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Lesson: 20 The Training Process:
Contents: o Steps in training process o Training techniques o D.L. Kirpatrick’s Model on evaluation of training program As we have already discussed the concept of training and development in detail, let us now go through the six steps in the training process. All those involved in training need to be aware of the key stages in the training process, often referred to as the training cycle: Training cycle based on a human resource development plan Organisational strategy HRM strategy

Training and development strategy

Analysis of needs

Delivery of training Monitor and evaluate (Beardwellet 2001) al,

Steps in the Training Process

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1. Organizational objectives 2. Assessment of Training needs 3. Establishment of Training goals 4. Devising training programme 5. Implementation of training programme 6. Evaluation of results Let us go through the steps in training process in detail: I. Organizational Objectives and Strategies: The first step in the training process in an organization is the assessment of its objectives and strategies. What business are we in? At what level of quality do we wish to provide this product or service? Where do we want to be in the future? It is only after answering these related questions that the organization must assess the strengths and weaknesses of its human resources. II. Needs Assessment: Needs assessment diagnosis present problems and future challenges to be met through training and development? Organizations spend vast sums of money (usually as a percentage on turnover) on training and development. Before committing such huge resources, organizations that implement training programs without conducting needs assessment may be making errors. Needs assessment occurs at two levels- group and individual. An individual obviously needs training when his or her performance falls short of standards, that is, when there is performance deficiency. Inadequacy in performance may be due to lack of skill or knowledge or any other problem. The problem of performance deficiency caused by absence of skills or knowledge can be remedied by training. Faulty selection, poor job design, improving quality of supervision, or discharge will solve the problem. Assessment of training needs must also focus on anticipated skills of an employee. Technology changes fast and new technology demands new skills. It is necessary that the employee be trained to acquire new skills. This will help him/her to progress in his or her career path. Training and development is essential to prepare the employee to handle more challenging tasks. Individuals may also require new skills because of possible job transfers. Although job transfers are common as organizational personnel demands vary,

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they do not necessarily require elaborate training efforts. Employees commonly require only an orientation to new facilities and jobs. Jobs have disappeared as technology, foreign competition, and the forces of supply and demand are changing the face of our industry. Assessment of training needs occurs at the group level too. Any change in the organization’s strategy necessitates training of groups of employees. Needs Assessment Methods: How are training needs assessed? Several methods are available for the purpose. As shown below some are useful for organizationallevel need assessment and others for individual need assessment. Methods used in Training Needs assessment: Group or organizational analysis • • • • • • • • • Organizational goals and objectives. Personnel /skills inventories Organizational climate indices Efficiency indices Exit interview MBO or work planning systems Quality circles Customer survey/satisfaction data Consideration of current and projected changes Individuals Analysis • • • • • • • Performance appraisal Work sampling Interviews Questionnaires Attitude survey Training progress Rating scales.

Benefits of Needs assessment: As pointed above, needs assessment helps diagnose the causes of performance deficiency in employees. Causes require remedial actions. This being a generalized statement there are certain specific benefits of needs assessment. They are: 1. Trainers may be informed about the broader needs of the training group and their sponsoring organizations. 2. The sponsoring organizations are able to reduce the perception gap between the participant and his or her boss about their needs and expectations from the training programmes. 3. Trainers are able to pitch their course inputs course inputs closer to the specific needs of the participants.

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III. Training and Development objectives Once training needs are assessed, training and development goals must be established. Without clearly set goals, it is not possible to design a training and development programme and, after it has been implemented there will be no way of measuring its effectiveness. Goals must be tangible, verifiable, and measurable. This is easy where skills’ training is involved. For example, the successful trainee will be expected to type 55 words per minute with two or three errors per page. Nevertheless, clear behavioral standards of expected results are necessary so that the programme can be effectively designed and results can be evaluated. IV. Designing Training and Development Programme Every training and development programme must address certain vital issues 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Who participates in the programme? Who are the trainers? What methods and techniques are to be used for training? What should be the level of training? What learning principles are needed? Where is the program conducted?

