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ga

II. The Big Bang multitude of motionless stars

Class 5: EVIDENCE OF THE BIG BANG ¾Gravity should cause the stars to attract each other

¾Eventually the stars should fall together

¾What keeps them in place?

We are now ready to examine the ¾N t ’ solution

¾Newton’s l ti

evidence that led scientists to

believe that the

¾The universe is infinite

BEGINNING OF TIME ¾With an infinite number of stars distributed

began with a uniformly over infinite space there would be no net

BIG BANG force on anyy ggiven star and thus the universe

would remain static.

But Newton’s solution doesn’t work: But Newton’s solution doesn’t work:

¾Newton’s infinite universe would be in an unstable ALSO

equilibrium – any small perturbation to the distribution would ¾Would not an infinite universe, with an infinite number of

cause the universe to collapse. stars produce a night sky much like that we see during the

¾T accountt for

¾To f this

thi problem,

bl Ei

Einstein

t i proposedd the

th so- day?

called “cosmological constant,” an antigravity force that

maintained a static equilibrium in the universe

¾Einstein is said to have called this proposal his ¾Perhaps not if there were clouds in

“greatest

g mistake.” deepp space

p that intercepted

p or blocked

the light from more distant stars.

¾This doesn

doesn’tt work because this scenario requires that we see a slow

transition in the light coming from local and distant stars

¾Medium range stars should appear “foggy” like the sun shining

through a thin cloud.

cloud

¾Absorption of light by clouds would eventually cause them to

glow

Big Bang Theory

The Four Pillars of the Big Bang Theory

In 1927, the Belgian priest and

scientist Georges Lemaître was the • Expansion of the Universe

first to propose that the universe – Hubble

b

began with

ith the

th explosion

l i off a • Origin

O i i Of Th

The Cosmic

C i Background

B k d Radiation

R di ti

primeval atom (Cosmic Egg). His – Penzias and Wilson

proposal came after observing the • Nucleosynthesis of the light elements

red shift in distant nebulas by • Formation of galaxies and large-scale structure

astronomers and comparing

p g to a http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/universe/b_bang.html

model of the universe based on In this lecture we will explore and examine the

relativity. The reason the stars are observations that led Hubble to demonstrate that the

not falling

f lli together:

h Theyh are still

ill universe is expanding. We will discuss the other

moving apart as a result of the three in detail later in the course.

explosion.

explosion

http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/gr/public/bb_pillars.html

¾The distances involved are enormous!

¾By 1929 Edwin Hubble’s landmark observations confirmed

the “cosmic egg/expanding universe” concept

b

brought

h the

h question

i off the

h

beginning of the universe into

the realm of science

science.” (Stephan

Hawking, A Brief History of Time)

How far is a light year? 9.47 x 1015 m. (You should be able to calculate this for yourself.)

The first step: Measuring ¾Initially astronomers used a “trigonometric or parallax

the distance of stars approach1” to measure the distance to nearby stars (i.e., those

in our galaxy).

¾A variety of methods are

¾To understand let’s review some basic trigonometry

used

¾increasing complexity Have trouble remembering

sines and cosines?

as distance from earth Use SohCahToa

grows

¾We will discuss two θ

of these methods

¾Parallax (10 - 100 ly)

¾Cepheid variable If we can measure the side B, and the angle theta (θ), then we can use

the equation

stars (500 – 10 ly) 8

L = B/[tan(θ)] 1Also referred to as the surveyor’s method

A giant leap for humankind? Knowing the size of the Earth's orbit around the sun enables parallax measurements to

reveal the distances of the nearest stars. Successive steps up the "ladder" are required, in turn, to reach nearby star

to calculate L. or triangulation.

clusters, bright variable stars, galaxies, and galaxy clusters.

Adapted from The Cosmological Ladder by Michael Rowan-Robinson.

¾A full circle: 2π radians = 360o ¾The Earth orbits around the Sun once a year, with a radial orbit, R ~ 1.5 x 1011 meters.

¾Semicircle: π radians = 180o ¾So over a 6-month pperiod the Earth pposition changes

g byy 2R ~ 3.0 x 1011 meters.

