leakage reactance is the sum of the to 2 k q ± 1. Since for the nth harmonic there are n times as many winding at one nth of fundamental speed. of the stator winding for the nth harmonic respectively. the primary belt leakage can be practically The total belt leakage reactance is equal to the sum neglected in all machines with integral slots per pole per phase.. q. It is (28) winding pitch. and.. A regular phase winding. it follows that each since the area of each pole for the nth harmonic is 1/n harmonic must revolve with respect to the producing timesthatforthefundamental. but as the slots are made fewer.

-1-Nwindings is available. orders. Since some of the harmonics of belt leakage flux for fractional slot windings are of fractional. but in a general way XB in such cases is larger the larger XT S. and so it will be IrbrEi+tl ll [ 3l/ nreglected in the design present paper. if 3/4 the direct axis magnetizing reactance is XB90o = Xa ( 3 + 54 + 74 + * used for Xa. due to the resulting dissymmetry of the winding. it is: 3 XB . and the results are shown in Fig. the differential leakage reactance for six different fractional slot windings averaged 1. (26). From some unpublished work of Professor A.. and with integral slots per pole per phase. however. and should be = XB XT= p2 . Summing up. phase done. Hence. but in this case it increases rapidly as the pitch changes from unity.Xad (KB1) 1 1 (33) 1 (33 + XB60= Xa + 1 13 /74 14for salient-pole synchronous machine without squirrel1B (1 1 ) cage. 1928 = ALGER: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES 503 actual value of XB for any pitch for each of XB Xa > (30) type winding can not be expressed by any simple P1 formula. gral slots per pole per phase. 6 CHART OF VALUIES OF KB THE BELT LEAKAGE VI. The magni~~~~~~~tude of this effect is extremely variable. .5- 40 FIG.00214 Xa. a squirrel-cage winding will have To<'. this is: The value of XB for a salient pole synchronous machine is also approximately given by the foregoing )equation. (27). 6. which may reduce I4L4. 2.. (21).00214 Xa eza _a (32) t tJW X_ I 1B 114It t I [tl satisfactory until such time as an adequate table of differential leakage reactance values for irregular __ Q _ C _ _ _ r .Feb..1 Xa = 0. has been determined by (3). and 7r14)X Go ne ' 2The 14 =(I + XBg0) t1. and many are of rather low.3 (3 p-i) D) S 271= M LK5 I + wJ+ 3 p ~w wjP2 MACHINES . phase belts. as shown in the previous section. k = 1. therefore. but must be found by actually carrying where n takes only the values 2 k q ± 1. the belt leakage reactance is equal 7F4 \to: (31) XB = 0 96 . lav. as it _00161. A. while in the other cases XB decreases as the pitch changes from unitJr. and we may now turn O /40 lo * Jo SX /AoF to their application to actual machines. This has been For a full pitch two-phase winding with 90 deg.. to be: r S-_ ___d \ 0. APPLICATION TO SALIENT POLE SYNCHRONOUS CONSTANT For a full-pitch three-phase winding with 120 deg. It is the writer's opinion that the demagnetizing action of a squirrel-cage on the belt leakage reactance due to fractional slot windings is A V small for usual proportions. out the summation indicated in (30). 3 0 Xd 5 (34) S 8 for a salient-pole synchronous machine with fractional ~~~~slots per pole per phase. belts. and it is on t e average of the same order of magnitude. it is also 0.82 times XT.~ The leakage reactance in ohms of a salient pole synchronous machine with integral slots per pole.0147 Xa (28) for any machine with a squirrel-cage winding and inteFor a full-pitch three-phase winding with 60 deg.1"1 t _ l / _ _ _ _ L t _ C I __ l _ _ _demagnetizing currents induced in it. 3. Bennett. phase belts. and (28).1t1t 1 111 \1ll F 4 ZFXXF the belt leakage reactance considerably. This last equation is arbitrary. our assumption of 2 for this factor in the general case is not unreasonable. In these equations.34 - Xal 486 X = 0. and with a squirrel-cage winding. we have derived expressions for /Po all the elements of the reactance. XI I depends on many factors. asi XB for fractional slot windings varies very widely.

