Global Vision International, XXXXX Report Series No.

00X ISSN XXXX-XXXX (Print)

GVI Ecuador
Rainforest Conservation and Community Development

Phase Report 084 October – December 2008

GVI Ecuador/Rainforest Conservation and Community Development Expedition Report 084 ` Submitted in whole to Global Vision International Yachana Foundation Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales (MECN) Produced by Matt Iles - Science Coordinator Jonathon Escolar – Expedition Manager And

Odette Blackmore Peter Coals John Cray Tom Dickinson Anna Ferguson Adam Hejnowicz Kelly Jones Andrew Mercer Mark Miller Anna Nelson-Smith

Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member

Sophie Paterson Nick Pope Louise Rigby Matt Smith Greg Spittle John Taylor Hannah Urpeth Sophia Vasiliou Heleen Zwallenberg

Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member

Edited by Karina Berg – Country Director

GVI Ecuador/Rainforest Conservation and Community Development Address: Casilla Postal 17-07-8832 Quito, Ecuador Email: ecuador@gvi.co.uk Web page: http://www.gvi.co.uk and http://www.gviusa.com

Executive Summary
This report documents the work of Global Vision International’s (GVI) Rainforest Conservation and Community Development Expedition in Ecuador’s Amazon region and run in partnership with the Yachana Foundation, based at the Yachana Reserve in the province of Napo. During the fourth phase of 2008 from 3 October to 15 December, GVI has:

Added 14 species to the Yachana Reserve species list bringing the total number for the Reserve to 617 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles and butterflies.

Added eleven new bird species to the reserve species list: Lesser Goldfinch (Carduelis psaltria), Crested Oropendola (Psarocolius decumanus), Swainson’s Thrush (Catharus ustulatus), Olive-faced Flatbill (Rynchocyclus olivaceus), Glowing Puffleg (Ericonemis vestitus), Black-eared Fairy (Heliothryx aurita), Olivaceous Flatbill (Rynchocyclus olivaceus), Ocellated Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus ocellatus), Straight-billed

Woodcreeper (Xiphorynchus picus), Blackburnian Warbler (Dendroica fusca) and Variable Hawk (Buteo polysoma). • Conducted five mist netting sessions for birds, which provided six of the new species additions. • Made incidental sightings of eight mammal species including Amazon Bamboo Rat (Dactylomys dactylinus), Neotropical Otter (Lontra longicaudis) and a rare sighting of a Southern Two-toed Sloth (Choloepus diadactylus) and juvenile, which proved to be new to the reserve species list. • • Trialled the use of Sherman live traps for small mammal surveying. Continued collecting swab samples from amphibians within the reserve in order to assess the status of the epidemic fungal disease Batrachochytrium dendrobatitus. • • Made a rare sighting of a Caecilian (Caecilia aff. tentaculata). Encountered twelve species of reptile including two which were new to the reserve species list; the Aquatic Coral Snake (Micurus surinamensis surinamensis) and the Spotted Water Snake (Helicops leopardinus). • • • Continued an ongoing butterfly study assessing butterfly diversity in the reserve. Trialled a new project assessing river quality through the use of benthic invertebrates. Continued with English lessons for local school children in Puerto Rico.

© Global Vision International – 2007

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Accommodated two graduate students from the Yachana Technical High School for the duration of the phase as part of a National Scholarship Program.

Welcomed two of the current students from the Yachana Technical High School to join the expedition for a week, in order to exchange language skills, knowledge and experience.

Visited a local student’s community and farm, in addition to field trips to Yasuní National Park and Sumak Allpa, an island reserve run by a local Quichua conservationist.

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Table of Contents
1 Introduction ................................................................................................................5 2 Avian Research ..........................................................................................................7 2.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................7 2.2 Methods ............................................................................................................8 2.3 Results ..............................................................................................................8 2.4 Discussion ....................................................................................................... 9 2.5 Conclusion ......................................................................................................10 3 Mammal Surveys .....................................................................................................10 3.1 Introduction .....................................................................................................10 3.2 Methods ..........................................................................................................11 3.3 Results ............................................................................................................11 3.4 Discussion ......................................................................................................12 3.5 Conclusion ......................................................................................................12 4 Herpetological Research ..........................................................................................13 4.1 Introduction .....................................................................................................13 4.2 Methods ..........................................................................................................13 4.3 Results............................................................................................................15 4.4 Discussion ......................................................................................................16 4.5 Conclusion ......................................................................................................16 5 Butterfly Surveys ......................................................................................................17 5.1 Introduction .....................................................................................................17 5.2 Methods ..........................................................................................................17 5.3 Results ............................................................................................................18 5.4 Discussion ......................................................................................................18 5.5 Conclusion ......................................................................................................18 6 Benthic Invertebrates and Stream Health .................................................................18 6.1 Introduction .....................................................................................................18 6.2 Methods ..........................................................................................................19 6.3 Results............................................................................................................19 6.4 Discussion ......................................................................................................19 6.5 Conclusion ......................................................................................................20 7 BTEC Advanced Certificate in Supervision of Biological Surveys .............................20 8 Community Development Projects ...........................................................................20 8.1 Colegio Técnico Yachana (Yachana Technical High School) ..........................20 8.2 National Scholarship Program.........................................................................21 8.3 TEFL at Puerto Rico .......................................................................................21 9 Conclusions and Future Aims ...................................................................................22 10 References ...............................................................................................................23 11 Appendix ..................................................................................................................25

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1

Introduction

The Rainforest Conservation and Community Development expedition operated by Global Vision International (GVI) is located at the Yachana Reserve in the Napo province in the Amazonian region of Ecuador. Yachana Reserve is a legally-designated Bosque Protector (Protected Forest), consisting of approximately 2000 hectares of predominantly primary lowland rainforest, as well as abandoned plantations, grassland, riparian forest, regenerating forest and a road. The Yachana Reserve is owned and managed by the Yachana Foundation. The Yachana Foundation is dedicated to finding sustainable solutions to the problems facing the Ecuadorian Amazon region. The foundation works with rainforest communities to improve education, develop community-based medical care, establish sustainable agricultural practices, provide environmentally sustainable economic alternatives, and conserve the rainforest. The Yachana Reserve is the result of the foundation’s efforts to purchase blocks of land for the purpose of conservation. The Yachana Foundation is developing a long-term plan of sustainable management for the reserve according to International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) protected forest guidelines. One of GVI’s main roles at the reserve is to provide support where deemed necessary for the development of the management plan. This includes reserve boundary determination, baseline biodiversity assessments, visitor information support, and research centre development.

GVI also works closely with the Colegio Técnico Yachana (Yachana Technical High School), a unique educational facility for students from the surrounding region. The high school provides students with meaningful education and pratical experience in sustainable agriculture, animal husbandry, conservation, eco-tourism, and small business operations. As part of their experiential learning program, students use the Yachana Reserve and GVI’s presence as a valuable educational tool. As part of their conservation curriculum, the students visit the reserve to receive hands-on training in some of GVI’s research methodology, as well as familiarization with ecological systems. On a rotational basis, students spend time at the reserve where they participate in the current research activities, and receive conversational English classes from GVI expedition members (EMs).

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Recently, GVI has also donated staff and EMs to assist the high school’s regional literacy outreach program.

GVI additionally conducts Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) classes at the nearby village of Puerto Rico, twice a week. Classes are prepared the day before and last for one hour. Groups of two or three EMs conduct the classes, covering topics such as introductions, animals, colours and expressions. This allows GVI to integrate with the local community, whilst giving volunteers the opportunity to experience first hand involvement in community development and TEFL. This is also currently laying the foundation to introduce environmental education programmes to the Puerto Rico community in the future.

GVI also works with local research institutions. The Ecuadorian Museum for Natural Sciences (MECN) provides technical assistance with field research and project development. The museum is a government research institution which houses information and conducts research on the presence and distribution of floral and faunal species throughout Ecuador. GVI has a permit through the MECN for the collection of specimens of reptiles, amphibians, small mammals and butterflies, and a permit for catching bats and birds. The data and specimens collected by GVI are being lodged with the MECN in order to make this information nationally and internationally available, and to provide verification of our field data. MECN technicians are continuously invited to the Yachana Reserve to conduct in-field training and education for GVI and Yachana students, as well as explore research opportunities otherwise unavailable. With Pontifica Universidad Catolica Ecuador (PUCE), GVI has established a collaboration involving the amphibian projects within the reserve. PUCE has requested data from the reserve to aid in their ongoing conservation efforts towards the amphibians of the neotropics. At the beginning of the phase, the staff at GVI changed completely. The effect of this change has meant a transitional period of overcoming logistical difficulties, the cessation of some projects, and the beginning of new project ideas. Due to past efforts in cataloguing diversity, a major goal for GVI in this new era is to shift focus from identifying species in the reserve to collecting data for management concerns and publication. In this way, in collaboration with all local and international partners, GVI has shifted its research focus to

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answering ecological questions related to conservation. With this focus in mind, several key goals have been identified:

Cataloguing species diversity in the Yachana Reserve in relation to regional diversity.

