Expanding scientific knowledge about the moon, upgrading India's technological capability and providing challenging opportunities for planetary research for the younger generation Also see an article published in India Today, Sept. 1, 2003

Scientific Objective: High resolution remote sensing of the moon in the visible, near infrared, low energy X-ray and high-energy X-ray regions for:


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Preparing 3-dimensional atlas of regions of scientific interest with a high spatial and altitude resolution of 5-10 m Chemical mapping of the entire lunar surface for elements such as Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Fe and Ti with a spatial resolution of 10 km and elements of high atomic numbers (Z), such as 222RN, U, Th and Gd with a spatial resolution of 20 km

Scientific Instruments:
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Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) with stereo imaging capability operating in panchromatic band, with 5 m spatial resolution and 40 km swath A Hyper-Spectral Imager (HySI) operating in 400-900 mm band with a spectral resolution of 15 nm, spatial resolution of 80 m and a swath of 40 km A Lunar laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI) with a height resolution of 10 m A Lowe Energy (1-10 keV) X-ray spectrometer (LEX) for measuring fluorescent X-rays emanating from lunar surface with a footprint of 10 km A High energy X-ray (10-200 keV) mapping camera (HEX) with a footprint of 20 km to identify degassing faults or zones on the moon by mapping 222 Rn and its radioactive daughter 210Pb Payloads weighing up to about 10 kg of other space agencies could be included

New Facilities:

Deep Space Network located in Bangalore with 180 deg longitudinal shift with respect to Goldstone, California, USA. Supports spacecraft at a slant range of upto 4,00,000 km for TTC and payload data reception, 34 m diameter antenna with an uplink power of 2 kW. Receives spacecraft data transmission in X-band with a transmitted power of 2 W National Science Data Centre to process raw data into user-friendly format to be set up at a suitable location

Mission Sequence:
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Launch into 240 km x 36000 km GTO by PSLV Two consecutive in-plane perigee maneuvers to achieve 3,86,000 km apogee (Lunar transfer Trajectory - LTT) Coasting for 5 1/2 days in LTT prior to lunar encounter Lunar capture at per-selene (Nearest point in lunar orbit) Satellite in near circular 1,000 km orbit of the moon Solar panel deployment In-plane corrections to reduce orbit height to 200 km, polar Study of orbit perturbations for 1 - 2 weeks Reduce orbit altitude to 100 km circular, polar

Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV)
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Lift off weight Height

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295 tonne 44.4 m

Payload capability
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525 kg in 100 km lunar orbit 1050 kg into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (200 km x 36000 km) 100 kg to 1350 kg payloads to Sun Synchronous Orbit

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Proven successive successes Demonstrated multiple satellite launch capability


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• Physical : 1.5 m cuboid-shaped main body with a dry weight of 525 kg in lunar orbit Control : 3-axis stabilized using reaction wheels and attitude control thrusters, star sensors, inertial reference unit and accelerometers for attitude determination Power : Single sided canted solar array to generate 750 W. Li-ion batteries for eclipse operations Propulsion : Bipropellant system for transferring from GTO to lunar orbit and for orbit and attitude maintenance Communication : TTC in S-band and scientific payload data transmission in x-band Mission life : 2 years

New Technologies:
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Lithium-ion batteries Gimballed antenna system Miniaturized communication system Miniaturized star sensor Spacecraft bus management


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