it is necessary to consider the matter before proceeding to "ef=/o I ZLUX A2NDF.90 becoming 20. which give armature voltage on open-circuit and armature current on sustained short FIG. 060 0_ a 0. reactance in either axis can be accurately calculated. it is evident that this method of in the slot reactance become appreciable when the pitch obtaining the leakage reactance is inherently very is below 2/3.0& SelFig. E.5 If in addition the machine has a squirrel-cage winding. 2.s^6 0J7 0oe9. B. 7. Expressed as a fractional voltage drop due to fullload current.07 voa 07e characteristic curves. as functions of field current.04 _ 74. 7. but actually it is greater in the quadrature A K\ p 0.. the KB term is to be omitted. is: P L 3p + 1\ d3 20 A di LS 4 A w + 3w) KP2Kd2 XI P d 0. can be derived. The calculated armature reaction putting Ks = ampere-turns are given by (10). therefore. expressed as a decimal. E. or synchronous. (Fig. expressed as an average value a little less than 0. and is given by a fraction. The value of F to be used depending on how the armature reaction is conin the last term of (36) is the number of normal voltage verted into equivalent field ampere-turns. 7 circuit. Ka depends on the particular current corresponding to normal voltage on the air-gap shape of field pole and length of air-gap used. the necessary factor. 2).1 A F ((P/S)2 + 0. to tributed armature reaction. the small errors so introduced are on the inaccurate. which is exactly correct for reactance is found. of a salient-pole synchronous machine with a barrel-type armature winding.504 ALGER: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES Transactions A.TetqL . the test value of armature leakage 3p + 1 _. respectively.021 _ _ 0. As two-phase windings have higher tance probably average one per cent. The usual way to determine the armature leakage reactance by test is first to take open and short-circuit ao3 o. On high-speed machines. of Ka from Fig. _ these two 004 005 . By subtracting the calculated armature reaction. multiplied by the value three-phase windings with pitches between 2/3 and 1.6 KB) (37) If integral slots per pole are used.F0 227 r0e.0 if inch units are used.W3Wieseman2 has derived accurate coefficients by flux X _ _ VAO .- _> _ 4$ ~ wave _ of flux produced in a salient pole machine by the field turns. Wieseman. (34) becomes by (8).* sea~ . and as the neglected second order terms involves slight errors. and by a sinusoidally disconcentrated t=t plotting for the calculation of the fundamental sine coefficients. and fractional slots per pole. the (P/S)2 term should be multiplied by 0. /. By substituting the quadrature axis coefficients. the constant 7._Z7 11}>sE Z& ^fJ 0 /I . This has t lr. and Ka is the constant required to Then. As the value of X1 found from test is totally different. in inch units. but it has line.armature current on short circuit. the leakage reactance is very small by comparison with the total right side. the armature reaction and the total. The reactance is assumed to be the same in 2 both axes.3 (3 p.1) D ] + + p 1. and (11): 7.9.q () the comparison of test reactances with those given by A/E ecF&i .. As the errors of the test value of synchronous reacand which is slightly higher than correct for all other windings. P 5 p (35) )2 Xad + 8 8( / The belt leakage given by equation (33) or (34) should be added in case the machine has fractional slots or has no squirrel-cage winding. The second order terms of the slot reactance (equation (3)) have been omitted as being non-essential for normal synchronous machines.. the field current corresponding to full load convert armature reaction ampere-turns into equiva. A further simplification of (36) can be made by gap field ampere-turns.2-I~ ~ ~<t- /_ 7.90 A r PLKS / d3 di K 2K2 + 31 j XI Finally. By taking the ratio of convert the armature reaction ampere-turns into field ampere-turns.1) D 5 axis than in the direct axis by about 1/4 of the A/F F--) ( S 8p ]+ ( a (36) i + / F Sf 8 term. for lengths measured in cm. and as Fig. also expressed as a fraction of the no load airFig. (10).06 e-equivalent ! > | 0ov been done by Mr. and the result is shown in T s_ .l75 also given in reference No. for those of the direct axis. field ampere-turns. 7 also belt leakages. I. divided by the field lent field ampere-turns.3 (3 p. Ka. from the test value of synchronous reactance.qae-: AI __ 70 1. 7. our formula for the per cent leakage reactance. is equal to the synchronous reactance.