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Conducting long-term biological and conservation based research projects. Monitoring of biological integrity within the Yachana Reserve and the immediate surrounding area.

• • • •

Publication of research findings in primary scientific literature. Solicitation of visiting researchers and academic collaborators. Identification of regional or bio-geographic endemic species or sub-species. Identification of species that are included within IUCN or Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) appendices.

• • •

Identification of keystone species important for ecosystem function. Identification of new species, sub-species, and range extensions. Identification of charismatic species that can be valuable for the promotion of Yachana Reserve to visitors.

In order to achieve these goals, expedition members (EMs) are trained by GVI personnel to conduct research on behalf of the local partners in support of their ongoing work. This report summarises the scientific research and community-based programmes conducted during the ten-week expedition from 3 October to 15 December 2008, at Yachana Reserve.

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Avian Research

2.1 Introduction GVI continues to monitor the avian communities within the reserve and to identify additional bird species using the following three survey techniques: local bird surveys (audio and visual surveys), mist netting, and incidental sightings.

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2.2 Methods 2.2.1 Local Bird Surveys This is a qualitative survey method conducted in the more open areas within the Yachana Reserve to facilitate visual surveying of birds. Trails that pass through secondary forest, plantation forest, open grassland, riparian forest, and along the road are surveyed during the morning (0600 - 0900 h) and afternoon (1600 – 1830 h) for bird activity. The date, start and end time, species heard or seen, number, and sex if known are recorded. 2.2.2 Mist Netting In order to collect individuals for identification and banding, mist netting is conducted. Nets are opened during peak bird activity in the morning and afternoon. Mist netting allows GVI to band individuals and identify less conspicuous species otherwise impossible to observe with other methodology. Conducted consistently over time, data can be collected that identifies migratory species, and shifts in diversity and abundance. Two areas of the reserve are currently sampled - an open area of secondary forest adjacent to grassland on the Ridge trail, and a stretch of primary forest located on the Bloop trail. 2.2.3 Incidental Data Recordings Species that were encountered outside of point count and local bird surveys are also recorded if they were believed to be rare or not previously identified to be within the reserve (e.g. nocturnal species during satellite camps). Incidental sightings can take place during any of the other survey or project work within the reserve. With each incidence the time, location, date, species, and any other key characteristics or notes are taken and later entered into a database back in base camp. 2.3 Results Eleven new additions to the species list bring the total number of avian species in the reserve to 258. See Appendix A for the complete species list at Yachana Reserve compiled by GVI thus far. 2.3.1 Local Bird Surveys 14 local bird surveys were conducted at four different sights (Ridge lookouts 1 & 2, Rio Napo trail and Bloop lookout), which contributed to two new additions to the species list: Lesser Goldfinch (Carduelis psaltria) and the Crested Oropendola (Psarocolius

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decumanus). The Lesser Goldfinch is a boreal migrant to the region hence having remained undetected until now. The Crested Oropendola however, was observed on numerous occasions so it is therefore surprising it was not on the species list before. The Swallow-winged Puffbird (Chelidoptera tenebrosa) was recorded on every survey conducted on the Ridge trail lookouts, and Yellow-rumped Caciques (Cacicus cela) were also frequently recorded on both Ridge trail lookouts. 2.3.2 Mist Netting Five mist netting sessions were conducted at two different sights (Ridge trail and Upper Bloop trail) during the expedition phase. Between them they added six new species to the species list: Swainson’s Thrush (Catharus ustulatus), Olive-faced Flatbill (Rynchocyclus olivaceus), Glowing Puffleg (Ericonemis vestitus), Black-eared Fairy (Heliothryx aurita), Olivaceous Flatbill (Rynchocyclus olivaceus), and the Ocellated Woodcreeper

(Xiphorhynchus ocellatus). In total, 24 different species were captured over the five sessions. The most interesting capture was that of the Glowing Puffleg (Ericonemis vestitus), which according to Ridgely and Greenfield (2001) has only been recorded at altitudes of over 2250m. 2.3.3 Incidental Sightings Incidental sightings added two new species to the Yachana species list this phase. They were the Straight-billed Woodcreeper (Xiphorynchus picus), Blackburnian Warbler (Dendroica fusca), both seen at base camp, and the Variable Hawk (Buteo polyosoma), observed on the Ridge trail. 2.4 Discussion The addition of eleven new species to the reserve checklist is encouraging. The results of each survey method are discussed further below. 2.4.1 Local Bird Surveys Local bird surveys resulted in the addition of two new birds to the species list, and they were a useful way of exposing EMs to the birds and allowing them to appreciate the varied bird life in Yachana. The data collected is useful for documenting and identifying which species are common and which are rare within the reserve, providing valuable information to the Yachana Foundation and the Yachana Lodge, which is useful for the direction of the

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Management Plan, and the lodge’s tour guides and its visitors.

Local bird surveys

conducted throughout the year also reveal patterns of migratory species. 2.4.2 Mist Netting The mist netting surveys were particularly valuable for catching and identifying species otherwise difficult to detect or ID simply through observational methods. For this reason and also because EMs enjoy the experience, more mist netting sessions in more locations are recommended for future expeditions. 2.4.3 Incidental Sightings Incidental sightings added three new species to the list this phase, this emphasizes the need to stay alert at all times when out in the forest and the need to use alternative methods (e.g. playback and mist netting) for surveying secretive or rare bird species (Allen et al. 2004; Lacher et al. 2004). 2.5 Conclusion Avian survey work continues to focus on adding species to the reserve checklist. It is recommended however, that future expeditions focus on using the data more constructively and using statistical indices to measure species richness and diversity. More mist netting should also be conducted as these surveys are particularly productive at revealing less detectable species. Audio point counts are also planned for future expeditions to survey birds more thoroughly within the forest interior.

3 Mammal Surveys
3.1 Introduction GVI continues to document mammal species in the reserve predominately through incidental mammal and track sightings. The recording of mammals is largely confined to incidental recordings due to the fact that the occurrence of conspicuous diurnal mammals is low. Excessive mammal concentrated surveying is not sufficiently productive. However, long walks in the forest have been continued to increase chances of seeing diurnal and nocturnal mammals. The use of small mammal traps was also trialled during this phase.

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3.2 Methods 3.2.1 Small mammal traps The use of Sherman live traps was trialled during this phase, although it is thought to have been used inconsistently during previous phases. Three trapping sessions were performed at each of two different sites. Each trial consisted of 15 traps laid out for 48 hours at a time, with traps being checked at dawn and dusk. Traps were baited with a mix of peanut butter, oats and cat food, as recommended by Sutherland (1996). At the first site, on the Bloop trail in the primary forest, traps were laid out along a 150m transect and spaced at every 10m. At the second site, on the Ridge trail in the secondary forest, traps were arranged in a 20 x 20m quadrant amongst a stand of invasive grassland. 3.2.2 Incidental sightings All mammal species that were encountered outside of specific mammal surveys were recorded. Incidental sightings can take place during any of the other survey or project work within the reserve, or during long walks into the forest. At the time of each incidence the time, location, date, species, and any other key characteristics or notes are taken and later entered into a database back in base camp. 3.3 Results During this phase, eight mammal species were sighted incidentally during other survey work or walks into the forest. Of these, one was a new species to the Yachana species list. 3.3.1 Small mammal traps No animals were captured during any of the six 48 hour trapping periods. 3.3.2 Incidental sightings Incidental sightings included regular encounters with Amazon Red Squirrel (Sciurus sp.), Black Agouti (Dasyprocta fuliginosa), Black-mantled Tamarins (Saguinus nigricollis), Night Monkeys (Aotus sp.) and Water Opossum (Chironectes minimus). An Amazon Bamboo Rat (Dactylomys dactylinus) was seen on several occasions close to the Ridge lookout on the road, whilst a Neotropical Otter (Lontra longicaudis) was spotted during a long walk. A rare sighting of a Southern Two-toed Sloth (Choloepus diadactylus) and juvenile was made only 40m along the Ridge trail from base camp, proving to be a new addition to the reserve species list.

