Global Vision International, XXXXX Report Series No.

00X ISSN XXXX-XXXX (Print)

GVI Ecuador
Rainforest Conservation and Community Development

Phase Report 091 January – March 2009

GVI Ecuador/Rainforest Conservation and Community Development Expedition Report 091 ` Submitted in whole to Global Vision International Yachana Foundation Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales (MECN)

Produced by Chris Beirne – Field Staff Jonathan Escolar – Field Manager Matt Iles - Field Staff And

Katherine Allinson Rebecca Andrews Robert Bakewell Chelsea Bryson Sophie Cousins Cornelia Eberl Max Hardman Sarah Henley Amy Hill Tom Keating Duncan Lowery

Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member

Sima Lowery Victoria Morgan-Hill Dan Neilson Mark Obeney James Pitt Alan Rea Rachel Reisinger Glen Skelton Jeanette Theuner Catherine Toops Natalie White

Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member

Edited by Karina Berg – Country Director GVI Ecuador/Rainforest Conservation and Community Development Address: Casilla Postal 17-07-8832 Quito, Ecuador Email: ecuador@gvi.co.uk Web page: http://www.gvi.co.uk and http://www.gviusa.com

Executive Summary
This report documents the work of Global Vision International’s (GVI) Rainforest Conservation and Community Development Expedition in Ecuador’s Amazon region and run in partnership with the Yachana Foundation, based at the Yachana Reserve in the province of Napo. During the first phase of 2009 from 09 January to 20 March 2009, GVI has:

Added one bird species, the Fulvous-crested Tanager (Tachyphonus surinamus), to the reserve species list.

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Conducted seven mist netting sessions, providing 37 captures of 13 different species. Made incidental sightings of twelve species of mammal, two of which, the Water Rat (Nectomys squamipes) and the Common Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), were new to the reserve species list.

Continued collecting swab samples from amphibians within the reserve in order to assess the status of the epidemic fungal disease Batrachochytrium dendrobatitus, which provided one positive result out of 68 samples.

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Encountered 98 reptile and amphibian individuals through transect surveys. Conducted a brief investigation into GVI’s impact on the environment surrounding base camp, by assessing amphibian and Benthic invertebrate populations.

Conducted preliminary investigations for a new project assessing dung beetle communities present in the reserve.

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Added seven invertebrate species to the reserve species list. Continued with English lessons for local school children in Puerto Rico. Accommodated three graduate students from the Yachana Technical High School throughout the phase as part of a National Scholarship Program.

Welcomed two current students from the Yachana Technical High School to join the expedition for a three week period, in order to exchange language skills, knowledge and experience.

Sent four volunteers to spend a week at the Yachana Technical High School to partake in the school’s practical classes, and to provide drama workshops to enhance English language skills and environmental education lessons for the students.

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Visited a local student’s community and farm, in addition to running two field trips; one to Yasuní National Park and the second to Sumak Allpa, an island reserve and school run by an indigenous conservationist.

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Table of Contents
1 Introduction 2 Avian Research 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Methods 2.3 Results 2.4 Discussion 2.5 Conclusion 3 Mammal Incidentals 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Methods 3.3 Results 3.4 Discussion 3.5 Conclusion 4 Herpetological Research 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Determining the presence of Chytrid fungus 4.3 Pump Stream amphibian activity 4.4 Conclusion 5 Benthic Invertebrates and Stream Health 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Methods 5.3 Results 5.4 Discussion 5.5 Conclusion 6 Dung Beetle Research 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Methods 6.3 Results 6.4 Discussion 6.5 Conclusion 7 Invertebrate Incidentals 8 BTEC Advanced Certificate in Supervision of Biological Surveys 9 Community Development Projects 9.1 Colegio Técnio Yachana (Yachana Technical College) 9.2 National Scholarship Program 9.3 TEFL at Puerto Rico 10 Future Expedition Aims 11 References Appendix A – Dung Beetle Preliminary Research Results Appendix B – Species List Appendix C – Trail Map of Yachana Reserve 7 9 9 9 10 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 16 21 22 22 23 25 27 28 28 28 29 29 30 31 31 32 32 32 33 33 33 35 39 40 46

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List of Figures
Figure 4.1 Bar chart to show how many of each species were found in the lower Pump Stream region and which methods were successful in finding them. Figure 4.2 Bar chart to show how many of each species were found in the upper Pump Stream region and which methods were successful in finding them. Figure 6.1 EPT scores for upper and lower Pump Stream on each sample date and mean score. Figure 6.2 Sensitivity index scores for upper and lower Pump Stream on each sample date and mean score.

List of Tables
Table 4.1: Sampling effort for Pump Stream surveys. Table 5.1 EPT Index scores. Table 5.2 Sensitivity Index scores. Table 5.3 Water quality results for upper Pump Stream on EPT and Sensitivity indices. Table 5.4 Water quality results for lower Pump Stream on EPT and Sensitivity indices.