005 16 3500 50 1.884 1.017 Average error from mean ...753 1.125 2.891 0.280 0.027 60 1. 1928 ALGER: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES 505 TABLE IV reactance..180 I.017 1.7 per cent.117 2..560 1.971 1..245 1.016 30.071 0...564 1.415 1.114Average .750 1. unless the exploring coils exactly follow the armature coil grouping..994 5000 7500 1880 1100 '60 60 0.135 0.016 0..853 1. the usual method of finding X1 from open and short-circuit tests has been followed in ehecking the results obtained with the formulas derived in this paper.001 750 60 40 60 60 0.667 1..102 6 25 150 1.958 1. the calculated and test values of synchronous reactance are compared for five groups of machines of different types.3 Averageerrorfrom 1. 013 ..983 0.163 0..025 0.214 1.009 1..161 1.262 0.086 8 state performance.151 60 500 6 0.50() 750 1.127 0.064 0..040 0.375 60 60 0. 7 are considered.961 0.857 0.003 1. .715 1.978 1..136 1.142 0.998 1..989 2.667 1. This has been done for each group of machines.012 12 12 12 12 12 1000 1900 2400 25 25 12 2500 5000 60 0.008 1.999 0.117 25 3000 4 28 0. and the tests were all made in the regular commercial routine...562 25 0.932 0.123 0.065 1.937 1.851 1.852 60 0.819 0.060 40 25 0.844 TABLE III HIGH SPEED M\ACHIN'ES 0.003 0.250 0.060 60 600 4 24 0.. Poles an for as of a synchronous machine at standstill.680 1.. together with the corresponding errors in Xd.124 1.847 12 15000 50 60 0.010 MIEDIUM LOW-SPEED MACHINES Poles Kv_a. and the average numerical error is 1. 9 52 1.157 1. Xd 20 20 14.143 2.188 1.142 1.022 1..137 0.097 0. Finally. the test value of leakage reactance can be found by subtracting the one from the other.. 09.055 6 60 2C0 0.202 0.148 0.900 1.Feb.086 0.969 0.080 1.084 1.043 1.101 0.250 0.079 1.162 0.974 2...918 1.014 In Tables III to VII inclusive.128 0.159 0.756 0.444 2..089 60 60 0.013 0.012 Test Xd Test Xd __ _ Calc.414 0.954 1.067 induction machine.162 1.117 1.115 0.707 0.986 0...161 60 60 0.002 0.. and the test value of total reactance.032 1.761 0.216 2.803 0.967 1.355 2. but this requires the inclusion of the 800 1.985 1.992 0.250 9..842 0.136 0.998 32 2.984 1.922 0.073 1200 60 0..955 0.617 0.. Average error from I .012 1.981 1.198 2000 C 4 0..919 0.911 1.060 0.110 1.093 0.100 1.014 0.Q66 1.117 0.00 tO.002 0. Xd.775 1.987 1.080 0.C92 60 6 1500 1.123 Xd 0.223 2.987 0..088 Average .745 1.015 0.918 0.999 0 ).092 1.993 1.108 0.131 0..206 1.105 60 500 6 36 0.250 24 1. Kv-a.650 0. make this method of no practical use.077 60 435.804 0.338 0.766 1.980 1.000 60 0. 40 60 40 50 60 __i _Calculated Xld Xad 0...132 0.098 0.826 0.036 10.054 50 105 4 24 0.014 1. 18 18 TABLE V Freq.023 1.039 1. and is not as accurate as the usual short circuit test method of measurement.202 1..179 1.201 1.872 0.545 1.4 per cent.010 Average error from mean .973 0.089 1.172 1... which gives a measure of the leakage reactance.678 1.113 0.375 500 60 60 60 0.688 1.012 1.) 6 0.077 60 8 reactances of the field winding and squirrel-cage.966 1.905 0..019 1.274 1.452 1.951 1. so that the results are as accurate as could reasonably be expected when the errors of test and those inherent in Fig.015 0.000 -.793 1...133 1.125 3.906 0.992 1.998 0. so that the results are particularly inaccurate MEDIUM HIGH SPEED MIACHINES case. just 0..993 1.106 0.881 0. if 0..770 0.. however.650 1. The average absolute error for the entire list ofl100machines is 0.750 1. are assumed to be exact..097 5000 6 40 1.895 1. Xad.22 _______ ____ .152 1.009 1..043 1. It is also possible to measure the armature reactance with the rotor removed and to determine the leakage reactance as the difference between the total and the calculated reactance due to the fundamental of the flux produced in the air core.080 1.123 0.103 0..065 0..988 0. If the value of the armature reaction reactance.132 1.1. together with the fact that the slot leakage part of this flux links only a portion of the winding.100 4.208 1.001 1.019 1.078 1 017 1.098 0.900 0.762 1.988 0.128 940 I 25 4 24 1....004 0.013 1.220 0.138 0.243 2. Freq.015 Poles Xd Xad 22 Xld Ky-a.973 1. mean .820 0.061 60 1S0 4 24 0..300 0.319 1.100 2.158 1.127 60 1000 6 1.088 25 5000 6 Average .989 0..109 25 5700 4 0.592 0.063 1.123 Test - Test Nd Nd Cale.882 8 560 0.TetX in this Tes TestXd ______Calculated It is possible to measure the total leakage reactance Xd Calc.145 2.417 2.212 2.994 1.928 0.155 0.081 0.975 0. For these reasons..995 0.700 6.610 0.997 1.810 0.0 Average error from 1 1.083 1.150 1.896 1.000 7. The machines were selected at random. -_____.416 1.853 0.019 1.990 0. Xd 1.195 2. it is possible to insert exploring coils on the armature surface and by their means measure the net flux existing during a short-circuit test..048 0.991 2.991 1.163 0.025 0.018 1.. Xd Xd Xid Xad Freq.230 0.178 1.. Average error from ...198 1..061 0.275 32 1. steady 8 10 10 10 8 2500 60 0.105 60 4 90 0.063 69 187 6 1.2____________ 1 0.069 60 6 4Cl00 32 0.147 0.987 2.898 1..758 12 12 12 12 12500 15000 5300 7000 5000 60 50 60 0.859 0.172 1.011 1.415 1.200 1.159 1..692 1.768 0.. HIGH_SPEED_____ACHI_ES Calculated the calculation of do not pre-sentwhich d te n o enter present..008 0.6 18 0.998 1.013 36 2.139 1..120 0.619 0..040 2. The dissymmetry and wave form errors introduced.098 25 :315 6 1.815 60 0.001 0. and the average errors between the test and calculated values of X1 for each case are given in Table VIII.204 1.880 50 50 50 60 0.007 30 1.933 1..068 1.061 0.972 1. 0.716 0. This last method involves large errors in the amounts of zigzag and end leakage.C59 1.

