You are on page 1of 34

KS4 Waves : Reflection

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Objectives
Recall that light travels in straight lines. Draw accurate ray diagrams.

Describe how we see objects.


Define the words opaque and transparent. Describe the images formed in a plane mirror. Recall how the angle of incidence and angle of reflection are related for a plane mirror. Describe the differences between convex and concave mirrors.

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Light rays

A light ray is a narrow beam of light. When drawing light diagrams always..
1. Use a ruler. 2. Add an arrow to show the direction the light ray is travelling in.

Boardworks Ltd 2003

How does light travel?

1)

Fill a clear glass trough or empty fish tank with smoke.

2)

Shine rays of light through the tank and describe what you see.

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Light travels in straight lines


Your experiment shows that light travels in straight lines. What every day consequences do you think this fact has? You can not see around corners. Shadows are formed in the area behind an object where light can not reach.

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Seeing objects
How do we see an object?

There are two ways we see objects..


Do we see all objects in the same way? We see some objects because they are light sources. We see some objects by reflected light.

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Seeing objects

Light sources Sun

Objects seen by reflected light Jupiter

Firefly
Light bulb

Moon
Book Light bulb Moon

Sun
Firefly

Jupiter
Book

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Light sources

How do light rays from the Sun and other light sources reach our eye?

They travel in a straight line directly into our eye.

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Reflected light

How do light rays from a book and other such objects reach our eye?
Light from the Sun or another light source strikes the book and some of the light is reflected into our eye.

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Opaque and transparent materials


Use a textbook or other source to find out what the words opaque and transparent mean.

Opaque materials do not let light though.

Transparent materials do let light through.

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Opaque and transparent materials


Hold different materials between a lamp and a screen.
Material More or less opaque?

Coal Water Glass


Fill in the results table shown estimating if the materials are more or less opaque than vegetable oil.

more

less
less less more

Thin ice Coffee

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Reflections

There are two types of m____. irrors F__ lat mirrors and c____ urved mirrors. Flat mirrors are known as p___ lane mirrors. If a mirror curves in then it is a c_____ oncave mirror, if it curves out it is a c____ onvex mirror.

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Plane mirrors
Write out the letters of the alphabet down one side of a piece of paper, then next to the letter draw what the letter would look like as seen in a mirror.

What do you predict the letter L would look like in a mirror?

What do you predict the letter P would look like in a mirror?

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Right and left


What happens to writing in a mirror? The writing in a mirror is laterally inverted or back to front. If you are wearing a T-shirt with some writing on and wave your right hand what will your image appear like in a mirror? The writing on your T-shirt will be back to front and your image will be waving its left hand.

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Rear-view mirrors

Imagine you are driving along in your car and then you look up and see the following in your mirror.. with your knowledge of mirrors how must the writing be written on the vehicle?
Boardworks Ltd 2003

Reading in Mirrors
In small groups, take it in turns to read the list of words on the next slide with your back to the screen using a mirror. You can only move on to the next word when you read the first word correctly. Put your results in a table like this:
Time taken to read [s] 46 56 85
Boardworks Ltd 2003

Name Natasha Pashmina David

Words

Dog

Man

Ball

Bat
Park Litter

Bike
Fins Sandy

Ants
Pink Shark

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Results
A) B) Who read the words in the quickest time? Plot a bar chart of you r results like:
A graph showing the results of 'Reading in Mirrors'
Time taken [s]

100 50 0
Natasha Pashmina David

Name

C)

What was the average time taken in your group?

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Image distance
1. Fix a plane mirror along the centre of a piece of A4 paper and draw around it. Place a pin as the object in front of the mirror. I

2. Line up a ruler with the image of the pin and draw along the edge of the ruler on the paper. Repeat for 3 more positions of the ruler.

3. Remove the mirror and ruler. Where the lines cross is the image position. What are the distances between the mirror and object and its image?

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Image size and distance


For a plane mirror how does the size of the image and the image distance from the mirror relate to the original object?

Object
Image size and object size are the same.

Image
The image distance is the same as the object distance from the mirror.

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Investigating reflection

Apparatus:
Power pack Ray box Slit Plane mirror Protractor Ruler

The ray box

will get very


hot, be careful when handling it.

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Investigating reflection
1. Place the plane mirror on a piece of paper.

Incident ray Incident angle i

2. Draw a line across the front of the mirror.


3. Draw a normal to the mirror. 4. Shine rays of light at varying angles to the normal and record the position of the incident and reflected rays

Reflected angle r

Reflected ray

5. Measure the incident angles and the reflected angles for each ray. Record your results in a table.

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Results i 0 30 45 70 85 r 0 30 45 70 85

What do you notice? Is there a pattern?

Angle of incidence = Angle of reflection

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Using plane mirrors

By positioning two plane mirrors at 45 to each other at either end of a tube we can make a periscope _________.

Periscopes are used in submarines __________.

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Reflection : Curved Mirrors


Finding of a concave mirror.

Use a the ruler to Hold mirror Chose athe measure in the other distant object distance between hand and move [to get parallel the lens and the it closer to the rays of light]. screen this is screen until a the focal length []. clear image appears.

Hold a plain white screen in one hand.


Boardworks Ltd 2003

Reflection : How does curvature affect ?


Concave mirrors reflect rays of light to a focal point. The distance between the mirror and the focal point is called the focal length []. Concave mirrors produce real images because the rays of light meet [unless the object is close]. How can be changed?

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Reflection : How does curvature affect ?


Take a piece of Al or stainless steel sheet and curve it slightly.
Draw around the reflector.

Shine parallel rays of light at the reflector and plot their positions. Measure and record your results.
Carefully bend the reflector and repeat the process to see how changes with curvature.
Boardworks Ltd 2003

Reflection : Convex mirrors

Convex mirrors reflect rays of light away from a focal point.

The distance between the mirror and the focal point is called the focal length []

Convex mirrors produce virtual images - the rays of light do not meet.
Boardworks Ltd 2003

Reflection : Curved mirrors

Concave reflectors are used to focus signals from distant satellites.

Convex reflectors are used to widen the field of view.

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Which of the following is not a light source?

A. The Sun
B. A star

C. Traffic lights
D. A book

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Which of the following is not seen by reflected light?

A. Your hand
B. Jupiter

C. Light bulb
D. The Moon

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Which of the following is the most opaque?

A. Milk

B. Sea water C. Air D. Drinking water

Boardworks Ltd 2003

What do we call the area behind an object where light can not reach?

A. Transparent
B. Shadow

C. Opaque
D. Outline

Boardworks Ltd 2003

Which statement below is untrue for the image in a plane mirror?

A. It is laterally inverted
B. It is real

C. It is same size as the object


D. It is the same distance from the mirror as

the object

Boardworks Ltd 2003