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1

Introduction

The Rainforest Conservation and Community Development expedition operated by Global Vision International (GVI) is located at the Yachana Reserve in the Napo province in the Amazonian region of Ecuador. Yachana Reserve is a legally-designated Bosque Protector (Protected Forest), consisting of approximately 2000 hectares of predominantly primary lowland rainforest, as well as abandoned plantations, grassland, riparian forest, regenerating forest and a road. The Yachana Reserve is owned and managed by the Yachana Foundation. The Yachana Foundation is dedicated to finding sustainable solutions to the problems facing the Ecuadorian Amazon region. The foundation works with indigenous communities to improve education, develop community-based medical care, establish sustainable agricultural practices, provide environmentally sustainable economic alternatives, and conserve the rainforest. The Yachana Reserve is the result of the foundation’s efforts to purchase blocks of land for the purpose of conservation. The Yachana Foundation is developing a long-term plan of sustainable management for the reserve according to International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) protected forest guidelines. One of GVI’s main roles at the reserve is to provide support, where deemed necessary, for the development of the reserve’s Management Plan. This includes reserve boundary determination, baseline biodiversity assessments, visitor information support, and research centre development.

GVI also works closely with the Yachana Technical High School, a unique educational facility for students from the surrounding region. The High School provides local students with meaningful education and pratical experience in sustainable agriculture, animal husbandry, conservation, eco-tourism, and small business operations. As part of their experiential learning program, students use the Yachana Reserve and GVI’s presence as a valuable educational tool. As part of their conservation curriculum, the students visit the reserve to receive hands on training in some of GVI’s research methodology, as well as familiarization with ecological systems. On a rotational basis, students spend time at the reserve where they participate in the current research activities, and receive conversational English classes from GVI volunteers. 7

GVI additionally conducts Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) classes at the nearby community of Puerto Rico, twice a week. Classes are prepared the day before and last for one hour. Groups of two or three volunteers conduct the classes, covering topics such as introductions, animals, colours and expressions. This allows GVI to integrate with the local community, whilst giving volunteers the opportunity to experience first hand involvement in community development and TEFL. This is also currently laying the foundation to introduce environmental education programmes to the Puerto Rico community in the future. GVI also works with local research institutions. The Ecuadorian Museum for Natural Sciences (Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, MECN) provides technical assistance with field research and project development. The museum is a government research institution which houses information and conducts research on the presence and distribution of floral and faunal species throughout Ecuador. GVI has a permit through the MECN for the collection of specimens of reptiles, amphibians, small mammals and butterflies, and a permit for catching bats and birds. The data and specimens collected by GVI are being lodged with the MECN in order to make this information nationally and internationally available, and to provide verification of our field data. MECN technicians are continuously invited to The Yachana Reserve to conduct in-field training and education for GVI and Yachana students, as well as explore research opportunities otherwise unavailable. With Pontifica Universidad Catolica Ecuador (PUCE), GVI has established a collaboration involving the amphibian projects within the reserve. PUCE has requested data from the reserve to aid in their ongoing conservation efforts towards the amphibians of the neotropics. A major goal for GVI’s research is to shift focus from identifying species in the reserve to collecting data for management concerns and publication. In collaboration with all local and international partners, GVI has shifted its research focus to answering ecological questions related to conservation. With this focus in mind, several key goals have been identified:

Cataloguing species diversity in the Yachana Reserve in relation to regional diversity.

Conducting long-term biological and conservation based research projects. 8

Monitoring of biological integrity within the Yachana Reserve and the immediate surrounding area.

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Publication of research findings in primary scientific literature. Solicitation of visiting researchers and academic collaborators. Identification of regional or bio-geographic endemic species or sub-species. Identification of species that are included within IUCN or Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) appendices.

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Identification of keystone species important for ecosystem function. Identification of new species, sub-species, and range extensions. Identification of charismatic species that can be valuable for the promotion of The Yachana Reserve to visitors.

In order to achieve these goals, volunteers are trained by GVI personnel to conduct research on behalf of the local partners in support of their ongoing work. This report summarises the scientific research and community-based programmes conducted during the ten-week expedition from 09 January 2009 to 20 March 2009, at The Yachana Reserve.

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Avian Research

2.1 Introduction GVI continues to monitor the avian communities within the reserve and to identify additional bird species using the following three survey techniques: local bird surveys, mist netting, and incidental sightings. 2.2 Methods 2.2.1 Local Bird Surveys This is a qualitative survey method conducted in the more open areas within the Yachana Reserve to facilitate visual surveying of birds. Trails that pass through secondary forest, plantation forest, open grassland, riparian forest, and along the road are surveyed during the morning (0600 - 0900 h) and afternoon (1600 – 1830 h) for bird activity. The date, start and end time, species heard or seen, number, and sex if known are recorded. 9