69658 0.302 0..70 1.231 0.782 0. ....011 Average error from mean .015 1.510 0...980 1..006 0.256 0.013 1..2909 0 .013 1.002 1.699 0.251 0..127 0.500 0....1008 0.0 6.992 0.166 0....208 0.. to nearly three-quarters for the lowspeed machines. The older of about 16 per formula had an average apaeterror aprn cent.250 the armature reaction reactance for each case..1 1..022 0.. E.409 0. 3...2521 0... Such adjustments of the apparent error in Xi in the former as in the latter case.0.818 of the relative proportions of the various elements of the total reactance for the different types of machines..781 1.. 587 0..994 1.019 Average error .228 0..077 0.005 1..0 Medium high-speed (III) .177 0.86 1.020 1. Errors in values of XI -13.017 1.000 12... 0.6 per cent.254 1... 60 60 60 60 Xld 0.250 8...9 _ From mean 30 11 10 10 7 1. leakage components of the reactance.2 1..026 0.06 5.155 0.942 1. 0. Small Saio-pe low-speed ..023 0.58 . end.024 0..704 44 50 5406 52 60 60 62 74 44 1040 62..043 0.008 1.010 ..059 0.195 0..818 0..192 0... and also the average ratio of the total leakage reactance to 0. 1..648 0.04 3. Xd 1.870 0.69475 0. Small low-speed (VI) .. . as they will depend upon the parAverage ratios ticular end winding constructions..... Xi averages only 6 per cent of Average error from 1 .261 .. . ..013 0.....183 0..37 0.793 1...03 0.221 1 07 1..041 0.2281 228 1..244 0..637 60 100 1. Average mean.. OCS 0..619 0.500 4. 277l 0.3012 0.024 1... 0...66 Type of machine Xl XI Xl 0..219 1.430 0.o404 0.026 - 0.035 1.. 1.041 0.16 01 0. to the value given by the older formulas derived by Doherty and Shirley.041 0.417 0..010 .960 1.807 0. Small low-speed (VI) .818 0...611 0. Low-speed (V) ..132 0.147 0.9 1.168 0. Medium low-speed lV) .32 Medium low-speed.020 0. 0.. 60 60 50 0.... 0... 200 240 80 Freq.013 1.189 022 Calculated poles Oe 36 40 44 Kv-a.58 0..782 0.72 07 0.... -. it is evident that surement of Xi makes more than four times as great an these errors could be reduced..652 1. The worst errors occur for the high speed machines....01 1.500 Freq...038 1.... Since in Average .988 0 ....970 0.6 0. The formulas as given were derived straightforwardly from theoretical considerations. I...187 0. -0 .130 Calculated Tes 0. and inspection of Table VIII indicates that the calculated value of Xd is appreciably too high for high speed machines and a little too low for low speed machines. 766 0.284 Xad 0.402 0. 882 0...017 1... which 1..250 2..983 1....740 0.213 0..06 1.960 1.. 876 1....961 Type of machine Calc.192 1..17 Xd 0.130 1...006 1.8 0..961 0.6579 0.001 0...7 1.950 0.250 750 875 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 0.. The average absolute error of the leakage reactance for the 100 machines on this basis is 0. _ Per cent -_ Absolute error From 1 31 11 11 12 8 1.0 1.008 1. 854 0..810 0.560 1..024 ..000 0. 1. The causes for the varying magnitudes of error shown in Table VIII are brought out more clearly by a study TABLE VIII Percent Numerical error Kv-a.8521 0.960 0. -- .041 1.995 1.018 the high-speed machines...972 0.870 0.3 1...16 0.015 1.033 ~Low-speed 0.245 0..926 0. and no attempt has been made to make empirical corrections.998 1.010° 1. and the average numerical error is 14.67 6 .042 1..08 0..6 0.7 1.078 0..986 dma in erosiXifrhg-p errorsinX1forhigh-speedmachines.826 0.128 0. The percentage error between test and calculated values of Xl iS thus magnlified on the new b.8 0..4698 0.. 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 l__l_________________d__ Xld Xad 0.907 1...962 1.500 1. and differential leakage to the total leakage reactance.....35 .007 0.. = 660 60 60 ..720 750 1.576 Xd 1.871 0.57 XMedium high-speed.660 0..011 . Low-speed (V) .7 This ratio varies from a little over one-half for the high speed..239 0.019 1. so that taking into account the test errors.745 0.6 .076 1.. Xd 36 42 44 40 80 100 62 360 120 60 160 60 60 0. 0..962 0. Table IX gives the average ratios of slot..068 1.065 1...992 High-speed (II) ..506 ALGER: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES Transactions A. Medium high-speed (III) .968 0.293 0......776 0..015 1... E...asis...092 0.907 0...307 1.860 0.8 Medium low-speed (IV) . and so forth.. Average error from 1 from ____ ___________ 0.990 X slot TABLE VII SMALL LOW SPEED -MACHINES XEnd XDit- Xl _ XI new Xi old 0. ....0 . that 72 72 72 72 80 82 1..007 1.159 0.162 0.250 32. 0.838 1..500 5.224 0. constants should be made by each manufacturer for _TABLE_IX himself....60 .902 1.. By empirical TABLE VI LOW SPEED MACHINES Poles 56 56 56 60 60 60 60 64 64 64 68 72 72 each one uses..813 0. although simplifying assumptions have been freely used..281 0. so that a direct comparison of the accuracy given by the two formulas cannot be made.147 0.5 62 60 60 60 60 280 375 140 60 250 0..057 1.8 625 6.500 2...833 0......775 0..015 1..56 0. 1.500 2.997 0. 849 0.......029 1.888 1.143 0.955 1..724 _ Xd Test Xd Test Xd Test - Calc.030 1..0.254 0.958 1.207 0... while in the small low-speed machines it averages it is clear that a given error in the meaadjustments of the coefficients of the end and differential 25 per cent.003 1.144 0.0 1.022 Xd.500 3...898 1.9 69 0...994 0. This partially accounts for the relatively large numerical The last column of Table IX gives the average ratio of the new value of leakage reactance..552 1.000 1..941 0....818 0..~.030 0. Errors in values of Xd ..6 per cent..4 2...087 0.3 0. however.019 1.223 0.860 Xd Test Xd r Xd PoesK Cale..460 0... 1 .249 0.08 0..7 . High-speed (II) ...60 High-speed .906 0..798 0.9012 1.