¾Right angle: π/2 radians = 90o ¾If we look at a star once in January, and again six months later in July when the Earth has

¾etc moved to the other side of its orbit, we might see the star move slightly, relative to more distant

stars in the background:

θ

θ/2

We can use the same method for a situation in which there are two such

triangles, back-to-back:

L = ½ (2B)/tan{ ½(θ)} Distance of star = L = R/{tan(θ/2)}

= (half

(h lf the

th total

t t l baseline)/tan(half

b li )/t (h lf the th total

t t l angle)

l )

Limitation of parallax method: only useful for More on parallax method:

nearbyy stars ¾For small angles

¾tan(θ/2) ~ θ/2 = R/L We are using the script

¾Why? Consider some nearby stars:

¾So in these cases: θ/2 = R/L (in radians)

“L” to represent the

distance in units of ly’s.

Our nearest neighbors are ~ 4 or θ/2 = [[R/L]] x 180/π ((in degrees)

g )

¾Substituting for R = 1.5 x 1011m, and L = (9.46 x 1015 m/ly) x L

light years away = 4 ly

How far is a light year?

θ/2 = 9.08 x 10-4 /L (in degrees)

9.47 x 1015 m. (You should be ¾Now define

able to calculate this for

yourself.) ¾1 degree=1 arcdegree=60 arcminutes=(60x60) arcseconds

¾So θ/2 = [9.08 x 10-4] [3600]/L (in arcsec’s)

What is the pparallax angle

g

observed from the earth for a In other words: = 3.26/L(ly)

3 26/ (l ) (in

(i arcsecs))

star only 1 ly away? ¾For Proxima Centauri

¾L = 4.2 ly

tan(θ/2)

( ) = R/L ¾then θ/2 = 33.26/4.2

26/4 2

= 1.5x1011m/[9.47x1015m] = 0.8 arcsecs

~ 1.59 x 10-5 (Radians) ¾For stars outside our galaxy, ~ 106

ly away, the parallax is simply too

So small to measure

How is the change from

radians to degrees done? ¾An alternate method is needed to

θ/2 = arctan(1.59x10-5) 10-5

= 1.59 x radians = 9.17 x10-4 degrees measure distance

--- this is a small angle and it gets smaller as the stars get more distant! ¾By the way: our galaxy has a size of about 30,000 ly

Astronomical Aside: The parsec unit: θ/2 = R/L Astronomical Aside: The parsec unit: (Continued)

(where θ is in radians)

¾So, a star 1 ly away has a parallax angle (θ/2) of = 3.26 arcsec’s

1.5x 1011 m

¾Alternatively, L θ/2

2 78 x 10-4 degrees = 4.85

1 arcsec = 1/3600 degrees = 2.78 4 85 x 10-6 radians

¾And

L(for parallax of 1 arcsec) = R/[θ/2] = 1.5x1011m/4.85x10-6 But as θ/2 becomes smaller, L becomes bigger so to calculate

3 09 x 1016 m

= 3.09 Parsecs from Arcsecs you have to invert:

¾Now converting to light years

L(Parsec ) =

1

L(for parallax of 1 arcsec) = 3.1 x 1016m / [9.47 x 1015m/ly] (Arcsec)

θ

= 3.26 ly 2

¾We define a parsec as the distance equivalent to observing a • 5 Arcsecs produces .2 Parsec

parallax angle (θ/2) of 1 arcsec from Earth • 2 Arcsecs pproduces .5 Parsec

¾So • 1 Arcsecs produces 1 Parsec

¾1 parsec = 1pc = 3.26 ly • 0.5 Arcsecs produces 2 Parsec

¾1 M Megaparsec = 1M 26 x 106 ly

1Mpc = 33.26 l • 0.2

0 2 Arcsecs produces 5 Parsec

¾etc • Etc.

Cepheids: Cepheid variable stars hold the key for Hubble realized that

stars in nearbyy galaxies:

g ¾By observing the period of a cepheid, an astronomer could

¾Looking at the “ladder;” these stars allow us infer the radiant power or luminosity of a star.

to measure star-distances from 500 – 108 ly’s. ¾By observing the apparent brightness of the star (or flux

¾Henrietta Leavitt (1912): Studied stars in the Milky Way.