Who are the trainers: Trainers should be selected on the basis of self-nomination, recommendations of supervisors or by the HR department itself. Whatever is the basis, it is advisable to have two or more target audience. For example, rank-andfile employees and their supervisors or by the HR department itself. Several people, including the following may conduct training and Development programmes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Immediate supervisors Co-workers, as in buddy systems, Members of the personnel staff, Specialists in other parts of the company, Outside consultants, Industry associations, and faculty members at universities.

Find out: What is the importance of budgets in running a training programme?
V. Methods and Techniques of training

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A multitude of methods of training is used to train employees. Training methods are categorized into two groups (i) on the job training and (ii) off-the job methods. On the job training: refers to methods that are applied in the workplace, while the employees is actually working. On-job training Cannell (1997:28) defines on-the-job training as: “Training that is planned and structured that takes place mainly at the normal workstation of the trainee- although some instruction may be provided in a special training area on site - and where a manager, supervisor, trainer or peer colleague spends significant time with a trainee to teach a set of skills that have been specified in advance.” Advantages Tailor-made course content with use of REAL company situations/examples. It is usually less expensive than off-job training Learning will take place using the equipment which will be actually used Trainees acclimatise more rapidly Disadvantages Possibility of poor instruction and insufficient time. Trainee may be exposed to bad work practices. A large amount of spoiled work and scrap material may be produced. Valuable equipment may be damaged. Training takes place under production conditions that are stressful, i.e. noisy, busy, confusing and exposing the trainee to comments by other workers.

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Off-job training Advantages A specialist instructor enables delivery of high quality training. Wider range of facilities and equipment are available. The trainee can learn the job in planned stages. It is free from the pressures and distractions of company life. It is easier to calculate the cost of off-job training because it is more self-contained Cross-fertilisation of ideas between different companies. Disadvantages Can result in transfer of learning difficulties when a trainee changes from training equipment to production equipment. No training can be entirely off-job as some aspects of the task can only be learned by doing them in the normal production setting, with its own customs and network of personal relationships. Can be more expensive. Carrying out the training Everyone involved in the training should be informed well in advance of the training session(s). It is equally important that the person(s) delivering the training – whether in-job or off-job training - are well versed in what has to be achieved and the most suitable techniques to adopt. On the Job Training • • • • • • Orientation training Job-instruction training Apprentice training Internships and assistantships Job rotation Coaching

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Off-the –job training: are used away from workplaces. • • • • • • • • • • • Vestibule Lecture Special study Films Television Conference or discussion Case study Role playing Simulation Programmed instruction Laboratory training

At this point, it is worthwhile to elaborate on important techniques of training. Let us go through the following for better understanding - lectures, audio-visuals, onthe –job training, programmed instruction, computer-aided instruction, simulation 1. Vestibule Training: This training method attempt to duplicate on-the-jobsituation in a company classroom. It is a classroom training that is often imported with the help of the equipment and machines, which are identical with those in use in the place of work. This technique enables the trainees to concentrate on learning new skill rather than on performing on actual job. This type of training is efficient to train semi-skilled personnel, particularly when many employees have to be trained for the same kind of work at the same time. Often used to train – bank tellers, inspectors, machine operators, typists etc. In this, training is generally given in the form of lectures, conferences, case studies, role-play etc. 2. Demonstrations And Example: In this type of training method trainer describes and displays something, as & when he teaches an employee, how to do something by actually performing the activity himself & going on explaining why & what he is doing. This method is very effective in teaching because it is much easier to show a person how to do a job than tell him or give him instruction about a particular job. This training is done by combination with lectures, pictures, text materials etc. 3. Lectures: Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience. The lecture is presumed to possess a considerable depth of knowledge of the subject at hand. A virtue of this method is that is can be used for very large groups, and hence the cost per trainee is low. This method is mainly used in colleges and universities, though its application is restricted in training factory employees. Limitations of the lecture method account for its low popularity. The method violates the principle of learning by practice. It constitutes a one-way communication.