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3.4 Discussion 3.4.1 Small mammal traps The ineffectiveness of the Sherman live trap trials this phase is likely to be a result of several factors. These may include a low number of traps themselves, or a lack of exposure time, thus not allowing small mammals in the area to become accustomed to the traps and their foreign smell. 3.4.2 Incidental sightings Because of the elusiveness of many mammal species they are often difficult to survey. Incidental sightings alone have provided us with sightings of eight of the 48 mammal species (19 of which are bats from past bat netting sessions). One of the incidental sightings was new to the Yachana species list. 3.5 Conclusion In terms of the small mammal traps further experimental use is required before a standardised methodology can be established. More traps with greater spacing between traps may be more likely to provide catches. A greater amount of exposure time, allowing small mammals to become accustomed to the traps, could also provide some suitable results. Traps may also be prebated, locking the traps open without the intention of trapping in order encourage mammals to visit the traps regularly. Persistent use of the Sherman live traps could allow a whole new group of mammals to be surveyed on a regular basis, undoubtedly providing new additions to the reserve species list.

Until more rigorous and tested mammal survey methods are established, incidental sightings will provide the bulk of mammal encounters in the reserve. For this reason, night walks and long forays into the forest should be conducted regularly. These should ideally be performed in small groups in order to minimise disturbance and increase the likelihood of sightings.

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4 Herpetological Research
4.1 Introduction There are two main focuses with the amphibian and reptile research. within the reserve. The first is to

continue long term monitoring of the abundance and diversity of amphibians and lizard The second is to determine the prevalence and effects of Batrachochytrium dendrobatitus (commonly referred to as chytrid fungus) in the amphibian population at the Yachana Reserve. The chytrid fungus is the cause of the disease chytridiomycosis; the biggest threat facing amphibian species worldwide and particularly in the tropics (Daszak et al., 1999). B. dendrobatidis has been recognized as an emerging pathogen, whose spread is facilitated by the national and international movement of amphibians. First discovered in South Africa in 1938, no other records exist until 1961, and from there on cases of the disease have increased exponentially (Weldon et al., 2004). Chytrid fungus has only become a focus of global amphibian research and conservation in the past ten years, and the exact pathology of the disease is still unknown. A swab sample from Pristimantis malkini from the expedition phase 083 was found positive for chytridiomycosis following Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis at PUCE. This is the first positive sample for the chytrid fungus in Yachana Reserve, following somewhere in the region of 150 samples. This presents new challenges and objectives for the herpetology research program. 4.2 Methods 4.2.1 Stream and forest transects Amphibians and reptiles are surveyed by conducting stream walks and transects. Stream walks are conducted mainly along the primary stream (Stream 1) which runs throughout the heart of the reserve. Smaller streams are sampled as well on a less frequent basis. These walks are conducted both during the day and at night in an attempt to target amphibians and reptiles with different activity patterns. Groups of EMs led by GVI staff search along the banks and surrounding vegetation including overhanging branches and vines, which provide excellent cover for many species of tree frog. The time, position along the stream, and microhabitat are recorded for each specimen located. The individual’s snout to vent length (svl) is also noted, in addition to any physical characteristics that may aid the identification of unknown species.
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Transects are similar to stream surveys except they are conducted through a segment of forest. Again, each transect is surveyed in the morning and early evening during peak amphibian and reptile activity, by thoroughly searching in the leaf litter and the surrounding vegetation. Information recorded is the same as for the stream surveys. During both surveys, unfamiliar species of amphibians are taken back to camp for further examination and where applicable, samples are taken to send to PUCE in order to determine the status of the B. dendrobatitus pathogen. 4.2.2 Sampling of chytrid fungus In accordance with PUCE, captured amphibians are swabbed for PCR analysis in order to detect the presence of B. dendrobatitus. This involves swabbing the individual 30 times across the belly and a further 15 times on each leg, focusing on the groin region where the fungus is thought to be concentrated. Amphibians are then euthanized using the anaesthetic Lidocain. A tissue sample is then taken from the frogs left thigh and an additional sample is taken from the liver. PUCE then uses these tissue samples to add to gene database of the amphibians of Latin America. This is part of a wider project linked to work at PUCE involving the captive breeding of rare and endemic species with the aim of reintroductions. Following a positive chytrid sample from a Prystimantis malkini individual in the phase 083, the focus of the chytrid research changed slightly. Previously the aim was to swab and take tissue samples from five individuals of each species in the reserve. PUCE recommended that in order to rapidly assess the status of the chytrid fungus in the P. malkini population, GVI should swab as many individuals as possible in the field. The collection of tissue samples was put on hold during this phase. 4.2.3 Incidental sightings Species that were encountered outside of stream and forest transect surveys were also recorded. A record is kept for all incidental reptile sightings, including their location. Where appropriate amphibian individuals were swabbed in the field and svl was recorded.

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4.3

Results

4.3.1 Stream and forest transects Seven stream transects were conducted during the phase, five of which took place in Steam 1, the largest stream running through the reserve. 77 individual amphibians were encountered. The overwhelmingly common species were the Engostymops petersi and Pristimantis malkini. Also of note was a sighting of an uncommon Centrolenid Glass Frog, (Cochranella midas). With regards to reptiles, stream walks provided sightings of the impressive Amazon Tree Boa (Corallus enydris enydris), a Fer-de-Lance (Bothrops atrox) and the Orange-ringed Coral Snake (Mircurus hemprichii ortoni). Two transect surveys were also performed in the forest, each consisting of a search in the morning and the same night. Eight frogs were found during the two surveys in addition to two sightings in one night of the Dwarf Climbing Salamander (Bolitoglossa peruviana). Two of the amphibians escaped before identification could take place, whilst three frogs on one of the night surveys proved to Epipedobates bilinguis. Also sighted on a forest transect was a Slender Anole (Anolis fuscoauratus), amongst other unidentified Gymnophthalmidae lizards. 4.3.2 Sampling of chytrid fungus Following the positive chytrid sample from a Pristimantis malkini individual in the phase 083, chytrid sampling was primarily performed on the majority of amphibian individuals encountered in the field. Stream 1, where the positive individual was found, was the focus of much of the sampling whilst sampling efforts predominantly targeted P. malkini. In total, 36 individual amphibians were swabbed, of which 27 were P. malkini. These swab samples are currently being analysed by PUCE. 4.3.3 Incidental sightings A rare sighting of a Caecilian (Caecilia aff. tentaculata) was made early on in the phase. Incidental reptile sightings included Common Blunt-headed Tree Snake (Imantodes cenchoa), Black-headed Snake (Tantilla melanocephala melanocephala), Bridled forest Gecko (Gonatodes humeralis), Collared Forest Gecko (Gonatodes concinnatus), Common Bird Snake (Pseustes poecilonotus), Fer-de-Lance (Borthops atrox) and Olive Whipsnake (Chironius fuscus). Also seen on one of the phases’ last stream walks were the Aquatic

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Coral Snake (Micurus surinamensis surinamensis) and the Spotted Water Snake (Helicops leopardinus), both new to the species list. 4.4 Discussion 4.4.1 Stream and forest transects Many frogs were encountered on the stream and forest transects. Many of these were the rain frog species Engostymops petersi and Pristimantis malkini. P. malkini in particular was being specifically targeted as part of the chytrid sampling regime. Many individual amphibians were encountered on these surveys, although reptiles were markedly fewer. Eleven amphibian species and four reptile species were encountered on these surveys, representing a small proportion of those on the reserve species list. 4.4.2 Sampling of chytrid fungus 27 Pristimantis malkini individuals were swabbed, conforming to PUCE’s request to target this species in and around the area where the positive chytrid swab sample was found in the last phase. This will hopefully shed some light, following swab sample analysis, on the prevalence of the chytrid fungus in the P. malkini population in this area of the reserve, which is obviously a high priority, following the first positive chytrid result in the Yachana reserve. 4.4.3 Incidental sightings Incidental sightings provided the bulk of reptile encounters. Two new species were added to the list on this expedition, both of which were on a night walk outside of the stream and forest transects. Fewer frogs were noted incidentally, but this is likely to be a side effect of staff and EMs targeting mammals and reptiles, which are seen less frequently, 4.5 Conclusion The small number of species encountered during survey work is likely to be a result of targeting frogs, specifically Engostymops petersi and Pristimantis malkini as part of the chytrid survey work. It is unsure where PUCE will require GVI to direct the chytrid research in the forthcoming phases, but this is likely to be dependent upon the swab sample results from this phase. Stream walks and long forays into the forest provide an excellent opportunity to encounter amphibians and reptiles, so should be conducted regularly,

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preferably in small groups in order to minimise disturbance and increase the likelihood of sightings.