2.2.2 Mist Netting In order to collect individuals for identification and banding, mist netting is conducted. Nets are opened during peak bird activity in the morning and afternoon. Mist netting allows GVI to band individuals and identify less conspicuous species otherwise impossible to observe with other methodology. Conducted consistently over time, data can be collected that identifies migratory species, and shifts in diversity and abundance. Two areas of the reserve are currently sampled - an open area of secondary forest adjacent to grassland on the Ridge Trail, and a stretch of primary forest located on the Bloop Trail. 2.2.3 Incidental Data Recordings Species that were encountered outside of point count and local bird surveys are also recorded if they were believed to be rare or not previously identified to be within the reserve (e.g. nocturnal species during satellite camps). Incidental sightings can take place at any time, during any of the other survey or project work within the reserve. At the time of each incidence the time, location, date, species, and any other key characteristics or notes are taken and later entered into a database back in camp. 2.3 Results 2.3.1 Local Bird Surveys Four local bird surveys were conducted at two different sites (Ridge Lookouts 1 & 2). 51 individuals were counted in total, ranging from 9 to 21 individuals per survey. The most common of these was the Yellow-rumped Cacique (Cacicus cela). Several species of tanagers were also sighted throughout all surveys, including the Magpie Tanager (Cissopis leveriana), Masked Crimson Tanager (Ramphocelus nigrogularis), Scarlet Tanager (Piranaga olivacea) and the Thick-billed Euphonia (Euphonia laniirostris). 2.3.2 Mist Netting Seven mist netting sessions were conducted at two different sights (Ridge Trail and upper Bloop Trail) during the expedition. In total 37 individuals and 13 different species were captured over the seven sessions. Of these birds, two had been previously banded by GVI, a Blue-crowned Manakin (Lepidothrix coronata) and a White-necked Thrush (Turdus albicollis), both of which were recaptured in the primary rainforest where they were initially banded. Twelve bands were issued to suitable birds i.e. those that were not too stressed by capture and possessed a tarsus suitably sized to hold a band. 10

2.3.3 Incidental Sightings Incidental sightings added one new species to the Yachana species list this phase. This was the Fulvous-crested Tanager (Tachyphonus surinamus), observed on the Ficus Trail. 2.4 Discussion 2.4.1 Local Bird Surveys The data collected from local bird surveys is useful for documenting and identifying which species are common and which are rare within the reserve, providing valuable information to the Yachana Foundation and the Yachana Lodge, which is useful for the direction of the Management Plan, and the lodge’s tour guides and its visitors. Local bird surveys conducted throughout the year also reveal patterns of migratory species. 2.4.2 Mist Netting The mist netting surveys were particularly valuable for catching and identifying species otherwise difficult to detect or identify simply through observational methods. It is intended that mist netting will form a large part of future avian research in the reserve, with the intention of banding more individuals. This will provide interesting long-term data for recaptured individuals. 2.4.3 Incidental Sightings Incidental sightings added one new species to the list this phase, emphasizing the need to stay alert at all times when out in the forest and the need to use alternative methods (e.g. mist netting) for surveying secretive or rare bird species (Allen et al. 2004; Lacher et al. 2004). 2.5 Conclusion Avian survey work continues to focus on adding species to the reserve checklist. It is recommended, however, that future expeditions focus on using the data more constructively and use statistical indices to measure species richness and diversity. More mist netting should also be conducted as these surveys are particularly productive at revealing less detectable species. A new project is also currently being planned, with the aim of assessing the bird assemblages that are found along the road, which runs through the Yachana Reserve. As tourists staying at the Yachana Lodge use the road in order to view wildlife, particularly birds, it would be useful to have a catalogue of the species 11

associated with it and how the assemblages vary along the road. This may also provide some scientific insight into how the road affects the ecology of the bird population found within the reserve.

3 Mammal Incidentals
3.1 Introduction GVI continues to document mammal species in the reserve predominately through incidental sightings of the mammals and tracks they leave. The recording of mammals is confined to incidental recordings due to the fact that the occurrence of conspicuous diurnal mammals is low. Excessive mammal concentrated surveying is not sufficiently productive. However, long walks in the forest have been continued to increase chances of seeing diurnal and nocturnal mammals. 3.2 Methods All mammal species that were encountered outside of specific mammal surveys were recorded. Incidental sightings can take place at any time during any of the other survey or project work within the reserve, or during long walks into the forest. At the time of each incidence the time, location, date, species, and any other key characteristics or notes are taken and later entered into a database on return to camp. 3.3 Results During this phase, twelve mammal species were sighted incidentally, during other survey work or walks into the forest. Of these, two were new species to the Yachana species list. Incidental sightings included regular encounters with Amazon Red Squirrel (Sciurus sp.), Black Agouti (Dasyprocta fuliginosa), Black-mantled Tamarins (Saguinus nigricollis), Kinkajou (Potos flavus), Night monkeys (Aotus sp.) and Water Opossum (Chironectes minimus). Sightings were also made of Amazon Bamboo Rat (Dactylomys dactylinus), Four-eyed Opossum (Philander sp.), Neotropical Otter (Lontra longicaudis) and a Southern two-toed Sloth (Choloepus diadactylus). The Water Rat (Nectomys squamipes), encountered several times along the reserve’s main stream, and the Common Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), observed in camp, were new additions to the reserve species list.