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There is no feedback from the audience. Continued lecturing method can be made effective it if is combined with other methods of training. 4. Audio-visuals: Audio-visuals include television slides, overheads, videotypes and films. These can be used to provide a wide range of realistic examples of job conditions and situations in the condensed period of time. Further, the quality of the presentation can be controlled and will remain equal for all training groups. But, audio-visuals constitute a one-way system of communication with no scope for the audience to raise doubts for clarification. Further, there is no flexibility of presentation from audience to audience. 5. Programmed Instruction (PI): This is method where training is offer without the intervention of a trainer. Information is provided to the trainee in blocks, either in a book form of through a teaching machine. PI involves: 1. 2. 3. 4. Presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner Allowing the person to respond Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers If the answers are correct, the learner proceeds to the next block. If not, he or she repeats the same.

6. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI): this is an extension of the PI method. CAI provides for accountability as tests are taken on the computer so that the management can monitor each trainee’s progress and needs. CAI training program can also be modified easily to reflect technological innovations in the equipment for which the employee is being trained. This training also tends to be more flexible in that trainees can usually use the computer almost any time they want, thus get training when they prefer. 7. Apprenticeship: This method of training is usually done in crafts, trades and in technical areas. It is the oldest and most commonly used method, if the training is relatively for a longer period. Here a major part of training is spent on the job productive work. Each apprentice is given a programme of assignments according to a pre-determined schedule, which provide for efficient training in trade skills. 8. Simulation: A simulator is any kind of equipment or technique that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the job. Simulation then, is an attempt to create a realistic decision-making environment for the trainee. Simulations present likely problem situations

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and decision alternatives to the trainee. The more widely held simulation exercises are case study, role-playing and vestibule training. 9. Conference: In this method, the participating individuals confer to discuss points of common interest to each other. It is a basic to most participative group centered methods of developments. This emphasis on small group discussion, on organized subject matter and on the active participation of the members involved. There are three types of conferences, * Direct discussion: - Here trainer guides the discussion in such a way that the facts, principles or concepts are explained. * Training Conference: - The instructor gets the group to pool its knowledge and past experience and brings different points of view to bear on the problem. * Seminar Conference: - In this method instructor defines the problem, encourages and ensures the full participation in the discussion. 10. Case Studies: This method is developed in 1800S At the Harvard Law School. The case study is based upon the belief that managerial competence can best be attained through the study, contemplation and discussion of concrete cases. When the trainees are given cases to analyse, they are asked to identify the problem and recommend tentative solution for it. The case study is primarily useful as a training technique for supervisors and is specially valuable as a technique of developing discussion-making skills, and for broadening the prospective of the trainee. In case study method the trainee is expected to master the facts, should acquainted with the content of the case, define the objective sought in dealing with the issues in the case, identify the problem, develop alternative courses of action, define the controls needed to make the action effective and role play the action to test its effectiveness and find conditions that may limit it. 11. Role Playing :In role-playing trainees act out the given role as they would be in stage play. Two or more trainees are assigned parts to play before the nest of the class. Here role players are informed of a situation and of the respective roles they have to pay. Sometimes after the preliminary planning, the situation is acted out by the role players. This method primarily involves employee-employer relationship – Hiring, firing,