we derive the following formula reactance which. circulating currents in 36 20. commercial PL 20 A The leakage reactance so determined averages about K Xzero phase K2 ad W oS. which links the field winding in the direct axis. CONCLUSIONS of this reactance is given by the complete equation (3).--6 -24 435 60 0. but only a few equation (12a) or (13a) to (14a) in Appendix A.80 0. 60 deg.25 0. armature reaction The zero phase reactance has been calculated for two -(2/3-p)2l . In writing the paper. the new machines. ~~~~Poles Kv-a. Zero-phase Assumed Sequence Reactance VII. The end the armature leakage reactance of a synchronous maleakage portion is very small. made to make the new formulas and the new definitions As all the terms except the first in the last brackets of such that the further refinements which the future will these equations represent third harmonic fluxes. Com. The coefficient 4 of the last bracket in (38) cntnso ein NOMENCLATURE includes the factor of 3/4 for the average permeance of A = Maximum ampere-turns per pole of a salient pole machine. quite accurately belt winding. The differential leakage portion is given by the ratio of no logarithms.5. and it gives a value of leakage bining these expressions. chine that has been published.slide rule operations. thesebrneabededwtotginleigouen terms are generally reduced to a fraction of their appar.especially machines.000 delta windings. and thus constitutes a 4 A Ko (p-2/3) part of the true armature reaction. added to the armature reaction for the zero phase reactance of a three-phase.0675 tion of single phase short circuits. rather arbitrary reductions of the between 1/3 and 2/3 is: calculated field reactance and tooth tip reactance were necessary before checks with transient and stand/ L 20 A still reactances could be secured. reactance derived from flux plots. The slot portion VIII.026 0. added to the squirrel-cage reactance. and K0 should ordinarily be taken as less ceptonsts or teoders o antdeo h haatrsi than 0. and they are simply made to these (39) ( ) 2 S show that the acceptance of the new values of leakage reactance involves a fundamental revision of the The coefficient Ko is introduced in (38) and (39) to generally adopted design constants of synchronous allow forthereductionoftheharmonicfluxes. as previously derived. 1928 ALGER: SYNCRHONOUS MACHINES 507 cause a considerable part of the dispersion. the calculated increase in internal voltage of a synchronous generator under load gave much higher d di [(2 . with a pitch between 2/3 and unity.070 0. so that arbitrarily reduced values of L field leakage under load were used in calculating satura4 A Ko (2/3 p) tion curves. since the latter included as leakage reactance a part of the fundamental sine wave (3 p -2) (d3) + (9 p 5) 12 -(9 p -8) 12 1 of air-gap flux due to the armature. There is no space to demonstrate the validity of 2 \ statements here. ZERO PHASE-SEQUENCE REACTANCE value CalcuPer cent CALCULATIONS CALCULATIONS error of Ko lated Test pitch Freq. by induced currents in the rotor circuits.Feb. checks the test values of synchronous reactance for the entire range of salient pole synchronous machines in expressed as a decimal: use.021 2/3 4 60 0.2. and in other cases. It requires no curves. It is believed that equation (37) is at once the most using the appropriate values of KS from Fig. an effort has been the third. PoWinding The zero phase reactance is important in the calcula. The new value of F Kp2 Kd2 leakage reactance. with the old Xzero phase = ) formulas. and no tables for its use./two-thirds of that given by the widely used formulas np (p derived in reference No. 7. with the formula is indicated to have about half the true error following results: of the old. checks observed standstill reactances of synchronous 2 (P motors.9 p) 12 flux densities in low power factor machines than actually do occur. and will be neglected.2 errors. KS for the zero phase accurate and the simplest comprehensive formula for sequence reactance is equal to 3 p . and the values compared with tests. 2. and added to the field reactance checks the + + 7/18 ( -2/3)-( -2/3)2 (38) values s of transient reactance found from oscillographic 27 tests on synchronous generators. For usual three-phase windings. With the old reThe corresponding formula for a winng pitch actance formulas.brpiong can bhe addeds wtout magainud althern ouaracon-sti ent values. thus establishing a series of compensating / ( + A F K 2 K.3 p) d3 + (7-9 P) 12 -(4 . Finally.

(hence the zigzag and belt leakage reactances) are exactly proportional to the fundamental magnetizing reactance. Kd = Pitch and distribution factors of armature winding (less than unity) = A function of winding pitch given by Belt Leakage constant. And so the elaborate analyses of the permeance for the zigzag leakage flux as distinct from that for the fundamental flux. and referring + 1b central teeth q that are linkedj2by all the turns in the two half belts of phase A. distributed. lines Total.508 ALGER: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES Transactions A. We shall now proceed to calculate the total in*Reference No. E. With this method the smallest unit of flux is that produced by a uniform m. following Chapman's method. Assuming the winding pitch to be b slots short of -. 8 there will be (q ) s wl aeaprene2so h oa emac. E. The voltage due to any tooth is proportional to the square of the number of turns linking it. while both the flux per ampere and the volts per unit of flux are proportional to the number of turns. acting over one slot pitch. reactance in direct axis Total armature leakage reactanceFlxwt PasB = Zigzag leakage reactance . d2. the self-inductive voltage produced in the set of coils forming the inner halves of two adjacent phase belts in the same phase by their air-gap flux is considered as the sum of the s voltages produced by the fluxes in the s teeth under one pole. 4 = Angular phase difference between currents in upper and lower coil sides in one slot =Flux per pole in c. FIG. g. given by Fig. to take as the unit of inductance the self-inductance which the two adjacent half-phase belts of one phase would have if all their turns were concentrated in one pair of slots exactly one pole pitch apart.Series connected conductors per phase =Angle of end windings as shown in Fig. s. d3. 76''4 3 4 7t 321 A :~_PaeB Appendix A EXACT CALCULATION OF DIFFERENTIAL LEAKAGE REACTANCE has shown that the total inductance of a Chapman* winding due to the air-gap flux can be very conveniently calculated by adding the inductances due to the rectangles of flux produced by successive pairs of symmetrically located slots. so that the permeance variations due to the slot openings are quite satisfactorily taken into account by merely using the average permeance. (b being not greater than s/q).) 2 (s_ S Similarly. m. I. and.s ta hywl otiuet h nutne . polyphase winding with s slots and q phase belts per pole (s/q a whole number). 6 M p P q s S V Xa Fig. It is most convenient to make all the calculations in relative terms. and hence the total inductance due to these teeth will be: 1 (q 1) 1 (q-b q s\ . f. and a uniform air-gap length. w = Slot dimensions shown in Fig. In doing this. DIAGRAMS FOR POLYPHASE WINDINGS full pitch. the point of view leads to the immediate conclusion that all the harmonic fluxes. as the reluctance of each tooth pitch is the same. 2 = Gross core length 2f L q Z2 .elne by s-q ofteoalursan . 8 IDFALMM\F. as in calculating the magnetizing reactance.1O7 S for inch units XB Xd = Winding pitch expressed as a decimal = Number of poles Number of phases = Slots per pole = SIP = Total number of slots Volts per phase = Armature reaction reactance ductance of a regular. that have frequently been employed heretofore. therefore. Thus. are shown to be unnecessary. consecutive pairs of teeth will each have onswl. 13. -llI P_j 2345 17 =Belt leakage reactanceofpiA XI XI Z a 0 or synchronous. di. s to Fig. 1 f D F = Gap diameter = Frequency = No-load air-gap field ampere-turns per KB Ks L g = Air-gap length (radial) = pole KP.