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3.4 Discussion The elusiveness of many mammal species means they are often difficult to survey and particularly in the Yachana Reserve as their occurrence is less than regular. Incidental sightings alone have provided us with twelve of the 48 mammal species (19 of which are bats from past bat netting sessions). Two of the incidental sightings were new to the Yachana species list. 3.5 Conclusion Incidental sightings continue to provide the bulk of mammal encounters in the reserve. For this reason, night walks and long forays into the forest should be conducted regularly. These should ideally be performed in small groups in order to minimise disturbance and increase the likelihood of sightings. The two new additions to the species list are likely to have been resident in the reserve prior to these sightings, however have probably passed by unnoticed due to their ability to move around the forest inconspicuously. camp. This,

therefore, demonstrates the need to maintain vigilance at all time in the forest and around

4 Herpetological Research
4.1 Introduction Herpetological research on the Yachana Reserve has recently focused on two areas. The first is to continue long term monitoring of the abundance and diversity of amphibians and lizards in the reserve. To date this work has contributed to a catalogue of species found within the reserve, with 61 species of amphibians idientified thus far, and the possible future production a field guide of the amphibians in the Yachana Reserve. The second is to determine the prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatitus (commonly referred to as Chytrid fungus) within amphibian populations at the Yachana Reserve. The Chytrid fungus is the cause of the disease chytridiomycosis; one of the biggest threats facing amphibian populations worldwide - particularly in the tropics (Daszak et al., 1999). Chytrid fungus has only become a focus of global amphibian research and conservation in the past ten years, and the exact pathology of the disease is still unknown. This survey data also contributes to research at Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador (PUCE), who are studying at the presence and effects of the chytrid fungus on a national scale. This phase also saw the 13

introduction of a new project, an assessment of the effects of the Yachana Reserve/GVI base camp on the amphibian population assemblage of the surrounding environment. 4.2 Determining the Presence of Chytrid Fungus 4.2.1 Introduction Chytrid fungus has been attributed to extinctions and severe declines of amphibian populations worldwide (Menendez-Guerrero et al. 2006). In the phase 083, a swab sample from a rain frog on Stream 1, Prystimantis malkini, tested positive for the Chytrid fungus. However, the swab samples from phase 084 were found to be unanimously negative. Despite the apparent low abundance of Chytrid fungus within the reserve, it is important to continue swabbing individuals to determine whether or not the fungus is spreading. 4.2.2 Methods Sampling Techniques Amphibians and reptiles are surveyed by conducting stream walks and transects. These walks are conducted both during the day and at night in an attempt to target amphibians and reptiles with different activity patterns. Groups search along the banks and surrounding vegetation including overhanging branches and vines, which provide excellent cover for many species of tree frog. The time, position along the stream, and microhabitat are recorded for each specimen located. The individual’s snout to vent length (svl) is also noted, in addition to any physical characteristics that may aid the identification of unknown species.

Transects are similar to stream surveys except they are conducted through a segment of forest. Again, each transect is surveyed in the morning and early evening during peak amphibian and reptile activity, by thoroughly searching in the leaf litter and the surrounding vegetation. Information recorded is the same as for the stream surveys. During both surveys, unfamiliar species of amphibians are taken back to camp for further examination and, where applicable, samples are taken to send to PUCE in order to determine the status of the B. dendrobatitus pathogen.

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Sampling of Chytrid Fungus In accordance with PUCE, captured amphibians are swabbed for PCR analysis in order to detect the presence of B. dendrobatitus. This involves swabbing the individual 30 times across the belly and a further 15 times on each leg, focusing on the groin region where the fungus is thought to be concentrated. Amphibians are then euthanized using the anaesthetic Lidocaine. A tissue sample is then taken from the frogs left thigh and an additional sample is taken from the liver. PUCE then uses these tissue samples to add to gene database of the amphibians of Latin America. This is part of a wider project linked to work at PUCE involving the captive breeding of rare and endemic species with the aim of reintroductions. Incidental Sightings Species that were encountered outside of stream and forest transect surveys were also swabbed and recorded using the same protocols as on stream and forest transects. A record was also kept of all incidental reptile sightings, including their location and microhabitat. 4.2.3 Results Chytrid Fungus Testing Fifteen stream and forest transects were conducted during the phase, which resulted in the encounter of 72 amphibian individuals, 68 of which where swabbed to detect the presence or absence of the Chytrid fungus. The swabs were sent to PUCE for analysis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). One sample was found to be positive for Chytrid: Prystimantis ockendeni complex, on the upper Pump Stream. All other samples were found to be negative for the Chytrid fungus. Species Encountered During this phase, 98 reptile and amphibian individuals were encountered comprising of 30 species. Of the 72 amphibians located, 70% belonged to six common species; Ameerega billinguis, Engostymops petersi, Oreobates quixensis, Osteocephalus cabrerai complex, Prystimantis malkini and Prystimantis ockendeni complex. Other sightings of note were Prystimantis nigrovitattus, Hypsiboas boans and Lithodytes lineatus.