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discussing a grievance procedure, conducting a post appraisal interview etc. 12. Programmed Instructions: This method involves a sequence of steps that are often set up through the central panel of an electronic computer as guides in the performance of desired operation or series of operations. This method involves breaking information down into meaningful units and then arranging these in a proper way to form a logical and sequential learning. The programme involves – presenting questions, facts or problems to trainees to utilize the information given and the trainee instantly receive feedback on the basis of the accuracy of his answers. To be really effective, the training methods must fit in training programme needs to find out how effective the methods are in accomplishing their goals of modifying skills, attitudes and ultimate behaviour. V. Points in Planning Training Evaluation Why Evaluate? To monitor the quality of training Provide feedback To appraise the overall effectiveness of the investment in training To assist the development of new methods of training To aid the individual evaluate his or her own learning experience. John Dopyera and Louise Pitone identified eight decision points in planning training evaluation. They are: 1. Should an evaluation be done? Who should evaluate? 2. What is the purpose of evaluation? There are mainly two purposes of doing evaluation. They are justification evaluation and determination evaluation. Justification evaluations are undertaken as reactions to mandates. Other purposes that will make evaluation efforts more fruitful. These purposes include training needs assessment, programme improvements and impact evaluation. 3. What will be measured? The focus of the evaluation will be on training and delivery, programme content, materials, impact of training on individuals through learning, behaviour or performance change. Learning can be measured through pre-test and post-test. Evaluate the effects of training after the trainee returns to the work place using changes in between or the work results as indicators.

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4. How comprehensive will the evaluation be? The scope or the duration and comprehensiveness of the evaluation is influenced by available support, communication and evaluation purpose. 5. Who has the authority and responsibility? Who has the authority and responsibility at different stages of evaluation will be determined by the factors like personnel, credibility of internal staff, communication, objectivity of internal staff to do an evaluation regardless of results. 6. What are the sources of data? The most common sources of evaluation data are reactions, opinions and/ or test results of the participants, managers, supervisors, production records, quality control, financial records, personnel records, safety records, etc. 7. How will the data be collected and compiled? Data can be collected before training for needs analysis or pre-testing purpose, during training programme to make improvements along the way and after training for evaluation. Next step is selection of treatment or control groups and determination of nature of samples. Data can be complied either manually or by computers. 8. How will the data be analysed and reported? First reporting issue is concerned with audiences like participants or trainees, training staff, managers, customers etc. Second and third issues are concerned with analysis and results and accuracy, policies and format respectively. These decision points are intended to increase awareness of and interest in u. evaluation of training, to improve planning skills and to encourage more systematic- evaluation of training. Methods of Evaluation Various methods can be used to collect data on the outcomes of training. Some of these are: Questionnaires: Comprehensive questionnaires could be used to obtain opinion reactions, views of trainees. . Tests: Standard tests could be used to find out whether trainees have learnt anything during and after the training. Interviews: Interviews could be conducted to find the usefulness of training offered to operatives.

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Studies: Comprehensive studies could be carried out eliciting the opinions and judgments of trainers, superiors and peer groups about the training. Human resource factors: Training can also be evaluated on the basis of employee satisfaction, which in turn can be examined on the basis of decrease in employee turnover, absenteeism, accidents, grievances, discharges, dismissals, etc. Cost benefit analysis: The costs of training (cost of hiring trainers, tools to learn training centre, wastage, production stoppage, opportunity cost of trainers and trainees) could be compared with its value (in terms of reduced learning time improved learning, superior performance) in order to evaluate a training programme. Feedback: After the evaluation, the situation should be examined to identify the probable causes for gaps in performance. The training evaluation information. (about costs, time spent, outcomes, etc.) should be provided to the instructors’ trainees and other parties concerned for control, correction and improvement of trainees' activities. The training evaluator should follow it up sincerely so as to ensure effective implementation of the feedback report at every stage. Please note that no training is complete without its evaluation. That is, the follow up of a training programme is very essential. Impediments or problems in Training Process: • • • • • Management’s commitment is lacking Aggregate spending on training is inadequate The trainers may lack skills Poaching No help in case of downsizing

Evaluation of Training Programme (D L Kirpatrick’s Model) According to Kirpatrick behaviour change brought about by the training function can be divided into: Change of skill Change of Knowledge Change of Attitude Skill: Change of skill may be measured by a change in production/output

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Knowledge: Testing the conceptual clarity on the subject matter can assess change of knowledge. Here trainer deals with ‘concepts’ or ‘principle’ Attitude: Attitude change is the most difficult of behavioural change. There are three ways to evaluate attitudinal changes in an individual: I) II) III) By the subjective evaluation of others about the person; By the individual verbalization of his or her family’ By the individuals total productivity Evaluation Matrix

Levels Kirpatrick) 1. Trainee
Reactions to the job

What Might be measured?