b q + < b2b21 (b2 -1)] ob LAA 21 + qS Vq).2) q) (S 1) (1) (281) +2q2 (S _ b-b) (s b)b)s -b-)] b+1 Cos q c r/q[S2 (S+ s(s-q+s-2 q + . Each pair is linked by successively less of the coils of phase A. but are linked by successively fewer coils of the B phase.b [63 +22 +. and the latter by successively less of the coils of phase B.1 pairs of teeth. since the inductance is always positive. the former of which is linked by all.2 q-b q)2 is: The following pairs of teeth will have consecutively 2 q/s less turns than the last. the effective and 3b q current in phase A must be reduced by a factor cos ir/q.(b.(b. the total increase of inductance of phase B r 6 2 z1 S bi due to phase A is: L 2 S s. . so that they will contribute an inductance equal to: 2 S3(s . Hence.2q.3b2S. corresponding to winding pitches between one and two phase belts short of full pitch.1 that carry full flux. 1". ~~~~~~~~LAB cos r/q [ = -6 q(a . .. as the currents in the two phases are out of time phase by 7r/q degrees. r 1 The number of teeth that are linked by all of phase B LAB = cos 7r1/q L 2 q + 2 82 + 28 as well asby allofphaseAis (s q -b + The corresponding expressions for values of b between q and 2 slq. so that to: be . and bsq J b2q 3S 1 bq (4a) these will create linkages with B equal to: (+)ceos (s- q -b-+Fl) s/'q <b < .Feb. q q1 zero if it is negative. Hence. These contribute an inductance equal to: 1 co COS [(S -q) + (S -2 q) [ + cs + . may this reduced 6 they contribute nothing to the inductance of phase B.S2 (b s-q/3).. if q is greater than 2: 1 1 2s (3a) LAA 1-3 q . 1928 ALGER: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES 509 qls less turns than before. until the bth pair is reached. 5-7. until the outermost pair is reached. + (s -(b -1) q)] There are also b .b) +2 (s-q)2 + 2 (s-2q)21 1 [ S3 (q1) Of the remaining teeth there are b . + s.2'. s/q < b 7r q 11. (3' and 3") one of each pair of which carries positive flux and the other an equal negative flux. . the total self-inductance of Phase A L = L + S2 (1.2") carrying equal and opposite fluxes and n (n + 1) (2 n + 1) linking the same numbers of coils of phase B. . The next pair of teeth after that (1 and 1') will be s. are.-+ 2(s-bq)2+2 (s-2q-bq)2+2 (s-4q-bq)2+.[ q-2 bb q s owq LAq (2s . .. and as conditions of symmetry make the out-of-phase components of the linkages cancel with the corresponding components due to the other phases. except that. s all for a winding pitch not less than The linkages produced by phase A with phase B are similarly found. linked by of the total turns.q + 1. these teeth contribute +an inductance to phase B of: S3 s3 cos q * .(b-1) q) +w q(s-o(b-)q)+2q(s-(b-2)q) su - an thi reue to 2 andthisredueesto: q + 1) q (s-q) + 3 + (b).. ~~~~~~+ The remaining teeth consists of pairs (6. 4"As the sum of the squares of the first n integers is 1'.I [q (s.1) q) + 2 q (s. + (b -1) q (s -q)] .

sl the per cent line-to-line reactance of a three-phase winding is always identical with the per cent threephase reactance. E. I. 6 pitch COSwr. (la) and (5a) are identical. (3a)./3: - 3 5 6 + 282 for 2. .+(s-1)eo (s) w) = cs c2 7r/2 s (a) <bs It is interesting to compare the total reactances of the There is no need of considering values of q greater than 3. as given by the foregoing expressions. (9a) as for the original three-phase winding. and by the sum of (3a) and twice (4a) for pitches between 1/3 and 2.2 S + (6a) LAB = 144 4 s2 for 5. the total inductance of = + 9 s2 for full pitch L600 one phase is. (2a) is zero.24 + 2 s2 for 5/6 pitch + LK =1 +.whence: Line to neutral (9a) and (lOa) become identical if b = s/3* 2 7 For a squirrel-cage winding. the total s/3 < b < 3 inductance is given by (la). as three-phase several types of windings by means of these formulas. q = 3. so that its differential leakage ratio is the same S" 9 for full pitch = + = 1. For a single-phasewinding consisting 2s (lOa) of one leg of a three-phase winding only. so that the single equation (8a) is valid over the entire range of pitches from 0 to 1. values for all L60 s. And. so that the total inductance of a two-phase winding is from (la): 1 (8a) 3 (4s-6b2s-4 b + 4 b3) Lgoo =.2/3 For q = 2. from (la) and (7a). and the total inductance of one phase is given by the sum of (la) and twice (2a) for pitches between 2/3 and 1./2 in (2a) and adding and (la) to it. and For case of this pitch. and (5a) . For q = 2. placing b = 0 and q = s in the former: 3 17 s-4 2wr s-2 .3 pitch 5 9 + 1 2 for 1 2 pitch 1 5 18 + 2 2 for 1/3 pitch For a regular two-phase winding (8a) shows that: Lgoo = 4 2 3 + 3 2 for full pitch s = 1 9 16 + 2 for 3//A pitch 1 + 3 2 s for 1.510 ALGER: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES Transactions A. Thus. E. belts per pole are all that are used in practise. For a three-phase winding. the value of the self-inductance of one phase for winding pitches greater than zero by not more than one-phase belt width is: 3 7r / 2 7r 2 = 1-Cos 7r/s + 2 cos s + 3 cos s + LAA= q (s ) [q+(s-b)(3s-qs+b s q)] (5a) . except for full pitch windings. for two-phase windings.COSw/S + S COSs L60 = 3 10/9 + 2s 2sl (4s-6b2s-3 b+ b3). S and the corresponding expression for the nth phase is: (n-1)w s-2 (n-1) (7a) COS LAN = 8 s The total inductances per phase are obtained by adding the self and effective mutual inductances. the total inductance is found by substituting 1 for cos 7r. which gives identically the same equation 1 L60= 19/18 + 2 2 (5 s + b S2-6 b -9 b2 s + 6 b3). A For a regular three-phase winding.2 pitch 5 1 48 + 32 for4pitch For a single-phase winding made by using two legs 0 < b < s/3 (9a) of a regular three-phase winding./q (2a) reduces to: 7 149 s. <. equations (9a) and squirrel-cage winding always has one slot per pole per (lOa) show that: 2 10 phase.

