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Proceedings of the 42nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control Maui, Hawaii USA,December 2003

TuA04-6
Jianghua Xu, Huihe Shao

A Novel Method of PID Thing for Integrating Processes


Institute of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China

Abstract: PID control is widely used to control stable processes,


however, its application to integrating processes is less common.

in low frequency, the control system guarantees both robustness and performance. Simulation examples show that the proposed method achieves better control performance and robustness compared with other methods. 2. PID Tuning method For controller design purposes, many of the integrating processes are adequately described by low-order plus dead-time transfer function

In this paper, we proposed a new PID controller tuning method


for integrating processes with time delay to meet a new robust specification. With the proposed PID tuning method, we can obtain a loop transfer function with the real part close to -0.5.

This guarantees both robustness and performance. Simulation


examples are given to show the performance of the method.
1. Introduction

The proportional-integral-dexivative (PID) controllers are still widely used in the process industries even though more advanced control techniques have been developed. The main reason is that the PID controllers have simple structure and are robust to modeling error and that many advanced control algorithms, such

G , ( s ) = -

Ke-'L s(Ts + 1)

We first present an inner feedback loop for integrating processes, the block diagram of the proposed method is shown in Fig.1. Here, the PD controller (PD) in the inner feedback loop plays an important role in changing the integrating process to the stable process.

as model predictive control, are based on the PID control. As


indicated in
[I1,

more than 95% of the control loops are of PID

type in process control. Over the years, there are many formulas
derived to tune the PID controllers for stable processes, such as

Ziegler-Nichols, Cohen-Coon, internal model control, integral absolute error optimum @E, IAE, and ITAE), and recently proposed tuning However, it is difficult to control integrating processes with time delay. Recently, many tuning methods for integrating processes have been p r o p ~ s e d [ ~ ~ - [ ~ ] * [ ' ~ ~ . However, they usually either show poor closed-loop response such as excessive overshoot and large settling time or have complicated formulas. For controller design purposes, many integrating processes are often approximated by low-order plus time delay model, which can be identified by P control method
[I2]

Fig.1. Block diagram of a two-loop controller for integrating process Denote the PID controller transfer function by given by
Gp&)

and is

or relay control

method[']. Because the resulting models are usually imprecise and the parameters of all physical systems vary with the working condition and time, robustness is always a primary concern when analyzing and designing the control system. In this paper, a new tuning method for the PID controller with setpoint weighting['] is proposed for integrating processes to meet robustness specification. The control scheme first presents the internal loop design strategy. Then, simple and effective PID controller with setpoint weighting is designed based on robustness specification. Because of a good loop transfer with the real part closed to -0.5 Denote the PD controller transfer function by GpD(s) and is given by

G ,

(s) = k,

+ k,s

(3 )

Robustness is always of primary concern for process control when the control systems are designed and analyzed because the models used for the design of controllers are usually imprecise and the parameters of all physical systems vary with the working condition and time. We introduce a new robustness

0-7803-7924-1/03/$17.0002003 IEEE

139

specification h ,which is defined as


(4)

Considering a internal loop transfer function with a good where the loop transfer function is GXs)
=

G,(s)G,(s), G,(s) is

shape, i.e. the real part close to -0.5 in low lkequency, we choose h=2. From equation ( 1 5 ) and h=2, we get

controller transfer function and the quantity h is simply the inverse of maximum of absolute real part of loop transfer function GIG@, as shown in Fig.2. The new specification is similar with the gain margin and phase margin specifications. The following relations are obtained A,,,> h

k l =So the PD controller is

1 2KL

(16)

1 T GpD ( s ) = +s 2KL 2KL

(17)

(bn,> arccos(

+)
*
Re G I ( j @ )

The PD controller in equation (17) can guarantee both robustness and performance of the inner feedback loop. With the PD controller, the internal closed-looptransfer function is given by

ImGf(j@)

G s

G,(s) Ke-Lp ) = 1 + GpDGp(s) - Ts2 + s + k,K(Ts + l)e-

(18)

Considering Taylor series expansion, the time delay term in the denominator of equation (18) can be approximated by
e-
EI-LS

(19)

Then equation (1 8) is given by Fig.2. Nyquist curve of the loop transfer function. It is obvious that the new specification satisfies both the gain margin and phase margin requirement to a degree. Reasonable values of h are in the range fiom1.5 to 2.5.
The PD controller transfer function (2) is also written as

G;( s )I G,, (s)=


(1 - k,KL)Ts* +(I

Ke- - k,KL t k,KT)s+ k, K

(20)

Here, Gm(s) denotes the second-order plus time-delay model obtained lkom the Taylor series expansion method. Because the characteristic equation of G,(s) should have negative poles to be stable, the following condition must be

GpD(s) = k,
We choose

+ k d s = kl(a+ bs)

(7)

satisfied fiom the Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion:


kl C1

KL

(21)

a= 1 , b=T loop transfer function can be obtained as

(9)

With the PD controller in the inner feedback loop, the internal

The equation (16) satisfies the stability criterion (21). For convenience of the outer loop controller design, the equation (20) is rewritten as

Gl(s)= GPD(s)Gp(s) = -e klK


S

-Ls

(IO)

where k is determined based on the new robustness specification h. From equation (1 0), we can obtain
(13)

