MASS PRODUCTION Introduction: Kinds of Production systems: Flow Shops, Job Shops, and Projects: As you already know
, production involves the transformation of inputs (such as men, machines, materials, money, information and energy) to desirable outputs in the form of goods and services. It is customary to divide production systems into three categories. The flow shop, the jb shop and the projects. The flow shop exists when the same set of operation is performed in sequence repetitively, the job shop exists where the facilities are capable of producing many different jobs in small batches, the project is a major undertaking that is usually done only once. It consists of many steps that must be sequenced and coordinated. Nature of Mass Production: It was Hendry Ford who in 1913 introduced the assembly line and the notion of mass production. It is erroneous to think that mass production means production in millions or for the masses, though this may be an outcome. Mass production refers to the manner in which a product is produced. The involves the decomposition of the total task into its minutest elements and the subsequent regrouping of these elements according to the norms of production. An assembly line consists of work stations in sequence where at each work station the above carefully designed portion of work is done. Mass production requires that all like parts of an assembly line be interchangeable and that all parts be replaceable. The assembly line is a production line where material moves continuously at a uniform average rate through a sequence of work stations where assembly work in a performed. Typical example of these assembly lines are car assembly, electrical appliances. Typical Assembly Line (Ws1 = Work station)
Material movement between work stations could be manual, as for instance when operators sitting in a row pick up the part from the output of the previous operator, work on it and leave it in a bin to be picked up by the next operator, or through the use of conveyors, which carry the part at a predetermined speed so that there is adequate time for each work station to complete its allocated share of work. There are belt, chain, overhead, pneumatic and screw conveyors. When to go for Mass Production: It is generally agreed that mass production is justified only when production quantities are large and product variety small. The ideal situation for mass production would be when large volumes of one product are to be produced continuously for an extended period of time. Thus the rate of consumption of the product as compared to the rate of production decides whether continuous or batch production is called for. Features of a Mass Production system: Advantages: 1. A smooth flow of material from one work station to the next in a logical order , Although straight line flow is common, other patterns of flow exhibited in the following figure: Kinds of Flow Patterns:
a) Straight Flow
b) L – flow
c) U – flow e) Serpentine or ‘S’ flow
d) Circular or ‘O’ flow
Since the work from one process is fed directly into the next, small in process inventories result. 3. Total production time per unit is short. 4. Since the work stations are located so as to minimize distances between consecutive operations, material handling is reduced. 5. Little skill is usually required by operators at the production line, hence training simple, short and inexpensive. 6. Simple production planning ad control systems are possible. 7. Less space is occupied by work in transit and for temporary storage. Disadvantages: 1. A breakdown of one machine may lead to a complete stoppage of the line that follows the machine. Hence, maintenance and repair is a challenging job. 2. Since the product dictates the layout, change in product design may require major changes in the layout. This is often expressed by saying that assembly lines are inflexible. 3. Supervision is general rather than specialized, as the supervisor of a line is looking after diverse machine on a line. 4. Generally, high investments are required owing to the specialised nature of the machines and their possible duplication in the line. AUTOMATION AND ROBATICS: Mass production has been to a large extent by automation and robotics in the recent past. Automation refers generally to the bringing together of three basic building blocks. Machine tools, material handling and controls. Automatic work piece indexing and transfer of work pieces from station to station has made if possible for one operator to control the work performed at several machining stations. Also the operator is able to load and unload at the load station while machining was going on. Another trend with automation has been the use of industrial robots, to perform some of the functions that were earlier done by manual operators. Major reasons for use of robots is industry are increased productivity, adaptability, safety, ease of training, return on investment and greater reliability. Robots are currently in operation in welding and assembly, drilling and routing, inspection, material handling, machine loading, die casting and a variety of other applications.
Introduction: When a variety of products is to be made and the volumes of production are not large enough to justify a separate line for each product, production in batches is often resorted to. Batch production implies that general purpose machines are utilized for the production of different products. Material flow trends to be more complex in such systems than in mass production systems. The layout plan for such systems has to be carefully designed keeping in mind the diversity of production and their individual flow patterns and production volumes. Naturally, in such systems the production times are larger as compared to those in mass production. Batch production is distinguished from the job shop as follows: In Batch Production a continuous demand for certain products exists but because the rate of production exceeds the rate of demand, there is a need to produce products in batches. The scheduling problem here is concerned with determining the batch sizes for products and the other order in which they should be produced. FEATURES OF BATCH PRODUCTION: Unlike mass production systems which tend to be organized as product layouts with machines or equipment arranged according to the product flow, batch production normally is done employing a process layout. Here, similar machines or equipment are grouped in department and different jobs will follow their own route depending on requirements. Advantages: 1. Better utilization of machines is possible, consequently, fewer machines are required. 2. A high degree of flexibility exists vis-à-vis equipment or manpower allocation for specific tasks. 3. Comparatively low investment in machines is needed. 4. There is generally greater job satisfaction for the operator owing to the delivery of jobs handled. 5. Specialised supervision is possible. Disadvantages: 1. Production planning and control systems are more involved 2. Total production time is usually longer. 3. Comparatively large amounts of in-process inventory result. 4. Space and capital are tied up by work in process.