as this is the ratio of the area of a sine wave to the area of a rectangle whose fundamental it is.412 +4882 (2s 3 +4bs2-6b-9b2S+6b3) . m.0148 0.0649 0.0089. 1928 ALGER: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES 511 - 5 ± + 1 2 for 2/3 pirch 1 for + s2 18 7 1/2 pitch 2 1 9 + s2 for 1/3 pitch 1 5 72 + 282 for1/6pitch Thus.0468 0. + n r=9 9 s3 (2 2s-1 96 24 0 b s/q (12a) 74 . it is 4/5 of its three-phase value.0583 0. Putting q = 3 in (15a). of the three-phases cancel 8___ . dividing it into (8a).b/s) Xm' If s is large.0147 0. w2 (82 + sin2ir/2s1 s.0189 0 .18 + If s is very large. (15a) gives: (lSa) L60. (16a) reduces exactly to (31).0398 7 l All of this zero phase inductance is leakage flux.0130 0.3 b2s.03:30 0.0193 0.1222 0.6 b + 6 b3).0251 unity from the result. These variations are due to the triple harmonic fields that are produced by each phase winding separately. fs. For small values of s. gives an expression for the reactance due to the useful flux. 0.S2 s348s 9 - ~~~~~~~Xm -= q Hence: < b 8 < q (13 Zero phase L60 +-~2 for full pitch Zero phase L60~ =+ s2 for full pitch 9 .2337 ----5 - 0. q/2. expressed as a ratio to the fundamental magnetizing XD90° 1r2 (s-b) (S2+ b s-2 b2 + 2) sin2 w/2 s -1 24 s sin2 7r/2 (1 .0265 0 . multiplied by the squares of the pitch and distribution constants of the winding. corresponding to the case of a full-pitch two-phase winding.0468 0. dividing it into (lOa) and The useful.0264 0. or fundamental.0138 0. Since the zero phase sequence reactance is equal to three times the line-to-neutral.___ with this connection. Or: Lm 4 q3 sin 27r/2 q sin2 7r/2 (1 .0334 0. of a three-phase winding. the foregoing expressions lead to the following expressions for the zero phase sequence inductance: Zero phase reactance will give the desired values of total differential leakage reactance.0229 .b/s) S2 sin2 .0840 9 + -2 for 1/3 pitch s-2 4 6 0.Feb.2337 0. of the total revolving field produced by all the phases acting conjointly to the field made by a single phase.0330 0.0177 0. flux produced by the same windings can be readily calculated from the usual (lla).1019 0. we have for the total differential leakage reactance of a two-phase winding. and subtractx.. less twice the balanced three-phase reactance.0285 0. This factor.0840 0. Numerical values' of it for some usual windings are given in Table X. or by a three-phase connection.0213 0. but is only 2/3 of its three-phase value for 2/3 pitch windings. equation (15a) is the only convenient means of obtaining exact values for XD60. For a 1/3 pitch winding. XD.0840 2 0.0486 0./2 2 a) reactance: Putting q = 2 in (14a).0116 0.0839 0. and by the ratio.0096 0. 60 deg.2337 0. since 0. and subtracting unity from the result. thus confirming the latter result. The ratio of the useful to the total flux generated by a single full-pitch coil is 8/7r2. and b is zero. the total pitch and distribution factors.0650 the fundamental m. maining after the useful is subtracted from the total phase belt winding is: 0.+61 -5 (16a) (. 687 1 5 .differential leakage reactance for a three-phase. the line-to-neutral air-gap flux reactance of a three-phase winding operated single-phase is 7/10 of its value in three-phase operation for full and half-pitch windings. and the difference re. but that are canceled out by a 2/3 pitch. TABLE X DIFFERENTIAL LEAKAGE REACTANCE OF 18 1 s2 for 5/6 pitch WINDING EQUATION (l5a) 2 3 4 TWO-PHASE 0 1 for 2/3 pitch 4 s2 for -18 + 1 1/2pic / pitch Pitch deficiency 15 0 1 2 3 s/2 = slots per pole per phase 1 0 2337 5 6 0 0229 0.1382 0.