Way arriving

i i att the

th earth)

th) andd using

i the

th fact

f t that

th t the

th flux

fl that

th t

She discovered the existence of particular type of star whose energy

arrives at the earth from a star decreases as the square of the

output varies in a periodic way

distance of the star from the earth (see next 2 pages) …

¾An astronomer can infer the distance

Luminosity and Brightness?

position to measure the distance of stars extending all the

Their utility for Hubble arose from the fact

way out to distant galaxies

that there is a very regular, predictable

When he did this he made a remarkable discovery.

discovery To

relation between the period of a Cepheid

understand this discovery, we need to review one

and the total radiant power or luminosity

other aspect of physics …the Doppler shift.

emanating from the star.

spherically. Thus the light intensity

Think of a Cepheid star as a special kind of light bulb that switches on and

(number of photons per unit area per unit

off at a particular speed depending on how bright it is is. If the bulb is 100

time) received by an observer drops off

watts, it flashes on and off every minute, but if it's a 50 watt bulb it flashes

as the square of distance - the "inverse

every 30 seconds. Since we know how these bulbs work, we can reverse

square law of radiation intensity."

our analysis: By measuring the time it takes for the bulb to switch on and

SL 1

off, we can tell how bright it must be. =

S 0 L2

Now, if the 100-watt bulb is far away, say down the street in your friend's where SL = Apparent luminosity or brightness

bedroom window, it won't seem very bright to you, as you sit on your (at a distance L from the star)

porch. But since you can measure how long it takes to flash, we can still S0 = Luminosity of star

tell how bright it must be. If you measure how bright the bulb appears to

Thus a star of the same absolute luminosity but twice as far away from

be, or, in other words, how much light is getting to you all the way down

us as another star will appear one-fourth as bright.

the street, you'll find it's a smaller number, say only 10 watts.

If S0 can be estimated for a distant object (e.g., a Cepheid variable), then

distance L can be determined.

The remaining 90 watts are getting lost on the way

way, because it gets

Alternatively, if distance can be determined (e.g., by parallax), then So

dissipated in all directions. Since light fades depending on the distance it

can be determined (e.g., for near-by Cepheid variables in our Galaxy).

has to travel to reach you, and since you know how much light has gotten

Satellite Hipparcos: Main mission was to calibrate the Cepheid variable distance scale

lost you can calculate how far it has had to travel: You can find the

lost,

that Edwin Hubble first discovered by accurately measuring the distances to near-by

distance to your friend's bedroom window. Cepheids. Knowing this distance and their apparent brightness, the absolute luminosity

of each Cepheid could be calculated.

Doppler Shift:

¾ As the velocity of a source of waves changes relative to the receiver

receiver,

the frequency and wavelength of the wave also changes

lo

http://library.thinkquest.org/19537/java/Doppler.html

Red-shift:

Red shift: λ = λo (1 + ν/c) > λo for objects moving away

Blue-shift: λ = λo (1 – ν/c) < λo , for objects converging

the spectra of light ¾Sodium (Na) has an absorption band at

arriving

i i ffrom di

distant

t t λο = 0.5 μm (= 5 x 10-7m)

stars he observed a

¾Suppose we observe a Na-like line in the spectrum of a

strangeg redshift in the

frequency and di t t star

distant t att

wavelength of the λstar = 0.506 μm

specific absorption lines ¾What is the velocity of the star relative to the earth?

associated with specific

atoms in the stars outer ¾The Doppler

pp formula:

atmosphere

t h …

λstar = λο (1 + v/c), where v = recession velocity

¾So

v = (λstar – λο) c/ λο = (0.006/0.5) 3 x 108 m/s

These are the spectral lines of burning sodium atoms,

as measured by a light spectrometer. When heated,

sodium atoms always emits spectral lines at the same 6 x 106 m/s = 3600 km/s

= 33.6

frequencies; the electromagnetic "barcode"

unambiguously demonstrates the presence of the

element.

Hubble’s Findings (as published in his 1929 paper: More recent and precise measurements suggest that Ho ~ 50 – 100 km/s/Mpc

Distance ((106 p

parsec’s = 3.26x 106 ly’s)

y )

2 The greater the distance from us the faster the stars are receding

2.

3. The recession velocity obeys the following formula: v = HoL

4. Ho = Hubble constant

The debate over the value for Ho is vigorous The scientific community’s interpretation:

¾The universe is expanding

¾At some earlier time (~ 10 – 20 bya), all matter was

contained at a single point and was ejected outward by an

explosive

l i eventt (i.e.,

(i the

th Big

Bi Bang).

B )

these conclusions and their implications

As we’ll learn in the next lecture, the picture has become even more complicated in recent

years… it appears that the rate of recession is increasing with time!

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