MATERIAL MANAGEMENT Introduction: Effective Material Management involves maximizing materials productivity. This requires well coordinated and integrated approach towards various problems involving decision making with respect to materials. PURCHASING FUNCTION: In our daily like we know that e very one of us depends on commodities and services by other individuals or organisations. Similarly, every organization, big or small to varying extents, depends on materials and services from other organisations. These material and services are obtained through exchange of money. This process of exchange is know as purchasing. Furthermore, in most organization, the value of materials as compared to other inputs to the system is high. In an industry, on an average about 40 to 60 percent of the total money is spent on materials and related services. Similar estimates about the large sums of money involved can be made for public works departments electricity boards, developmental agencies, corporations etc,. OBJECTIVES: Purchasing principles are usually epitomized as buying materials of right quality in the right quantity, at the right time, at the right place, from a right source and also at the right place. The main objectives of material management is to make available that right materials in right quantity, of right quality, of right time and right prices. Thus some of the objectives are Right Material: Identification and specification of materials required to be decided in consultation with engineering and production. Making efforts to locate suppliers who are capable to supply exactly what is required. Right Quality: For every item, supply to be make according to quality specification neither of very high quality that specified nor below, so that end product quality and process operation are not un duly affected. The quality of incoming materials be constantly maintained. Right Quantity: Based on normal or periodic estimates are consumption, the purchase be made in right quantity that is neither too high nor too low. Right Time: Adherence to timing by the production can be achieved through storage but making purchases too much advance so that items will remain in the stores for longer period are just in the nick of the timeincreasing the risk of stock out would not amount to the right time. Proper timing of purchase and requirements be balanced.
Right Prices: Negotiation of purchase price should be competitive without sacrificing on quality and reliability of supply. Bulk purchase are long term purchase contact can also be used effectively in negotiation of prices. Major savings in overall cost of material can be effected at the stage thus directly contribution to the organisations. Low Payroll Cost: If the department overall annual expenditure is more than the savings it can achieve in the total material cost, than the department is not operating efficiently and rather helping the organisation in saving overall material cost it would actually burden on the organisation. Proper Records: Maintenance meticulous records are necessary from company point of you because material management function is responsible for 50% of company budget. Proper records should constitute part of company overall database which can be used in future for decision 1. To make the user departments of the organization from time to time aware of the range of quality of materials available in the market and to maintain the right quality of purchased materials based on standards, technical specifications and suitability as determined by the user departments. 2. To produce at the lowest possible cost consistent with quality and service requirements. 3. To ensure the minimum possible investment in service operations related to purchased materials, such as transportation, inspection, storing record keeping etc,. 4. To maintain continuity of the supply to ensure that scheduled activities are not interrupted. 5. To integrate the requirements of all departments of the organization in order to take the advantage of economy of scale wherever possible and to also avoid duplication of purchased resulting in wastes and obsolescence. 6. To create goodwill for the organization through healthy buyer –supplier relationship.
In order to meet the above objectives of the purchasing functions, the requisite inputs and possible restraints and factors must be identified. The purchasing functions is responsible for a host of decisions. In addition to the outputs, responsibilities of purchasing department include othr related activities: Vendor Rating and Development 2) Make or Buy 3) Value Analysis
4) Surplus Disposal 5) Control and Audit, Maintenance and Development of Procedures, Forms, Records and Reports.
INTRODUCTION: As all the activities in any organization cannot be carried out at one point of time, storage is an inevitable process. It increases the value of the material by simply carrying it overtime, no transformation of nay characteristics is desired. Thus stores in any company has a vital role to play. All other activities involving materials are in day-to-day touch with the stores. In a majority of manufacturing organization material constitute the major fraction of cost, ie 60 to 80% of total cost. The cost of capital blocked in inventories is substantial. The success of the business, beside other factors, depends to a large extent on the efficient storage and material control. STORES FUNCTION: The major functions of the stores are as follows a) Receipt: Receiving and accounting of raw-materials bought out parts, spares, tools, equipment and other items. b) Storage: Provision of right and adequate storage and preservations to ensure that the stocks do not suffer from damage, pilferage or deterioration. c) Retrieval: Facilitating easy location and retrieval of materials keeping optimum space utilization.
d) Issue: Fulfilling the demand of consumer departments by proper issue of items on the receipt of authorised purchase requisition. e) Records: To maintain proper records and update receipt and issue of materials. f) Housekeeping: Keeping the stores clean and in good order so that the handling preservation, stocking, receipt and issue can be done satisfactorily. g) Control: Keeping a vigil on the discrepancies, abnormal consumption, accumulation of stocks etc., and enforcing control measures. h) Surplus Management: Minimisation of scrap, surplus and obsolescence through proper inventory control and effective disposal of surplus
i) Verification; Verifying the bin card balances with the physical quantities in the bins and initiating the purchasing cycle at appropriate times so as to avoid the out of stock situations. j) Coordination and cooperation: To coordinate with the interfacing departments such as purchasing, manufacturing, production planning and control. STORES ORGANISATION: Usually the following two kinds of organization are adopted to relation to stores: Material Manager General Production Manager Or or Purchase Manager Production Control Manager Stores Manager Or Stores Keeper (a) Stores Manager or Stores Keeper (b)
In type (a) organization the stores is considered to be a materials function closely related to the receipt, and is clubbed with the purchasing or materials management department. In type (b) organization the issue in the face of stores is considered to be more significant and this it is clubbed with the production department. The arguments for such organizational arrangement are as follows:
In order to run the production operation smoothly the production management must have control over the immediate material supply from stores. This will ensure the smooth delivery of materials to the production centres as and when required. 2. In order to avoid any kind of collusion and embezzlement of materials, the receiving and storing should be kept separate from the purchase department. The objectives of the organizational decision regarding stores could be to store and manage the materials so that they are available in good conditions according to the need, to efficiently supply the materials recording to production schedules, and to perform stores functions at minimum cost. Conclusion: the storage systems forms the key component of any materials management system. The efficient planning and design of the store system is
very much important for the efficient and smooth operation of any plant. Due consideration should be given to the design of the store system of both physical and information processing. The stores system closely interacts with other sub-systems and these interactions must be clearly understood and interepreted.