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4.2.4 Discussion Chytrid Fungus Despite recording a positive result for the Chytrid fungus test during this phase, the low prevalence of the fungus means it should not be a research priority for subsequent phases. However, it will be important to repeat swabbing for Chytrid fungus in six months as the threat of a Chytrid fungus epidemic cannot be ruled out in the future. Species Encountered Transect walks and incidental sightings are still providing valuable data for both the long term monitoring project and the field guide. Any future projects should include these methods in their data collection. 4.3 Pump Stream Amphibian Survey 4.3.1 Introduction Amphibians are vital indicators of environmental quality as they are very susceptible to changes in the environment (Gardner et al, 2007; Lyaruu et al, 2000). According to Gardner et al (2007) it is essential that we learn more about the patterns of diversity and habitat preferences of individual species. This data can then be used to monitor population declines and inform effective conservation strategies, particularly where amphibians act as indicators of change in their environment. The GVI base camp is situated in close proximity to a small stream running close to the camp in which water is regularly pumped out for use in daily camp life. Used water is then allowed to drain back into the local surrounding environment. Amphibians are particularly sensitive to changes in water quality and have frequently been described as excellent indicators of water quality and the stability of the surrounding environment. The impact that the GVI base camp has on the surrounding environment was assessed to determine any adverse affects that may be avoided in future work related to daily camp living. The principal goal of the study is to investigate the amphibian assemblages along the Pump Stream close to the GVI base camp. Surveys were conducted in areas before water is pumped from the stream and then further down stream after it has been pumped out. Through conducting Benthic surveys along the stream we can also gain a good 16

assessment of water quality related to invertebrate assemblages and detect any differences in stream water quality in the locations pre and post the pumping of water for base camp, in accordance with amphibian data. 4.3.2 Methods Two main methods were implemented to assess the presence of different amphibian species along the lower and upper regions of the Pump Stream; pitfall trapping and visual encounter surveys. Pitfall Trapping At two sites, one on the upper and one on the lower Pump Stream, leaf-litter amphibian and lizards were sampled with pitfalls traps and drift fences. At each sample site, two 20litre plastic buckets were installed parallel to the stream edge. The buckets were connected via an eight meter long, 50 cm high plastic baffle. The lower Pump Stream was sampled from the 02 March 2009 to the 09 March 2009 and the upper Pump Stream was sampled from the 09 March 2009 to the 16 March 2009. This resulted in 28-nights of sampling effort in each stream. All amphibians captured were collected to remove the possibility of subsequent recapture at a later date. Visual Encounter Surveys Nocturnal and crepuscular visual encounter surveys were employed along 120m stream transects in the upper and lower Pump Stream. Where possible both transects were surveyed on the same day to minimise the effect of weather variation on the amphibian assemblage. The surveys took place the 23 February 2009 and the 12 March 2009. The surveys took place at times that have been found to coincide with peak frog activity: crepuscular surveys took place between 0530 h and 0830 h, and nocturnal surveys took place between 1930 h and 2230 h. Transects were searched at a rate of roughly one meter per minute. All amphibians found within 3m of each side of the stream were captured and collected thus removing the possibility that they would be recaptured on a later survey. To minimise the effect of team size and transect duration variability, a measure of effort was calculated by determining the number of search minutes per transect (see Table 4.1). These values were calculated by multiplying the search time for each transect by the number of observers on each transect. 17

23-Feb-09 25-Feb-09 03-Mar-09 06-Mar-09 09-Mar-09 12-Mar-09 Total Effort

Sampling Effort (sampling time x num. Observers) Upper Lower 896 833 575 642 810 400 575 565 420 2793 2923

Table 4.1: Sampling effort for Pump Stream surveys.

Surveying rainforest habitat is a privileged opportunity; however there is the potential to negatively affect the ecosystem by passing infections between sites and species. Good practices will be strictly adhered to so as to ensure transmissions are not possible. This will be achieved by systematic cleaning of tools, equipment, and sterile gloves will be changed when handling different individuals. All volunteers were fully briefed regarding precautionary measures and effective surveying techniques. Benthic Surveying Benthic surveys were conducted in both the upper and lower transects of the Pump Stream to assess water quality based upon invertebrate species found within the stream. The methods and details of this work can be viewed in the corresponding Benthic survey report of the GVI Yachana Reserve Pump Stream. Weather Data Weather data was collected using a Sun-Moon Radio Controlled Weather Station at the GVI base camp. Temperature, pressure, humidity, cloud cover and rainfall data was recorded at 0600 h, 1200 h and 1800 h daily. 4.3.3 Results In total, three species of amphibian were found in the lower Pump Stream region (see Table 4.2) whilst in the upper Pump Stream region we found seven species (see Table 4.3). Eight different species were found in total. Rhinella marinus was the only species unique to the lower Pump Stream area, whilst Allobates bilinguis, Hypnodactylus nigrovittatus, Pristimantis martiae and Pristimantis acuminatus were all species found only 18

within the upper areas of the Pump Stream. Pristimantis ockendeni and Bolitoglossa peruviana were the two species that were common to both the upper and lower Pump Stream transects.

In total 18 individuals were caught throughout the sampling period, six of which were caught within the pitfall traps and the other twelve being caught on visual encounter surveys. Five of the nine P. ockendeni caught were captured in pitfall traps with only a single H. nigrovittatus being the only other pitfall capture. No significant correlation was found between the number of amphibians encountered and; temperature (R2=0.229), rainfall (R2=0.036) or pressure (R2=0.010).