What are the Sources of Data?

How should Data be Collected?

What are the Potential Problems?

2. Trainee Learning: Knowledge Skills attitudes

3. Trainee Behaviour On the Job

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4. Organisational Results

The Way Ahead The development of learning organizations, working to harness the brainpower, knowledge and experience of their people, reflects the fundamental importance of training and learning for those organizations that hope to prosper in the new millennium. The rend towards a more "empowering" style of management and an increasing emphasis on self-development have combined to bring about a move away from didactic instruction towards coaching and facilitation and away from "trainer" towards "performance improvement consultant". In the coming future, the following trends are likely to be seen:

Increased use of virtual reality, the internet and multimedia training

Emphasis on cross-cultural development

Remote learning to reflect changing patterns of work Article The Role of the Trainer - How to begin In the ASTD Handbook of Training Design and Delivery (2nd edition, 1999), Nancy Maresh argues that trainers should capitalize on the innate nature of the brain to: * Seek and perceive patterns * Create meanings * Integrate sensory experience * Make connections

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The trainer should aim to: - Become proficient at designing and delivering a dynamic curriculum - assess learning - effectively administer true education Maresh argues, "In the process trainers will release learners' intrinsic drive to acquire knowledge, an admirable outcome from any training." People come to learn with a variety of previous experiences, needs and skills, so Maresh advises us to create common ground as a first step in the training process - and every subsequent learning segment. By this she means entering into a dialogue with the members of the training group, acknowledging their experience and speaking directly to "the familiar frustrations, joys, and challenges that link up to the learning task at hand." This is done through a series of questions that highlight the backgrounds of individual members, identify their concerns and gain commitment to the learning process. Maresh suggests 'enrollment' questions beginning with "How many people have ever but not relying on just a show of hands. It is essential to elicit information and comments. Moreover, the trainer should repeat what members have said so that everyone hears and to validate the members who made those statements. For example, a training session on selection interviewing could begin with enrollment questions such as: * How many people here have been trained as interviewers? * How many of you have a lot of experience as interviewers, whether or not you have been trained? * And how many have very little experience of interviewing? * Any with none at all? * But surely you all been interviewed by someone else? Questions such as these should involve everyone in the room and also bring out comments, questions and friendly banter - as well as telling the trainer what level of training will be needed for the group. The common ground acts as a basis for group awareness. When the audience begins to see themselves as a group, they begin to relax and feel comfortable entering into the learning process together. The stage is now set for the trainer to address what Maresh calls the 'big why' in the trainees' minds. Remember that we are building connections and relating to previous experiences. So the purpose, method and intended results of the training need to be explained in relation to the answers given to the enrollment questions.

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The importance of the subject - especially in relation to trainees' own experience and what can be done with the learned skills when trainees get back to work should be explored. Then, Maresh advises, the trainer should say something about his or her own background, ideally using a personal story involving the subject of the training session. According to Maresh: "This connects the leader to the participants in an essential way. People's experiences are dramatic. They include emotions, mystery, tension, climaxes and humor. When personal stories are recounted, learners emotionally identify with the parts that have meaning to them, and this confirms their commitment to participate. Personal stories bond the audience to the instructor, the course content, and other participants." She also addresses the logical component of the adult learner's mind by stressing the need to provide an agenda or list of learning objectives at this point. The team members need to know what the outcomes of the course will be. References Armstrong, M (2001) A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. 8th edition, Kogan Page, London.

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Training need Analysis

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Training Need Assessment
• Organisational Analysis • Taskor role Analysis • Manpower Analysis

The Philosophy of Training
“The purpose of training and development is to maintain and improve effectiveness and efficiency of individuals within the organization. This can only have sustained effect if it influences the actions and practices of line mangers so as to serve better both - the self – interest of employees.”

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Areas of Training
• • • • Knowledge Technical Skills Social Skills Techniques

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