Much of the survey work during this phase was concentrated in or around Stream 1. If more survey work was to be performed further afield in the reserve, it is likely that a larger number of reptile species would be encountered more regularly. This should therefore be an aim for the next expedition phase. There is also huge scope to attempt new survey methods for reptiles and amphibians. One such example is the use of pitfall traps in order to survey ground dwelling species. This would undoubtedly provide new additions to the species list.

5 Butterfly Surveys
5.1 Introduction During this phase GVI continued to survey the reserve for the purpose of identifying new species using both sweep-nets, which target nectar or fruit eating butterflies and baited traps, which target carrion eating butterflies. 5.2 Methods Butterflies are primarily surveyed by means of two complementary methods: sweep-nets and baited traps. Sites were selected according to geographical location within the reserve and habitat type. The various major habitats e.g. primary forest, old plantation, secondary forest etc. were surveyed independently. Traps are set for one day at a time and monitored for several hours between 0800 and 1500 h. Baited traps are set using rotting fish and other rotting fruit with sugar. While baited traps are set, sweep-netting is also conducted to assess the assemblage of nectar-eating butterflies in each area. All butterflies caught are either identified in the field using photographic references or otherwise specimens are taken. Pictures of those that are not identifiable are compiled on a phase-by-phase basis and are allocated a unique identification code. Photos of unidentified specimens are sent the MECN in Quito.

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5.3 Results Overall, 216 specimens were caught during six trapping sessions. Surveys ranged from three and five hours in duration. Between 20 and 49 individuals were caught. 53 different species were captured, of which none were new to the species list. 5.4 Discussion Butterfly surveys continue to provide captures of many species. In this phase, all butterflies captured were thought to have been seen in the reserve before. This is somewhat in contrast to previous phases, where new additions to the reserve species list were regularly noted. This may be because many of the species in the reserve have been seen in previous phases, or this may be due to the inexperience in butterfly identification skills of the new staff running the project. Incorrect identification of some butterfly species may have occurred due to the close morphological similarities between species of the same sub-families, particularly the Ithomiinae and the Heliconiinae, and for this reason new species may have been overlooked. 5.5 Conclusion Data collected up until the beginning of this phase is currently being analysed to provide the basis for a research paper examining the differences in butterfly community structure between primary and secondary rainforest. No specific aims have been set out for the next phase and due to staff turnover and new interests, it may be that butterfly surveys are used only as a tool to teach students at the Yachana Technical High School and to provide additional survey experience to EMs.

6 Benthic Invertebrates and Stream Health
6.1 Introduction Monitoring the biodiversity of benthic macro invertebrates has been indicated as a superior measure of water quality and overall stream health (Karr, 1999). In much of temperate North America and Europe, national environmental groups have included macro invertebrate diversity in measures of acceptable water quality. In most cases, workers compare the diversity of a stream to a certain set index that represents pristine quality. In the tropics however, little work has been done to create these indices. The long-term aim of this project will be the ongoing monitoring of the streams present in the reserve;

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collecting comparable data from the various stream sections regularly in order to assess quality. Several obstacles currently exist; namely a lack of expertise within this field of study and a lack of identification guides specific to the area. Therefore, the current phase has tested a pilot project to be replicated and strengthened for subsequent expedition phases. 6.2 Methods The methodology for sampling freshwater streams can be varied and is often dictated by the structure of the stream. The streams in the reserve are mainly shallow, wide and with a variety of riffles and pools. Therefore we employ the use of kick net, surber net and hand collection in order to collect a representative sample for the streams. Specimens are pooled with the aim of either collecting a target quantity of specimens per stream/site, or collecting specimens from a standardised sample number, e.g. 15 kick samples. Specimens can then be identified to the family level and total counts made for each group. A standardised index can then be used to compare the abundance of family groups that demonstrate sensitivity to stream health, or those that indicate the presence or absence of certain physical characteristics in a stream. 6.3 Results Multiple trials were made throughout this phase, experimenting with different methods of collection (i.e. net type) and different methodology aims (i.e. number of individuals vs. standardised number of samples). 21 target families were found regularly in the preliminary samples, whilst a couple of unidentified specimens were omitted from the results, as advised by Carrera & Fierro (2001). Indexes were calculated but no direct comparisons were made between streams/sites, due to the preliminary nature of the trials made in this phase. 6.4 Discussion Of the possible combinations of sample method available, use of a surber net provided the greatest number of individuals. Hand collection was also successful in collecting some of the larger and more charismatic benthic invertebrates. Specimens proved to be easy to identify to the family level using an ID sheet from Carrera & Fierro (2001) and hand lenses (10x magnification).

19

6.5 Conclusion The ease of specimen collection and identification provides promise for this new project. Methods must be standardised early on in the next phase, whilst a regime for sampling different sites along the streams present in the reserve must be established in order to collect accurate, replicable data.

7 BTEC Advanced Certificate in Supervision of Biological Surveys
EMs who join for a five or ten week expedition, have the opportunity of completing a BTEC course in the Supervision of Biological Surveys, equalling the standard of an A-level equivalent qualification. The course consists of five units, ranging in content from Target Species Identification, Survey Techniques, to learning about Expedition Logistics, and Community Development. This course is a hands-on applied course that builds on the training and knowledge that all EMs receive during the initial training week and throughout their expedition time. Over the course of the ten weeks we certified eight EMs. During this expedition phase we allowed EMs to choose an area of specialization and conduct their assignments based on their own interests. Through this method, we allowed EMs with special abilities to improve and enhance our data collection.

8 Community Development Projects
8.1 Colegio Técnico Yachana (Yachana Technical High School) A large component of the expedition is exchange with students from the high school. This expedition phase we began three new collaborative projects which resulted in a greater period of interaction. The first project was to have GVI and EMs assist the students in their environmental education class. On three occasions GVI participated in a project to map the boundaries and major trails of the protected forest owned behind the high school. GVI's presence allowed for efficient mapping, a smaller student to teacher ratio, cultural exchange, and English and Spanish language practice. A second project was to teach ecological survey methods to students so they can reproduce projects at the school. On three separate occasions high school students came to the reserve, received training and then practiced methods such as sampling for aquatic insects, reforestation of native trees, and amphibian collection. The third project was to participate in the government sponsored literacy outreach program. Students in their third year are obligated to

20

participate in an outreach literacy program. Here in the Upper Napo area, this program is critically needed. GVI is participating in this program to add environmental education to the programs contents. 8.2 National Scholarship Program Students from the Yachana High School are offered a one to two week internship on the expedition. Each week two or three students become integral members of the expedition during which they are involved in all aspects of the expedition, including survey work, camp duty and satellite camps. Conversation sessions are also arranged between the students and EMs, or staff. During the last phase two students participated on the expedition. The students are of great assistance during field work, sharing their knowledge about local uses for plants as well as helping with the scheduled work. They also shared their culture with both staff and EMs through outlets such as, teaching traditional basketweaving, traditional achiote-painting, providing indigenous language (Quichua and Chachi) and cooking lessons e.g. empanadas, teaching the uses of medicinal plants and demonstrating how to build several animal traps. 8.3 TEFL at Puerto Rico Formal English classes were provided by EMs and staff for one hour on Tuesdays and Thursdays, to school children from the neighbouring community of Puerto Rico. The relationship with Puerto Rico is continuing to grow and strengthen and GVI is looking to provide environmental education programmes to the community in the future as part of the conservation work that is done here. For example, upon invitation by the school teacher, GVI was asked to tutor some of the older students at Puerto Rico who can only attend school twice a week due to work obligations. GVI hopes to continue these tutorial sessions. Puerto Rico is the nearest discrete community to the reserve and as such, GVI’s relationship with the community is an important component of the expedition providing benefit to both its residents and GVI EMs.