windng. As a rule the designs vary comparatively little. E. St.0115 0. and Shirley. 523.0030 0. q q= 1918. Adams. A. pp.0052 0. H. 649-84. 11. 1. pp. 1922.. 7r2(20 s3+36 s-54 b's-27 b+27 b3 sin'7r/2 +3 -4 486 s sin'2 r/2 (1 - bl/s) = nous Machine Design. 141... Wieseman.nding this they are of the greatest importance in clarifying obscure problems and showing us the empirical basis of our .0035 706-24. Lond. Vol. 1918. =s s ad and b b = 0. Vol. E. pp.. Y. E. Winter Convention of the A.0040 0. TRANS.0045 0. and Nickle. pp. Apr. "Leakage Calculations for Three-Phase Induction Motors with Phase-Wound Rotors. Discussion. I. B.1 (19a) = 486 ± j4 s2 0543If s is very large. E.0140 0. 0 2 3 6 7 8 9 1 0. JOUR. M. E. May 7.. A. pp.. 1926." Electrician. Behrend: In connection with Mr. A. B.0140 0. u. C. 2. 1912. A. XD60 Xm xm Is -S. by M. Discussion. Vol. tion Motors.0064 0. 1926. E. 1928. I." Int. 201-08. Sec. 1916. and Eksergian. 37. 323-336. 24. Core Losses. 1905." P.l leakage field as carried out by M. Aug 18Sept. C. p. and others. I. Graphical Determination of Magnetic Fields. I. Elekt. discussion.0055 0. Elee. A. A. pp. 160-61.. ed. Gray. pp. A. 1909. Hobart. Feb. Lincoln. Vol. Induction Motor 5 w4 w44 0.0140 0.0064 0.. R. Practical Applications to Salient-Pole Synchro3. E. pp.Agr1n keeping with the desire to leave no part of the theory unexplored and to link together the leakage of syn- 4 (21a) cli\ eronous and induction machines. 78.0062 0. 2d. A. C. E. C. Self-Starting Synchronous Motors.512 ALGER: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES Transactions A. E. 1927.. 1. deficiency b Pitch EQUATIONS (17a) AND (18a) s/3 = slots per pole per phase 2 1 0. E. N.0284 0.. I. P. (17a) may be reduced to: XD6O_ 2wr2 (5 + 9)in2i-/2s~ 1 Xm 243 1 S + . Fechheimer. Vol. 22-29. Vol. thus confirming the previously derived formula for zigzag leakage reactance..0089 0.. 904-06. The analysis of the onstituent parts of the tota. October. A. Doherty. 14... W. TRANS.0052 0.. 529-85. "Air-gap Field of the Polyphase Induction Motor.0111 0. TRANS. 14805-1503. Abstr. L. R..0089 0.0055 1904.. 906-20. R.0966 3 4 0. 45.. TRANS. Vol. E. Doherty. 1298-1340. E. ' 13.0044 6 12. Schenkel. p.. E. TRANS.. Adams. 6-13. Rev. An Extension of Blondel's Two-Reaction Theory. E. Adams. number of slots per pole. 1907. 1916. 1904. 725-28. pp. 49-50. 1505-24. "The Leakage Reactance of Induc15. 5 0. J. 936-38. 1.b/s) 2s 1 4. 39. 26.0063 5 0. Vol. such methods as to a great extent individual though notwithsta. 23. R. T. Hellmund.. 1907. E. 1904.0137 0. 291-322. E. R. A. Abstract-translation. I. 40. Masch.0966 0. so =0. H. 912. See. 26. 1920. In this very painstaking a. E. Park. E. 9. TRANS.0083 0. A. 1907. 1904. Vol..0966 0. I. 7. 1525-26. ~Elekt. A. A Contribution to the Theory of the Regulation of Alternators. Sci. 5. 1909. 663-67.. Bibliography and <b O = b = s 17 ( 7a) XD60 xm t3\ 2(19 S3 2S i7r2(19 S3+45t +9 b S2-54 b-81 bs+54 s)1n1 486 S Sjn2 7r/2 (1 . F. TRANS. Discussion. Reactance of 6. XLVI. I am inclined to view For large values of s. Fractional Pitch Windings for Induction Motors. E. 586-604.0057 xm = 4 4 S2 CS C2 7r/2 s - 1 (20a) B." (in German). pp.0284 0. thus making it possible which only the first term need be considered: XDK T2 / T2 K | 1=22 Xm 12S\ 20 S 504 S If~ ~ bedevelped nto Slret1 a~aserie of noasre f ~ ~this ~ ay ~ ~ edvlpd ~ ~ i ~~~~~~~~i to obtain design data by comparison. Vol. Discussion. Vol. Sci. 1909. I. 25.nd intricate procedure I doubt a method which is is evolved by one designer and which suits that his method of working likely to appeal equally to another designer. Zigzag Leakage of Induction Motors. (19a) reduces exactly to (32). I.0052 0. TRANS. (21a) agrees exactly with (25). M. 1920. pp. 9-12. Abstract translation. 1928. A.0092 0. McGraw. pp. and Punga. Vol. 685-87. I. The Design of Induction MotorsWith Special Reference to Magnetic Leakage.. pp. pp. E. Discussion 0. 217-22. 1905. p.0068 0. B. O.0067 0. The Reactances of Synchronous Machines. XD6. Vol. Oct 1922..1. S/3 < b 2S 3 (18a) :For a full-pitch three-phase winding with a large 8. E. E.. TABLE XI DIFFERENTIAL LEAKAGE REACTANCE OF THREE-PHASE WINDING S'' 10.672 730-34. 50 For a Forsquirrel-cage a quirrl-cag winding. 12. F. E.. pp. A. 1926. L. Vol. 1922.. 1209-97. E. Synchronous Machines-Part I. Masch. 31. Alger's very complete investigation of the factors which determine the armature reactance of a synchronous machine the question may be raised whether it is more satisfactory for the designer to derive his characteristic data from comparison with known similar designs or by a fresh calculation for each particular case. and Robertson. pp. C. 77.0284 0. 1912.0074 0.0235 0. 1907." (in German).0056 ______0_____0057 _________0____0052_______ that by substituting these values in (15a) and dividing is found to be: X 2 Xm .. Alger. Discussion. Chapman. Numerical values of (17a) and (18a) for some usual three-phase windings are given in Table XI. Louis. Trans. Vol. 340-43. 1926. R. pp. E.. Congress. Siegel.. 502-03. Oct.. u.0041 0. 28. "Determination of Leakage Flux in Vol. 705-08. Abstr. A. pp. E. pp. "Electrical Machine Design.0089 0. 27. Alternating-Current Machines. Synchronous Machines and Its Applications. pp. E. Sept. ____ 0.0089 0.

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