STRAIN ANALYSIS

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STRAIN ANALYSIS

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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You are on page 1of 6

Rosette

Jonathan Merritt

June 15, 2009

This document briey describes a set of equations which can be used to re-

cover principal strains from measurements taken with a 45

strain gauge

rosette.

1 Recovery of Principal Strains

Benham et al. (1996) provide equations for a 45

Chapter 11 Stress and Strain Transformations. Figure 1 shows a congu-

ration of planar principal strains and a rosette at a test site. Planar principal

strains

1

and

2

exist at the test point, and are named so that

1

>

2

. Thus,

1

is the more tensile of the strain components and

2

is the more compressive.

The gauge is placed at the test site so that its

l

gauge is rotated by angle

anticlockwise from the

1

direction. Angle is dened as the anticlockwise

rotation from the central gauge to the

2

direction.

Following Benham et al. (1996), we can then use the following equations to

1

Figure 1: 45

principal compressive strains are

1

and

2

, such that

1

>

2

. The strain

gauges of the rosette are aligned so that they measure normal strains

l

,

m

and

n

, and are each separated by 45

. The axis of

l

is rotated by an angle

of anticlockwise from the principal tensile strain

1

. Angle is dened as

the anticlockwise rotation from the central gauge to the

2

direction. This is

a modication of Fig 11.23 from Benham et al. (1996).

2

recover principal strains and the angle in this conguration

1

=

1

2

(

l

+

n

) +

2

2

_

(

l

m

)

2

+ (

m

n

)

2

(1)

2

=

1

2

(

l

+

n

)

2

2

_

(

l

m

)

2

+ (

m

n

)

2

(2)

=

1

2

atan2

_

2

m

n

_

(3)

In these equations, the atan2 function is the two-argument arctangent func-

tion which may be found in numerous computation libraries. atan2 is dened

as follows

atan2 (y/x) =

_

_

sign(y) arctan(y/x) if x > 0

sign(y) (/2) if x = 0

sign(y) ( arctan (y/x)) if x < 0

(4)

in which the sign function returns the sign of its argument, arctan is the

single-argument arctangent, and

atan2 (0/x) =

_

_

0 if x > 0

undened if x = 0

if x < 0

(5)

Equations 13 have been modied to use the atan2 function, but otherwise

are identical to those given by Benham et al. (1996). The recovered angle,

, is of particular interest. The use of atan2 results in the domain of being

[/2, /2], or the right-half plane. In these equations, always indicates

the angle of the

1

axis, and never the

2

axis.

The relationship between and is

+ +

4

=

2

(6)

=

4

(7)

Hence

=

4

+

1

2

atan2

_

2

m

n

_

(8)

3

2 Transformation fromPrincipal Strains to Gauge

Strains

In order to check the values obtained from Equations 1, 2 and 8, it is useful

to be able to reconstruct the individual gauge strains (

l

,

m

and

n

) from the

principal strains and angle relative to the central gauge (

1

,

2

and ). In

general, strains transform as second-order tensors

= R

1

R (9)

where is the strain tensor before rotation

=

_

_

x

xy

xy

y

_

_

(10)

=

_

_

xy

xy

y

_

_

(11)

R is a rotation matrix, rotating clockwise by an angle

R =

_

_

cos sin

sin cos

_

_

(12)

and R

1

is the inverse rotation matrix

R

1

=

_

_

cos sin

sin cos

_

_

(13)

The tensor shear strain,

xy

, is related to the Engineering shear strain,

xy

, as

xy

= 2

xy

(14)

Expanding Equation 9 gives the equation for rotating a planar strain

_

xy

_

_

=

_

_

cos

2

sin

2

sin cos

sin

2

cos

2

sin cos

sin 2 sin 2 cos 2

_

_

_

xy

_

_

(15)

4

Using Equation 15, and realizing that for the principal strain state,

xy

= 0,

the following equations can be derived, relating gauge strains to principal

strains and the angle

m

=

1

sin

2

+

2

cos

2

(16)

n

=

1

sin

2

_

4

_

+

2

cos

2

_

4

_

(17)

l

=

1

sin

2

_

+

4

_

+

2

cos

2

_

+

4

_

(18)

These equations can be used to check the results of Equations 1, 2 and 8,

by taking the principal strains (

1

and

2

), and the strain angle , and trans-

forming back to the gauge strain values (

l

,

m

and

n

).

3 Example

Consider three gauge values as follows

l

= 127.7 (19)

m

= 960.8 (20)

n

= 572.3 (21)

Using Equations 1 and 2, we can obtain principal strains as follows

1

=

1

2

(127.7 572.3) +

2

2

_

(127.7 + 960.8)

2

+ (960.8 + 572.3)

2

= 300

2

=

1

2

(127.7 572.3)

2

2

_

(127.7 + 960.8)

2

+ (960.8 + 572.3)

2

= 1000

(22)

Using Equation 8, we can obtain the angle as follows

=

4

+

1

2

atan2

_

2 (960.8) + 127.7 + 572.3

127.7 + 572.3

_

= 10

(23)

5

Now, having obtained the principal strains and the angle , we can trans-

form these back to the original strain gauge values in order to check the

calculations

m

= 300 sin

2

(10

) 1000 cos

2

(10

)

= 960.8

n

= 300 sin

2

(45

10

) 1000 cos

2

(45

10

)

= 572.3

l

= 300 sin

2

(45

+ 10

) 1000 cos

2

(45

+ 10

)

= 127.7

(24)

References

Benham, P. P., Crawford, R. J. and Armstrong, C. G. (1996) Mechanics of

Engineering Materials (2nd ed) Addison Wesley Longman Ltd.

6

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