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9 Conclusions and Future Aims
The biodiversity programme will be continued, opportunistically re-surveying sites, and expanding the survey areas within the reserve. The MECN continues to provide taxonomic support and this will be continued with specimens being lodged at the MECN for identification, thereby also increasing Ecuador’s national specimen collection. Research into the status of the chytrid fungus in the reserve will continue in accordance with PUCE. The focus of the avian research program will be expanded to include more mist netting and audio point counts, in order to monitor bird species less detectable by visual means. Mammal trapping will be further trialled in the next expedition in order to allow small mammals to become accustomed to the traps and moreover to establish a methodology for regularly surveying populations in the reserve. In order to monitor stream health through surveying benthic invertebrates, methods must be standardised in the next phase, whilst a regime for sampling different sites along the streams present in the reserve must be established. It is intended for a new research project to commence in the next phase focusing on the reserve’s dung beetle community, as they provide an excellent indication of habitat stability and biodiversity. The BTEC course will continue to be offered and run for all interested EMs. An ongoing aim of the expedition is to attract high quality researchers and departments interested in conducting research in the reserve with the assistance of GVI staff and expedition members to carry out the field work. GVI will continue to co-ordinate projects with the Yachana Foundation as determined by the goals in the Reserve Management Plan, such as marking the reserve boundary and mapping land use. GVI will continue with its TEFL classes in Puerto Rico. GVI will aim to further develop the possibilities of working more closely with the Yachana Technical High School.

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10 References
Allen, T., Ginkbeiner, S.L., and Johnson, D.H., 2004. Comparison of detection rates of breeding marsh birds in passive and playback surveys at Lacreek National Wildlife refuge, South Dakota. Waterbirds 27, 277-281.

Daszak, P., Berger, L., Cunningham, A.A., Hyatt, A.D., Green, D.E., Speare. R., 1999. Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 5, 735-48. Karr, J.R., 1999. Defining and measuring river health. Freshwater Biology 41: 221-234.

Kroodsma, D.E., 1984. Songs of the Alder Flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum) and Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) are innate. Auk 101, 13-24.

Lacher, T., 2004. Tropical Ecology, Assessment, and Monitoring (TEAM) Initiative: Avian Monitoring Protocol version 3. Conservation International, Washington, DC. www.teaminitiative.org. Ridgely, R.S., Greenfield, P.J., 2001. The birds of Ecuador. Volume I. Status, Distribution, and Taxonomy. Cornell University Press, New York. Sutherland, W.J., 1996. Ecological census techniques: a handbook. University press, Cambridge. Weldon, C., du Preez, L.H., Hyatt, A.D., Muller, R., Speare, R., 2004. Origin of the amphibian chytrid fungus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10 (Issue 12).

References used in the field to identify species: Bartlett, R.D., Bartlett, P., 2003. Reptiles and amphibians of the Amazon. An ecotourist’s guide. University Press of Florida, Gainsville.

Bollino, M., Onore G., 2001. Butterflies & moths of Ecuador. Papilionidae. Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito.

Volume 10a. Familia:

23

Carrera, C., Fierro, K., 2001. Manual de monitoreo los macroinvertebrados acuáticos. EcoCiencia, Quito.

Carrillo, E., Aldás, S., Altamirano, M., Ayala, F., Cisneros, D. Endara, A., Márquez, C., Morales, M., Nogales, F, Salvador, P., Torres, M.L., Valencia, J., Villamarín, F., Yánez, M., Zárate, P., 2005. Lista roja de los reptiles del Ecuador. Novum Milenium, Quito. de la Torre, S., 2000. Primates of Amazonian Ecuador. SIMBIOE, Quito. DeVries, P.J., 1997. The butterflies of Costa Rica and their natural history. Volume II: Riodinidae. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Duellman, W.E., 1978. The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. The University of Kansas, Lawrence. Eisenberg, J.F., Redford, K.H., 1999. Mammals of the neotropics: The central neotropics. Volume 3 Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Emmons, L.H., Feer, F., 1997. Neotropical rainforest mammals. A field guide, second edition. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Moreno E., M., Silva del P., X., Estévez J., G., Marggraff, I., Marggraff, P., 1997. Mariposas del Ecuador. Occidental Exploration and Production Company, Quito. Neild, A.F.E., 1996. The butterflies of Venezuela. Meridain Publications. London. Ridgely, R.S., Greenfield, P.J., 2001. The birds of Ecuador. Volume I. Status, distribution and taxonomy. Christopher Helm, London.

Ridgely, R.S., Greenfield, P.J., 2001. The birds of Ecuador. Volume II. A field guide. Christopher Helm, London. Tirira S., D., 2001. Libro rojo de los mamíferos del Ecuador. SIMBIOE/EcoCiencia, Quito.

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11 Appendix

Yachana Reserve, Napo

Columbia

Laguna

Stream 1

Caimencocha
Laguna

Frontier

Green Inferno

Stream 1 Bloop
PC17 Bloop Swamp

Inca Cascada Stream 1

Road

Cascada Stream

Stream 1

Ficus

Agua Santa

Ridge and Road

N
Rio Napo

- Ridge trail

Access Routes

Ridge

GVI Base Camp

25

Yachana Reserve species list (new additions from 084 in red).
Birds Scientific name Opisthocomidae Opisthocomus hoazin Hoatzin Cotinga cayana Strigiformes Plum-throated Cotinga Bare-necked Fruitcrow White-browed Purpletuft Purple throated Fruitcrow Dendrocolaptidae Dendrexetastes rufigula Lepidocolaptes albolineatus Pipridae Chiroxiphia pareola Blue-backed Manakin White-crowned Manakin Blue-crowned Manakin Striped Manakin White-bearded Manakin Golden-headed Manakin Dwarf Tyrant Manakin Crows, Jays, and Magpies Violaceous Jay Thamnophilidae Cercomacra cinerascens Chamaeza nobilis Dichrozona cincta Frederickena unduligera Corvidae Cyanocorax violaceus Formicarius analis Hersilochmus dugandi Hylophlax naevia Apodiformes Apodidae Chaetura cinereiventris Grey-rumped Swift White-collared Swift Catharus ustulatus Trochilidae Amazilia franciae cyanocollis Andean Emerald Hummingbird Glittering-throated Emerald Black-throated Mango Napo Sabrewing Glowing Puffleg Buff-tailed Sicklebill Rufous -breasted Hermit Black-eared Fairy Straight-billed Hermit White-bearded Hermit Great-billed Hermit Fork-tailed Woodnymph Troglodytidae Campylorhynchus turdinus Donacobius atricapillus Henicorhina leucosticta Microcerculus marginatus Wrens Thrush-like Wren Black-capped Donacobius White-breasted Wood-wren Southern Nightingale-Wren Hirundinidae Atticora fasciata Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Tachycineta albiventer Swallows and Martins White-banded Swallow Southern rough-winged swallow White-winged Swallow Amazilia fimbriata Anthracothorax nigricollis Campylopterus villaviscensio Eriocnemis vestitus Eutoxeres condamini Glaucis hirsuta Heliothryx aurita Phaethornis bourcieri Phaethornis hispidus Phaethornis malaris Thalurania furcata Turdus lawrencii Hummingbirds Turdus albicollis Turdidae Thrushes Swainson's Thrush White-necked Thrush Lawrence's Thrush Streptoprocne zonaris Swifts Vireo olivaceus Vireonidae Vireos, Peppershrikes, and Shrike Vireos Red-eyed Vireo Hylophylax poecilinota Hypocnemis cantator Hypocnemis hypoxantha Myrmeciza hyperythra Myrmeciza immaculata Myrmeciza melanoceps Myrmotherula hauxwelli Myrmotherula longipennis Myrmotherula ornata Myrmotherula obscura Myrmornis torquata Myrmothera campanisona Phlegopsis erythroptera Pithys albifrons Thamnomanes ardesiacus Thamnophilus murinus Thamnophilus schistaceus Schistocichla leucostigma Typical Antbirds Gray Antbird Striated Antthrush Banded Antbird Undulated Antshrike Black-faced Antthrush Dugand's Antwren Spot-backed Antbird Scale-backed Antbird Warbling Antbird Yellow-browed Antbird Plumbeous Antbird Sooty Antbird White-shouldered Antbird Plain-throated Antwren Long-winged Antwren Ornate Antwren Short-billed Antwren Wing-banded Antbird Thrush-like Antpitta Reddish-winged Bare-eye White Plumbed Antbird Dusky-throated Antshrike Mouse-colored Antshrike Plain-winged Antshrike Spot-winged Antbird Caprimulgiformes Nyctibiidae Nyctibius aethereus Nyctibius grandis Great Potoo Common Potoo Tyranneutes stolzmanni Caprimulgidae Nyctidromus albicollis Pauraque Ocellated Poorwill Nyctiphrynus ocellatus Nightjars and Nighthawks Pipra erythrocephala Nyctibius griseus Manacus manacus Long-tailed Potoo Machaeropterus regulus Potoos Lepidothrix coronata Dixiphia pipra Manakins Xiphorhynchus ocellatus Xiphorhynchus guttatus Xiphorhynchus picus Woodcreepers Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper Lineated Woodcreeper Ocellated Woodcreeper Buff-throated Woodcreeper Straight-billed Woodcreeper Sclerurus caudacutus Strigidae Glaucidium brasilianum Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl Crested owl Tropical Screech-Owl Tawny-bellied Screech-owl Spectacled owl Querula purpurata Lophostrix cristata Otus choliba Otus watsonii Pulsatrix perspicillata Iodopleura isabellae Typical Owls Gynnoderus foetidus Cotinga maynana Philydor pyrrhodes Spangled Cotinga Automolus rubiginosus Scaled Fruiteater Ampelioides tschudii Furnariidae Hoatzin Cotingidae Cotinga Passeriformes Ovenbirds Ruddy Foliage-gleaner Cinammon-rumped Foliage-gleaner Black-tailed Leaftosser English name Scientific name English name Scientific name Birds Birds English name