6 Pitfall Trapping Visual Encounter Survey 5

Number of Individuals Encountered

4

3

2

1

0 Prystimantis okendeni Bolitoglossa peruviana Species Encountered on Lower Pump Stream Rhinella marinus

Figure 4.1 Bar chart to show the number of each species found in the lower Pump Stream region and which methods were successful in finding them.

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6

Pitfall Trapping Visual Encounter Survey
5

4
Number of Individuals Encountered

3

2

1

0 Prystimantis okendeni Allobates biliguis Bolitoglossa peruviana Hypnodactylus nigrovittatus Pristimantis martiae Oreobates quixensis Pristimantis acuminatus

Species Encountered on Upper Pump Stream

Figure 4.2 Bar chart to show the number of each species found in the upper Pump Stream region and which methods were successful in finding them.

4.3.4 Discussion The results from this phase do appear to indicate that there is a greater species richness of amphibians to be found within the upper areas of the Pump Stream than the lower areas. This may indicate that the GVI base camp is having an adverse effect on the quality of the lower area by frequently pumping out water and allowing used water to drain off into the area. For this reason we suggest that this work be repeated throughout future GVI phases in order to increase the robustness of the data collected here, enough to carry out statistical analysis. The number of individuals actually caught within the study was very small to be able to conduct any reliable statistical analysis. It may be a factor to be taken into consideration for collection and removal of water for the GVI base camp in the near future. At this stage we can not simply assess the differences in species found due to any effects of the GVI camp. It could simply be that there are differences in microhabitats at these different transects of the stream. Vegetation mapping could be used to investigate this in a future surveying period on these sites.

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The study was too short term to see if any significant relationships between weather variables and amphibian abundances were present. This data was recorded throughout the study however must be continued for any comparison in other research phases to see if any trends between weather data sets and amphibian abundances become apparent in the future. The project was conducted not only to assess the effects of GVI camp on the Pump Stream but also to trial sampling methods on amphibians within the area for their suitability and effectiveness. This was very useful in allowing us to determine the effectiveness of both methods. The pitfall traps are labour intensive to prepare and install but once up are very quick and easy to check. They seemed particularly useful in detecting P. ockendeni which is a leaf litter egg laying species. The visual encounter surveys are particularly important in detecting a variety of different species which otherwise would not have been found. Overall it can be seen that a combination of methods is essential and will be used within our future GVI surveys. 4.4 Conclusion It would appear that the reserve has a relatively low background rate of Chytrid fungus infection. Due to this, it is unlikely that we will resume swabbing for the Chytrid fungus within the next six months. It will be vital to recommence swabbing in the future, however it is not a research priority at the current time.

The investigation into the effects of camp water removal and waste release on the amphibian assemblages within the upper and lower Pump Stream offered encouraging preliminary results, with the caveat that we did not collect sufficient data to perform reliable statistical tests. The methods will be repeated in future phases with the aim to increase the robustness of our preliminary conclusion. The data collected this phase will also be used to build a one year long term study into amphibian assemblages of the Yachana Reserve. The project will be focused on pitfall trapping, as we have found it to be a reliable and successful method. It also has the advantage of negating observer bias effects due to varying group sizes and experience levels. However, the visual encounter method of amphibian and reptile diction has also

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proved valuable to sample a larger subset of the species found on the reserve. Any future project will certainly employ a combination of these two methods.

5

Benthic Invertebrates and Stream Health

5.1 Introduction GVI has been using the research station at the Yachana Reserve for approximately three years. The infrastructure of the site unfortunately lacks a proper grey water system, and instead waste water from sinks and showers is drained into a large wooden-sided subterranean tank where it gradually seeps into an adjacent waterway. Chemicals used on the site and therefore released into the ecosystem include bleach, detergent, DEET, laundry soap and other personal hygiene products. Fecal matter from toilets is contained in a similar tank and therefore must also slowly leach into the surrounding soil and waterways.

Two study sites were investigated that represented two different treatments: one predischarge (sample site two), that is not impacted by wastewater from GVI base camp and a second post-discharge (sample site one), located downstream from GVI and therefore exposed to any effluents. It is therefore expected that sample site two, the upper Pump Stream, will have higher water quality as it is not impacted by effluents discharged by GVI base camp. Sampling Benthic invertebrate communities is a reliable and economical way of determining water quality (Feinsinger, 2001). Each invertebrate family has differing sensitivities to contaminants, and their presence, or absence, as well as abundance can be used in different analytical indices to give an indication of water quality. Over 50 different methods have been developed for the biological assessment of water quality in temperate countries (Cota et. al., 2002) and some have been adapted for use in tropical regions and their associated biota. The analyses selected for this investigation are discussed fully in subsequent sections.

