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Contents

PROBLEM SOLVING IN TEACHING LEARNING PROCESS


1. Objectives: The learner will be able to: Explain the meaning of problem solving. Define the term problem solving. Enumerate the purpose & essential features of a problem. Describe the steps in problem solving in teaching learning process. Describe the methods of problem solving in teaching learning process. Describe the components in the problem solving process. List the advantages & disadvantages of problem solving. Explain the teachers role in problem solving in teaching learning process. Illustrate the application of problem solving in methods in nursing. Introduction: Problem solving is a method of organization of subject matter in such a way that it can be dealt with through the study of the problems encountered. Meaning of Problem Solving: Instructional method Students attempt in a concourse planned & purposeful effort to arrive at some explanation or solution to some significant difficulty. Definition of Problem Solving: J Deweys definition of problem solving Skinners definition of problem solving Yokam & Simpsons definition of problem solving Deweys explanation of problem solving Gates definition of problem solving Weselys thought of problem solving Purposes: Train students in the act of reasoning Give practical knowledge Discover new knowledge Solve a puzzling problem Improve knowledge of the students Overcome inferences in the attainment of objective Essential features of a Problem Meaningful, interesting, worthwhile Have relation with life Arise out of the real needs of the students Learner should have background knowledge of the problem Clearly defined problem Steps in Problem Solving: Recognizing the problem Defining the problem Collection of relevant data information

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Organization of data Drawing of conclusions Testing & evaluating the obtained conclusions

MAJOR APPROACHES TO PROBLEM SOLVING:


Inductive method: Let to discover truth himself Processes in the Inductive Method: Observation of the given material Discrimination & Analysis Differences & Similarities study Classification Abstraction & generalization Application or Verification Merits of Inductive Method: Self-acquired knowledge Active participation in learning teaching process Providing challenging situations, thus making learning interesting Make self-dependent & self-confident students Demerits of Inductive Method: Slow & lengthy Not applicable to small children. Not suitable in teaching stressful facts

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Deductive Method: Rules, generalization & principles are provided to the students Merits of Deductive Method: Teachers work simplified Economical, time saving, energy saving of both learners & teachers Suitable for small children Demerits of Deductive Method: Knowledge is not self-acquired & thus not assimilated properly Learner deprived of the pleasure of self-activity Encourages memorization of facts Chances of forgetting, thus knowledge rendered useless Unnatural & un psychological for the students

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Analytical Method: Breaking up of the problem in hand to get obvious or already known to us Unfolding of the problem to know its hidden aspects Merits of Analytical Method: Logical method, leaves no doubts & convinces the learner Suitable for understanding & discovery Steps are developed in general manner

Demerits of Analytical Method: Lengthy method Difficult to acquire speed & efficiency Not applicable for all topics equally 8.4 Synthetic Approach: Proceed from known to unknown Begins with something already known & connects with the unknown part of statement Merits: Learner have chance to think, to judge, to evaluate, to compare & select which is best Problem furnishes a natural objective an objective of the learner Provides logical way of thinking Learner become capable to utilize what he knows & focuses this knowledge upon the unknown Promotes adaptation without sacrificing the social values that arise from cooperative understanding Limitation / Demerits of Synthetic Method: Method become monotonous if used frequently Learner starts over estimating himself Very capable teachers are required to avoid dissatisfaction & discouragement on the part of pupils 8.5 Combination of Deductive & Inductive Method: Induction is followed by Deduction & Deduction is followed by Induction L.E. Miller suggests Induction is the making tools of thoughts & Deduction is the using tools Advantages of Problem Solving: Improves problem solving abilities Student centered rather than teacher centered Collaboration among learners Constructivism of learners with guidance of teachers Allows for multiple intelligence Extended time frames Deeper understanding of knowledge Multi-disciplinary Disadvantages of Problem Solving: Involves mental activity than bodily activity Lack of suitable reference & source book for students Involves lot of time & resources (teachers) Needs capable teachers to provide effective guidance. Teachers role in Problem Solving: Assist in defining problem clearly Aid learners to keep the problem in mind Encourages suggestions from the learner Get them to organize material

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Uses of Problem Solving in Nursing: Develop ability to analyze the problem & to take proper judgment / solution in the critical thinking Helps the students to solve his problems in real life situation without much stress Help the students to solve similar problems in future with confidence Develops mutual understanding among group members Develop ability in nurse to select the problem solving strategy according to patients ability & life style CONCLUSION: Problem solving forms part of thinking. It occurs if an artificial intelligence system does not know how to proceed from a given state to a desired goal. It is part of the larger problem process that includes problem finding & problem shaping.

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BIBLOGRAPHY: TEXT BOOK OF NSG EDUCATION By D. Elakkuvana Bhaskara Raj & Nima Bhaskar, Emmess Publication, 1st edition, page no: 136 141. MANIPAL MANUAL OF NSG EDUCATION By Elsa Sanatombi Devi, 2nd edition, CBS Publisher, page no: 124 130. TEXT BOOK OF NSG EDUCATION By K.P. Neeraja, Jaypee Publishers, page no: 305-310 PROFESSIONAL ADJUSTMENTS & ETHICS FOR NURSES IN INDIA Published by Christian Medical Association of India, page no: 46 57. LEARNING & TEACHING NURSING B. Shankara narayanan & B. Sindhu, , Brain full Publications, page no: 100 102.