Birds

Scientific name

English name

Tinamiformes

Tinamidae

Tinamous

Crypturellus bartletti

Bartlett's Tinamou

Crypturellus cinereus

Cinereous Tinamou

Crypturellus soui

Little Tinamou

Crypturellus undulatus

Undulated Tinamou

Crypturellus variegatus

Variegated Tinamou

Tinamus major

Great Tinamou

Ciconiformes

Ardeidae

Herons, Bitterns and Egrets

Ardea cocoi

Cocoi Heron

Bubulcus ibis

Cattle Egret

Egretta caerulea

Little Blue Heron

Tigrisoma lineatum

Rufescent Tiger-Heron

Cathartidae

American Vultures

Cathartes aura

Turkey Vulture

Cathartes melambrotus

Greater Yellow-headed Vulture

Coragyps atractus

Black Vulture

Sarcoramphus papa

King Vulture

Falconiformes

Accipitridae

Kites, Eagles, Hawks, and Osprey

Buteo magnirostris

Roadside Hawk

Buteo polyosoma

Variable Hawk

Elanoides forficatus

Swallow-tailed Kite

Harpagus bidentatus

Double-toothed Kite

Ictinia plumbea

Plumbeous Kite

Leptodon cayanensis

Gray-headed Kite

Leucopternis melanops

Black-faced Hawk

Leucopternis albicollis

White Hawk

Pandion haliaetus

Osprey

Falconidae

Falcons and Caracaras

Daptrius ater

Black Caracara

Falco rufigularis

Bat Falcon

Ibycter americanus

Red-throated Caracara

Herpetotheres cachinnans

Laughing Falcon

Micrastur gilvicollis Trogoniformes Trogonidae Pharomachrus pavoninus Trogon melanurus Trogon viridis Trogon collaris Trogon rufus Trogon violaceus Trogon curucui Trogons and Quetzals Pavonine Quetzal Black-tailed Trogon

Lined Forest-Falcon Polioptilidae Microbates cinereiventris Parulidae Basileuterus fulvicauda Dendroica fusca Dendroica striata Black-throated Trogon Amazonian Violaceous Trogon Blue-crowned Trogon Piciformes Galibulidae Jacamerops aureus Coraciiformes Alcedinidae Chloroceryle amazona Kingfishers Amazon Kingfisher Bucconidae Chelidoptera tenebrosa Malacoptila fusca Jacamars Great Jacamar Puffbirds Swallow-winged Puffbird White-chested Puffbird Gnatcatchers and Gnatwrens Tawny-faced Gnatwren New World Warblers Buff-rumped Warbler Blackburnian Warbler Blackpoll Warbler Thraupidae Chlorophanes spiza Cissopis leveriana Creugops verticalis Cyanerpes caeruleus Dacnis flaviventer Euphonia laniirostris Euphonia rufiventris Euponia xanthogaster Euphonia chrysopasta Habia rubica Thraupidae cont. Hemithraupis flavicollis Piranaga olivacea Yellow-backed Tanager Scarlet Tanager Tanagers, Honeycreepers, Bananaquit, and Plushcap Green Honeycreeper Magpie Tanager Rufous-crested Tanager Purple Honeycreeper Yellow-bellied Dacnis Thick-billed Euphonia Rufous-bellied Euphonia Orange-bellied Euphonia White-lored Euphonia Red-crowned Ant-Tanager

Micrastur semitorquatus

Collared Forest-Falcon

Milvago chimachima

Yellow-headed Caracara

Galliformes

Cracidae

Curassows, Guans, and Chachalacas

Amazonian White-tailed Trogon Collared Trogon

Nothocrax urumutum

Nocturnal Curassow

Ortalis guttata

Speckled Chachalaca

Penelope jacquacu

Spix's Guan

Odontophoridae

New World Quails

Odontophorus gujanensis

Marbled Wood-Quail

Charadriiformes

Scolopacidae

Sandpipers, Snipes and Phalaropes

Actitis macularia

Spotted Sandpiper

© Global Vision International – 2007

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Tringa solitaria Green Kingfisher Green and Rufous Kingfisher Ringed Kingfisher Notharchus macrorynchos White-necked Puffbird Tangara callophrys Capitonidae Capita aurovirens Scarlet-crowned Barbet Gilded Barbet Lemon-throated Barbet Tersina viridis Ramphastidae Pteroglossus azara Ivory-billed Aracari Chestnut-eared Aracari Lettered Aracari Many-banded Aracari Channel-billed Toucan White-throated Toucan Golden-collared Toucanet Emberizidae Ammodramus aurifrons Picidae Campephilus melanoleucos Crimson-crested Woodpecker Red-necked Woodpecker Chestnut Woodpecker Cream-coloured Woodpecker Scale-breasted Woodpecker Spot-breasted Woodpecker Lineated Woodpecker Yellow-tufted Woodpecker Lafresnaye's piculet Smoky-brown Woodpecker Little Woodpecker Icteridae Cacicus cela Cacicus solitarius Clypicterus oseryi Icterus chrysocephalus Icterus croconotus Molothrus oryzivorous Psarocolius angustifrons Psarocolius decumanas Psarocolius viridis Fringillidae Carduelis psaltria Campephilus rubricollis Celeus elegans Celeus flavus Celeus grammicus Chrysoptilus punctigula Dryocopus lineatus Melanerpes cruentatus Picumnus lafresnayi Veniliornis fumigatus Veniliornis passerinus Woodpeckers and Piculets Oryzoborus angloensis Cardinalidae Cyanocompsa cyanoides Saltator grossus Saltator maximus Pteroglossus castanotis Pteroglossus inscriptus Pteroglossus pluricinctus Ramphastos vitellinus Ramphastos tucanus Selenidera reinwardtii Toucans Thraupis episcopus Thraupis palmarum Tangara xanthogastra Tangara schrankii Capita auratus Eubucco bourcierii Tyrannidae Attila spadiceus Bright-rumped Attila Lemon-browed Flycatcher Yellow-throated Flycatcher Eastern Wood-Pewee White-eyed Tody-tyrant Piratic Flycatcher Screaming Piha Boat-billed Flycatcher Dusky-capped Flycatcher Short-crested Flycatcher Whiskered Flycatcher Streaked Flycatcher Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher Ochre-bellied Flycatcher Gray-capped Flycatcher Dusky-chested Flycatcher Social Flycatcher Drab Water-Tyrant Black-capped Becard Great Kiskadee Olivaceous Flatbill Grayish Mouner Black-tailed Tityra Black-crowned Tityra Masked Tityra Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher Gray-crowned Flatbill Olive-faced Flatbill Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet Fork-tailed Flycatcher Eastern Kingbird Tropical Kingbird Slender-footed Tyrannulet Conopias cinchoneti Conopias parva Contopus virens Hemitriccus zosterops Legatus leucophaius Lipaugus vociferans Megarynchus piangu Myiarchus tuberculifer Myiarchus ferox Myiobius barbatus Myiodynastes maculatus Myiodynastes luteiventris Mionectes oleagineus Myiozetetes granadensis Myiozetetes luteiventris Myiozetetes similis Ochthornis littoralis Pachyramphus marginatus Pitangus sulphuratus Rhynchocyclus olivaceus Rhytipterna simplex Tityra cayana Tityra inquisitor Tityra semifasciata Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum Tolmomyias poliocephalus Tolmomyias viridiceps Tyrannulus elatus Tyrannus savana Tyrannus tyrannus Tyrannus melancholicus Zimmerius gracilipes Tyrant Flycatchers Tangara mexicana New World Barbets Tangara chilensis Momotidae Baryphthengus martii Rufous Motmot Broad-billed Motmot Blue-crowned Motmot Electron platyrhynchum Momotus momota Motmots Tachyphonus cristatus Monasa nigrifrons Black-fronted Nunbird Ramphocelus nigrogularis Monasa morphoeus White-fronted Nunbird Ramphocelus carbo Yellow-billed Nunbird Summer Tanager Chloroceryle inda Megaceryle torquata