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5.2 Methods 5.2.1 Site Selection Two study sites were selected, each representing a different treatment. One site was located before waste water from the base camp entered the water system (upper Pump Stream) and the other site selected in an area downstream to where waste water was discharged (lower Pump Stream). Study sites were selected based on the presence of areas of fast flowing shallow water over rocky substrate known as riffles. Valid study sites contained riffles of both suitable size and abundance to allow for the collection of 30 samples to be taken from the selected study area. 5.2.2 Collection Samples were collected by employing a modified kick sampling technique (Sutherland, 1996) with the use of a Surber net (300mm x 300mm). The Surber net was placed upon the substrate of identified riffles with the net positioned downstream, allowing for the collection of dislodged individuals. The area of each sample was defined by the frame of the Surber net resting on the substrate, and all loose stones within it were hand scrubbed before being placed outside of the sample area and the remaining substrate disturbed thoroughly by hand to a depth of one inch. After the sample was completed any removed stones were placed back in their original position so as to minimize disturbance. After each sample, the contents of the Surber net were emptied into a large bucket with the net being thoroughly flushed with stream water and then visually checked for remaining specimens. Collected materials from the sample were divided into trays and searched for specimens with any individuals found being removed with tweezers and placed in a killing jar containing 70% alcohol. A separate killing jar was used for casecrafting Trichoptera to aid in the identification process. The above process was repeated until 15 samples from each survey site were collected. A further 15 samples were taken at later dates from both the upper and lower Pump Stream. 5.2.3 Identification Collected specimens were taken back to the field base and using a taxonomic key (Reyes & Peralbo, 2001) identified to family level before being tallied. Identification was performed using 10x hand lenses. 23

5.2.4 Analyses Tallied results were then used in conjunction with both Ephemeroptera-PlecopteraTrichoptera (EPT) index and an individual sensitivity index (Reyes & Peralbo, 2001) to determine water quality for the selected study areas. The EPT index measures the percentage of individuals from the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera against the total number of individuals in each sample. These three orders are used as they are particularly sensitive to changes in water quality. The higher the percentage on this index, the higher the quality of the water. Table 5.1 shows how the scores relate to water quality.

EPT Total 75 - 100% 50 - 74% 25 - 49% 0 - 24%

Water quality Very Good Good Moderate Poor

Table 5.1 EPT Index scores.

This index works on the presence or absence of different orders, sub orders or families that each have a different degree of sensitivity to contaminants. Each group is assigned a value of 1 - 10, the groups given a rating of 10 being the most sensitive and the ones rated 1, least sensitive. The score from the groups present is added up and higher scores indicate a higher quality of water. Table 5.2 shows the values given to each group. Sensitive Species Total 101 - 145+ 61 – 100 36 – 60 16 – 35 0 – 15
Table 5.2 Sensitivity Index scores.

Water quality Very Good Good Moderate Poor Very Poor

24

5.3 Results 5.3.1 Upper Pump Stream The upper Pump Stream was sampled on two occasions, the 25 February 2009 and the 04 March 2009. Each time, 15 Surber net samples were collected from different locations. Table 5.3 shows the results for water quality from each sample day and a mean value for both on the EPT and Sensitivity indices. In all three the water quality is rated as moderate by the EPT index and very good on the sensitivity index. EPT index score 43.35 34.81 39.08 Sensitivity index score 130 109 119.5

Sample 25 Feb 2009 04 Mar 2009 Mean

Table 5.3 Water quality results for upper Pump Stream on EPT and Sensitivity indices.

5.3.2 Lower Pump Stream The lower Pump Stream was also sampled on two occasions, the 23 Feburary 2009 and the 17 March 2009. Again, 15 Surber net samples were taken from individual locations on each sampling date. Table 5.4 shows the results for water quality from each sample day and a mean value for both indices. According to the EPT index water quality is poor in the sample taken on the 23 February 2009, and moderate on both the the 17 March 2009 and on average. On the Sensitivity index it is rated as very good for all three samples. EPT index score 22.95 29.35 26.15 Sensitivity index score 123 143 133

Sample 23 Feb 2009 17 Mar 2009 Mean

Table 5.4 Water quality results for lower Pump Stream on EPT and Sensitivity indices.

5.3.3 EPT Combined Results Results from the EPT index support the null hypothesis that water quality is higher in the upper Pump Stream. Figure 5.1 shows the EPT scores from the upper and lower Pump Stream on both sample dates and a mean score of the two.

25

Figure 6.1 EPT scores for upper and lower Pump Stream on each sample date and mean score.

5.3.4 Sensitivity Combined Results The results from the Sensitivity index analysis do not support the null hypothesis. Instead they indicate that on average water quality is marginally higher in the lower Pump Stream. Figure 5.2 shows the Sensitivity index scores from the upper and lower Pump Stream on both sample dates and their mean.

Figure 6.2 Sensitivity index scores for upper and lower Pump Stream on each sample date and mean score.