The PID controller transfer function (2) is also written as

To find the maximum, we note fiom (13) that


o+o

Where A = % ,

K K. B = P and C=-.Thecontroller k k

zeros are chosen to be equal to the poles of model Gm(s), that is


A=1 - kIKL T7 B = - k ~ K L +k ~ K T

Hence,

and

c = k, . Hence

140

PID setting for integrating processes are given by

K, =
where k is determined based on new robustness specification h. From equation (24), we can obtain IReG,(M)G,Odl=

0.25(3L+T)

(33)

KL2
(34)

1 3

(25) 0.75T K:, =-

To find the maximum, we note from (25) that

KL

(35)

Hence,

c=-

1 =U A

(27)

3
3. Simulation examples

(37)

Considering a outer loop transfer h c t i o n with a good shape, i.e. the real part close to -0.5 in low frequency, we choose k=2. From equation (27) and h=2, we get
k = -0.5

The following will give the comparisons between the proposed PID tuning method and other method. Example I Consider an integratingprocess with small dead time.
e-o.2s

Hence PID settings are given as


0.5(1- klKL + kl K T )

Gp(s)= ~(0.8s + 1)
The proposed method yields the PID control settings as

K,=8.75, Kic6.25, K>=3.0, b4.714 and c4.33. The control


performance of the proposed method is compared with Astrom-Hagglund PID tuning method [2] for integrating processes. The comparison of performance is shown in Fig.3 (proposed method, solid line; Mom-Hagglund method, dashed line), where a step load disturbance is added at t-20s. The proposed methods shows better control performance for both setpoint change and load disturbance.
15
I

KL
OSk,
0.5(1- klKL)T

KL
From equation (1 6) and (29), we get

Lets

reconsider the

block

diagram of

Fig.1, where

e(s) = r(s)- y(s) . The process input u(s) can be written easily

as the following equation.


(r(s)- y(s)) - (k,
Introducing
b-

+ kds)y(s)

(31)

KP
KP
-t kP

, Kb=K,+k,

, Ki=Ki ,

53

Fig.3. Comparison of process responses Example 2 Consider an integrating process with large dead time
e-2

c = -

Kd
Kd I kd

and K i = Kd + kd ,we have

G,(s)=s ( s
The expression (32) is the same as PID controller with setpoint weighting[], thus the block diagram of Fig. 1 can be changed into a PID control loop without an inner feedback loop, where Kp,Ki,
Kd

+ 1)

The proposed method yields the PID control settings as Kb4.4375, Ki=0.0625, Ki4.315, b4.4286 and ~ 4 . 3 3 3 . The control performance of the proposed method is compared with Tans

and setpoint weighting b, c are new PID settings. The new

PID tuning methods [8] for integrating processes. Fig.4

141

Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1997, Vol. 36, 5329-5338.

[4] Luyben, W.L. Tuning Proportional-Integral-Derivative


Controllers for IntegratorDeadtime Processes, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1996, Vo1.35,3480-3483.

[5] Majhi, S . and Atherton, D.P. Autotuning and controller design


for processes with small time delays, IEE Proc.-Control TheoryAppl., 1999, Vol. 146, No. 5,415-425.

[6] Poulin, E. and Pomerleau, A. PLD tuning for integrating and


unstable processes, IEE Proc.-Control Theory Appl., 1998,

Vol. 143, NO.5,429-435. [7] Sung, S.W. and Lee, I. Limitations and countermeasures of
PID controllers. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1996, Vol. 35, No. 8,

2596-26 10.
Fig.4. Comparison of process response Because we introduced the Taylor series expansion method in designing PID controllers, this produced model error especially in high frequency. However, we consider desired robust specification and a loop transfer function with the real part close to -0.5 in low frequency['],which guarantees both robustness and performance.
4. Conclusions

[8j Tan, W., Liu, J. and Tam, P.K.S. PID Tuning based on
loop-shaping H- control, IEE Proc.-Control Theory Appl.,

1998, Vol. 145, NO.6,485-490. [9] Wang, L. and Cluett, W.R. Tuning PID controllers for
integrating processes, IEE Proc.-Control Theory Appl. 1997,

Vol. 144, NO.5,385-392.


[IO] Wang, Y.G and Shao, H.H. PID autotuner based on gain and phase margin specifications. Ind.Eng.Chem.Res. 1999, 38,

3007-3012. In this paper, we proposed a novel PID tuning formulas for the
integrating processes with time delay. We adopted two-loop design technique and obtained a tuning method for PID controllers with setpoint weighting. The proposed tuning method is very simple and shows better performance in controlling integrating processes compared with other method. With the proposed tuning method, we can obtain a loop transfer function with the real part close to -0.5 in low frequency, which guarantee both robustness and performance. Simulation results have been given to show the performance of the method.
[ 1 I] Wang, Y.G and Shao, H.H. Optimal tuning for PI controller,
Automatica, 2000, 36, 147-152.

[12] Yuwana, M. and Seborg, D.E. A new method for on-line


controller tuning. AIChE J. 1982,28,434-439.

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Design, and Tuning, Instrument Society of America. Research Triangle Park, NC, 1995.

[2] Astrom, K.J. and Hagglund, T. Automatic tuning of simple


regulators with specifications on phase and amplitude margins. Automatica, 1984, Vol. 20, No. 5, 645-651.

[3] Kwak, H.J., Sung, S.W. and Lee, I. On-line process

identification and autotuning for integrating processes,


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