Solitary Sandpiper

Chloroceryle americana

Monasa flavirostris

Piranaga rubra

Silver-beaked Tanager Masked Crimson Tanager Flame-crested Tanager Opal-crowned Tanager Paradise Tanager Turquoise Tanager Green-and-gold Tanager Yellow-bellied Tanager Swallow Tanager Blue-gray Tanager Palm Tanager Saltators, Grosbeaks, and Cardinals Blue-black Grosbeak Slate-colored Grosbeak Buff-throated Saltator Emberizine Finches Yellow-browed Sparrow Lesser Seed-Finch Cardueline Finches Lesser Goldfinch American Orioles and Blackbirds Yellow-rumped Cacique Solitary Cacique Casqued Oropendola Moriche Oriole Orange-backed Troupial Giant Cowbird Russet-backed Oropendola Crested Oropendola Green Oropendola

Recurvirostridae

Plovers and Lapwings

Hoploxypterus cayanus

Pied Plover

Gruiformes

Rallidae

Rails, Gallinules, and Coots

Anurolimnatus castaneiceps

Chestnut-headed Crake

Aramides cajanea

Gray-necked Wood-Rail

Columbiformes

Columbidae

Pigeons and Doves

Claravis pretiosa

Blue Ground-Dove

Columba plumbea

Plumbeous Pigeon

Geotrygon montana

Ruddy Quail-Dove

Leptotila rufaxilla

Gray-fronted Dove

Psittaciformes

Psittacidae

Parrots and Macaws

Amazona farinosa

Mealy Amazon

Amazona ochrocephala

Yellow-crowned Amazon

Ara severa

Chestnut-fronted Macaw

Aratinga leucophthalmus

White-eyed Parakeet

Aratinga weddellii

Dusky-headed Parakeet

Pionites melanocephala

Black-headed Parrot

Pionopsitta barrabandi

Orange-cheeked Parrot

Pionus menstruus

Blue-headed Parrot

Pionus chalcopterus

Bronze-winged Parrot

Pyrrhura melanura

Maroon-tailed Parakeet

Cuculiformes

Cuculidae

Cuckoos and Anis

Crotophaga ani

Smooth-billed Ani

Crotophaga major

Greater Ani

Piaya cayana

Squirrel Cockoo

Piaya melanogaster

Black-bellied Cuckoo

Piaya melanogaster

Black-bellied Cuckoo

© Global Vision International – 2007

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Mammals Scientific name English name Caecilians Typhlonectidae Collared forest gecko Bridled forest gecko Amazon pygmy gecko Bolitoglossa peruviana Dwarf climbing salamander Toads Cane Toad Crested Forest Toad Sharp-nosed Toad Leaf Toads Orange bellied leaf toad Glass Frogs undescribed Glass Frog Glass Frog Glass Frog Glass Frog Poison Frogs Gymnophphthalmidae Alopoglossus striventris Black-bellied forest lizard Reticulated creek lizard Rhinella complex margaritifer Common forest lizard Common streamside lizard White-striped eyed lizard Dendrophryniscus minutus Iguanas Hoplocercidae Enyalioides laticeps Amazon forest dragon Cochranella anetarsia Polychrotidae Anolis fuscoauratus Slender anole Yellow-tongued forest anole Amazon bark anole Amazon green anole Common forest anole Allobates zaparo Tropiduridae Tropidurus (Plica) plica Collared tree runner Olive Tree Runner Hylidae Forest whiptail Golden tegu Agalychnis craspedopus cf. Sphaenorhychus carneus Dendropsophus bifurcus Snakes Colubridae Atractus elaps Earth snake sp3 Earth snake Earth snake sp2 Olive whipsnake Rusty whipsnake Musarana Tawny forest racer Ornate snail-eating snake Big-headed snail-eating snake Common glossy racer Banded south american water snake Spotted water snake Common blunt-headed tree snake Amazon blunt-headed tree snake Common cat-eyed snake Brown parrot snake White-lipped swamp snake Common swamp snake Yellow-headed calico snake Black-headed calico snake Atractus major Atractus occiptoalbus Chironius fuscus Chironius scurruls Clelia clelia clelia Dendriphidion dendrophis Dipsas catesbyi Dipsas indica Drymoluber dichrous Helicops angulatus Helicops leopardinus Imantodes cenchoa Imantodes lentiferus Leptodeira annulata annulata Leptophis cupreus Liophis miliaris chrysostomus Liophis reginae Oxyrhopus formosus Oxyrhopus melanogenys Dendropsophus marmorata Dendropsophus punctata punctata Dendropsophus rhodopeplus Dendropsophus triangulium Hemiphractus aff. scutatus Hyla lanciformis Hylomantis buckleyi Hylomantis hulli Hypsiboas boans Hypsiboas calcarata Hypsiboas geographica Osteocephalus cabrerai Osteocephalus cf. deridens Osteocephalus planiceps Phrynohyas resinifictrix Phyllomedusa tarsius Phyllomedusa tomopterna Phyllomedusa vaillanti Scinax garbei Scinax rubra Trachycephalus venulosus Flat-headed bromeliad Tree Frog Amazonian Milk Tree Frog Warty Monkey Frog Barred Monkey Frog White-lined monkey Tree Frog Fringe lipped Tree Frog Two-striped Tree Frog Common milk Tree Frog Gladiator Tree Frog Convict Tree Frog Map Tree Frog Forest bromeliad Tree Frog Epipedobates ingeri Tropidurus (plica) umbra ochrocollaris Teiidae Kentropyx pelviceps Tupinambis teguixin Dendrobates duellmani Colostethus bocagei Duellmans Poison Frog Ruby Poison Frog Tree Frogs Amazon Leaf Frog Pygmy hatchet-faced Tree Frog Upper Amazon Tree Frog Neotropical Marbled Tree Frog Common Polkadot Tree Frog Red Striped Tree Frog Variable Clown Tree Frog Casque-headed Tree Frog Rocket Tree Frog Allobates insperatus Sanguine Poison Frog Allobates bilinguis Dendrobatidae Anolis nitens scypheus Anolis ortonii Anolis punctata Anolis trachyderma Cochranella resplendens Cochranella midas Centrolene sp. Centrolenidae Dendrophryniscus Rhinella dapsilis Bufo marinus Arthrosaura reticulata reticulata Cercosaura ocellata Leposoma parietale Neusticurus ecpleopus Prionodactylus oshaughnessyi Bufonidae Plethodontidae Lungless Salamanders Caecilia aff. tentaculata English name Lizards Gekkonidae Gonatodes concinnatus Gonatodes humeralis Pseudogonatodes guianensis

English name

Reptiles Scientific name

Amphibians Scientific name

Marsupialia

Didelphidae

Opossums

Chironectes minimus

Water opossum

Marmosa lepida

Micoureus demerarae

Little rufous mouse opossum Long-furred woolly mouse opossum

Philander sp.

Four-eyed opossum

Xenarthra

Megalonychidae

Subfamily Choloepinae

Two-toes sloths

Choloepus diadactylus

Southern two-toed sloth

Dasypodidae

Armadillos

Cabassous unicinctus

Southern naked-tailed armadillo

Dasypus novemcinctus

Nine-banded armadillo

Chiroptera

Carollinae

Short-tailed Fruit bats

Carollia brevicauda

Carollia castanea

Carollia perspicullatus

Short-tailed fruit bat

Rhinophylla pumilio

Little fruit bat

Desmodontinae

Vampire bats

Desmodus rotundus

Common vampire bat

Emballonuridae

Sac-winged/Sheath-tailed Bats

Saccopteryx bilineata

White-lined bat

Glossophaginae

Long tongued bats

Glossophaga soricina

Long tongued bat

Lonchophylla robusta

Spear-nosed long-tongued bat

Stenodermatidae

Neotropical Fruit bats

Artibeus jamaicensis

Large fruit-eating bat

Artibeus lituratus

Large fruit bat

Artibeus obscurus

Large fruit bat

Artibeus planirostus

Large fruit bat

Chiroderma villosum

Big-eyed bat

Sturrnia lilium

Hairy-legged bat

Sturnria oporaphilum

Yellow shouldered fruit bat

Uroderma pilobatum

Tent-making bat

Vampyrodes caraccioli

Great Stripe-faced bat

Phyllostominae

Spear-nosed Bats

Macrophyllum macrophyllum

Long-legged bat

Mimon crenulatum

Hairy-nosed bat

Phyllostomus hastatus

Spear-nosed bat

Vespertilionidae

Vespertilionid Bats

Myotis nigricans

Little brown bat

Primates

Monkeys

Callitrichidae

Saguinus nigricollis

Black-mantle tamarin

© Global Vision International – 2007

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Cebidae Oxyrhopus petola digitalus Banded calico snake Common bird snake Giant bird snake Red-vine snake Tiger rat snake Black-headed snake Common false viper Giant false viper Green-striped vine snake Prystimantis malkini Malkini's Rain Frog Marti's rainfrog Black-banded Robber Frog Carabaya Rain Frog Broad-headed Rain Frog Variable Rain Frog Painted Forest Toadlet Cocha Chirping Frog Rose-sided Jungle Frog Moustached Jungle Frog Wagneris Jungle Frog Painted Antnest Frog Common big headed Rain Frog Dark-blotched Whistling Frog True Frogs Neotropical Green Frog Viperidae Bothriopsis taeniata Speckeled forest pit viper Fer-de-lance Prystimantis sulcatus Boidae Boa constrictor imperator Common boa constrictor Amazon tree boa Peruvian rainbow boa Leptodactylus mystaceus Elapidae Micurus hemprichii ortonii Orange-ringed coral snake Langsdorffs coral snake Eastern ribbon coral snake Central amazon coral snake Aquatic coral snake Ranidae Crocodilians Alligatoridae Paleosuchus trigonatus Smooth-fronted caiman Rana palmipes Vanzolinius discodactylus Oreobates quixensis Lithodytes lineatus Micrurus langsdorfii Micrurus lemniscatus Micrurus spixii spixxi Micurus surinamensis surinamensis Leptodactylus wagneri Leptodactylus rhodomystax Leptodactylus knudseni Leptodactylus andreae Corallus enydris enydris Epicrates cenchria gaigei Engystomops petersi Prystimantis variabilis Prystimantis ockendeni Bothrops atrox Prystimantis nigrovittatus Prystimantis martiae Prystimantis lanthanites Striped-throated Rain Frog Prystimantis conspicillatus Chirping Robber Frog Prystimantis altamazonicus Amazonian Rain Frog Prystimantis aff peruvianus Peruvian Rain Frog Prystimantis acuminatus Green Rain Frog Edalorhina perezi Eyelashed Forest Frog Leptodactylidae Rain Frogs Bassler's Sheep Frog Pseustes poecilonotus polylepis Pseustes sulphureus Sphlophus compressus Spilotes pullatus Tantilla melanocephala melanocephala Xenedon rabdocephalus Xenedon severos Xenoxybelis argenteus Chiasmocleis bassleri

Colubridae cont.

Microhylidae

Sheep Frogs

Allouatta seniculus

Red howler monkey

Aotus sp.

Night monkey

Cebus albifrons

White-fronted capuchin

Carnivora

Carnivores

Procyonidae

Raccoon

Nasua nasua

South american coati

Potos flavus

Kinkajou

Mustelidae

Weasel

Eira barbara

Tayra

Lontra longicaudis

Neotropical otter

Felidae

Cat

Herpailurus yaguarundi

Jaguarundi

Leopardus pardalis

Ocelot

Puma concolor

Puma

Artidactyla

Peccaries and Deer

Mazama americana

Red brocket deer

Tayassu tajacu

Collared peccary

Echimyidae

Dactylomys dactylinus

Amazon bamboo rat

Proechimys semispinosus

Spiny rat

Sciuridae

Squirrels

Sciurus sp.

Amazon red squirrel

Sciurillus pusillus

Neotropical pygmy squirrel

Large Cavylike Rodents

Agouti paca

Paca

Coendou bicolor

Bi-color spined porcupine

Dasyprocta fuliginosa

Black agouti

Hydrochaeirs hydrochaeirs

Capybara

Myoprocta pratti

Green acouchy

© Global Vision International – 2007

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Butterflies Scientific name Nymphalinae Anartia amathae Anartia jatrophae Baeotus deucalion Bia actorion Biblis hyperia Callicore cynosura Callizona acesta Catonephele acontius Catonephele esite Catonephele numilia Colobura dirce Consul fabius Dynamine aerata Dynamine arthemisia Dynamine athemon Dynamine gisella Eresia pelonia Eunica alpais Eunica amelio Eunica volumna Hamadryas albicornus Hamadryas arinome Hamadryas chloe Hamadryas feronia Hamadryas laodamia Historis odius Historis acheronta Hypna clytemnestra Marpesia berania Marpesia petreus Metamorpha elisa Metamorpha sulpitia Nessaea batesii Nessaea hewitsoni Nica flavilla Panacea prola Paulogramma peristera Phyciodes plagiata Phrrhogyra amphiro Pyrrhogyra crameri Pyrrhogyra cuparina Pyrrhogyra otolais Siproeta stelenes Smyrna blomfildia Temenis laothoe Tigridia acesta Pieridae Appias drusilla Dismorphia pinthous Eurema cf xanthochlora Peirhybris lorena Phoebis rurina Brassolinae Caligo eurilochus Caligo idomeneus idomeneides Caligo illioneus Caligo placidiamus Catoblepia generosa Catoblepia sorannus Catoblepia xanthus Opsiphanes invirae Morphinae Morpho achilles Morpho deidamia Morpho helenor Morpho menelaus Morpho peleides Morpho polycarmes

Butterflies Scientific name Papilionidae Battus belus varus Battus polydamas Papilio androgeus Papilio thoas cyniras Parides aeneas bolivar Parides lysander Parides pizarro Parides sesostris Satyrinae Chloreuptychia herseis Cithaerias aurora Cithaerias pireta Euptychia binoculata Euptychia ocypete Haetera macleania Haetera piera Hermeuptychia hermes Magneuptychia libye Magneuptychia ocnus Pareuptychia ocirrhoe Pierella astyoche Pierella hortona Pierella lamia Pierella lena Pierella lucia Taygetis mermeria Limenitidinae Doxocopa agathina Doxocopa griseldis Doxocopa laurentia Doxocopa linda Heliconinae Dryas iulia Eueides eunice Heliconius erato Heliconius melponmene Heliconius numata Heliconius sara Heliconius xanthocles Laparus doris Philaethria dido Ithomiinae Aeria eurimidea Ceratinia tutia Eueides isabella Eueides lampeto Eueides lybia Hyposcada anchiala Hyposcada illinissa Hypothyris anastasia Hypothyris fluonia Ithomia amarilla Ithomia salapia Mechanitis lysimnia Mechanitis mazaeus Mechanitis messenoides Methona confusa psamathe Oleria gunilla Oleria ilerdina Oleria tigilla Tithorea harmonia

Butterflies Scientific name Charaxinae Agrias claudina Archaeoprepona amphimachus Archaeoprepona demophon Archaeoprepona demophon muson Archaeoprepona licomedes Memphis arachne Memphis oenomaus Memphis philomena Prepona eugenes Prepona dexamenus Prepona laertes Prepona pheridamas Zaretis itys Lycaenidae Thecla aetolius Thecla mavors

Riodinidae Amarynthis meneria Ancyluris endaemon Ancyluris aulestes Ancyluris etias Calospila cilissa Calospila emylius Calydna venusta Emesis fatinella Emesis lucinda Emesis ocypore Eurybia dardus Eurybia halimede Eurybia unxia Hyphilaria parthenis Isapis agyrtus Ithomiola floralis Lasaia pseudomeris Leucochimona vestalis Livendula violacea Lyropteryx appolonia Mesophthalma idotea Mesosemia loruhama Mesosemia latizonata Napaea heteroea Nymphidium mantus Nymphidium lysimon Nymphidium balbinus Nymphidium caricae Nymphidium chione Pandemos pasiphae Perophtalma lasus Pirasica tyriotes Rhetus arcius Rhetus periander Sarota chrysus Sarota spicata Setabis gelasine Stalachtis phaedusa Synargis orestessa Limenitidiae Adelpha amazona Adelpha cocala Adelpha cytherea Adelpha erotia Adelpha iphicleola Adelpha iphiclus Adelpha lerna Adelpha melona Adelpha mesentina Adelpha messana Adelpha naxia Adelpha thoasa Adelpha viola Adelpha ximena

© Global Vision International – 2007

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