26

5.4 Discussion The major surprise presented by the results of this study is that the EPT index and Sensitivity index gave contradicting results for all the samples collected. The values obtained from the EPT index fit the null hypothesis that water quality is higher on the upper Pump Stream, although the sample size is too small to test for a significant difference statistically. With the Sensitivity index however, water quality was on average higher in the lower Pump Stream, although again, the sample size was not large enough to test for significant differences. The reason for this disparity is that the analyses used are unsuitable for the Neotropical region, despite the fact that these were taken from a source designed for use in Ecuador by Ecuadorians (Reyes & Peralbo, 2001). The use of the EPT index gives unreliable results because the number of families of stoneflies (Plecoptera) drops off to just one, Perlidae, the closer one is to the equator (Feinsinger, 2001). After further research and consultation a more suitable analysis was found for the Neotropics, the BMWP/Col index (Contreras et. al., 2008) that uses more relevant families as sensitivity indicators. The use of the Sensitivity index is also questionable because unlike the EPT index it does not take abundance into account. This could affect the accuracy of results as some samples yield substantially more individuals than others. For example, the 17 March 2009 sample consisted of 620 individual invertebrates, whereas the other three samples had a mean of 173 individuals. It should be noted however, that the BMWP/Col index also ignores abundance and works solely on presence or absence of families. The identification key provided by Reyes and Peralbo (2001) also limited the accuracy of the study as a large proportion of the invertebrates collected could only be identified as ‘other’. A new key (Contreras, et. al., 2008) that enables identification of a greater number of families will be used for future studies. The use of the Surber net to sample riffles was effective, although other studies have found kick nets to yield better and more cost-effective results (Buss & Borges, 2008). A combination of the two methods would enable sampling of both riffles and pools and may give a more complete sample of benthic invertebrate assemblages.

27

Some other physical factors that may affect the lower Pump Stream and potentially skew results have been noted. First, a landslide has blocked the flow of the stream in one area creating a large, still body of water. The flow then returns to normal but the 17 March 2009 sample was taken downstream from this site as there were not enough suitable riffles higher up the waterway. A road is also in close proximity to a stretch of the lower Pump Stream, and although the level of traffic is low, runoff could potentially have an impact on water quality. Another factor that must be addressed in future studies is non-use of weather data in correlation with these data. Precipitation levels can have a significant effect on Benthic macro invertebrate communities, as many may be washed away after periods of heavy rainfall. There was particularly heavy rainfall prior to surveying the upper Pump Stream on the 04 March 2009 that may have washed away a significant number of the invertebrates present. 5.5 Conclusion The main conclusion drawn from this investigation is that the analyses used were unreliable at giving an accurate reflection of water quality as they are unsuited to Neotropical freshwater habitats. The sample sites should be re-sampled and analysed using the BMWP/Col index and a more detailed identification key, and deeper water areas should be sampled using kick nets in addition to the sampling of riffles with Surber nets. Moreover, a greater number of samples should be taken to allow a statistical analysis of the samples to be carried out. Ideally this should be conducted at regular interval throughout the year to look for seasonal variations and these data should be correlated with weather data. As the water quality results are unreliable we are unable to make recommendations regarding changes to GVI practice and infrastructure.

6 Dung Beetle Research
6.1 Introduction Dung beetles (Order Coleoptera, Family Scarabaeidae) are broadly recognised as a good indicator of habitat quality (Spector & Forsyth, 1998). They are a useful target group for 28

investigating spatial and temporal patterns of biodiversity. By burying dung on which adults and larvae feed upon, dung beetles act as secondary seed dispersers, accelerate nutrient recycling rates, increase plant yield and regulate vertebrate parasites (Mittal, 1993; Andresen, 1999). Significant relationships have been found to exist between the numbers of mammals at study sites, and the richness of species and individuals of dung beetles (Estrada et al., 1998). At the Yachana Reserve there is a unique opportunity to investigate variation in habitat type and fragmentation upon dung beetle communities. The reserve consists of a patchwork of varying habitat types, comprising approximately 2000 hectares of predominantly primary lowland rainforest, in addition to abandoned plantations, grassland, riparian forest, regenerating forest and a road. The reserve is also a fragment of primary lowland rainforest in the context of the larger landscape, as it borders an agricultural matrix on two sides and the Napo River on another. 6.2 Methods Trials were conducted in order to establish a standardised method for long-term assessment of the dung beetle community at the Yachana Reserve. A standard method for trapping dung beetles using baited pitfall traps, recommended by the Scarabaeinae Research Network, was used throughout all trials. This involved placing two cups, one inside the other, in the ground with the upper lip flush with the ground, so as to allow beetles to fall into the trap. Two cups are used so that the upper cup may be removed and emptied easily. Traps were baited with 20g of fresh mammal dung suspended 5cm above the trap in a muslin net. A leaf was placed above this to cover the trap in order to protect the bait from rain. The cup may or may not be filled a third of the way with a preservative liquid, used to kill captured dung beetles and prevent them from escaping. Ten traps were placed at any one time in each site, along trails in the forest. Nine separate trials were then conducted, in three different locations. Each used various combinations of different trap exposure time, bait type and trap spacing. 6.3 Results The preliminary results table is shown in Appendix A. Captured individuals from each of the ten traps were pooled to provide a total ‘catch’ for each sampling period. Catches varied from between 4 and 298 individuals, although eight of the nine trials harboured 55 29

or less individuals. Species richness of catches varied from one to nine. Species numbers are all estimates at this stage due to a lack of identification resources. Species were found which belong to the Genera Canthon, Eurysternus and Deltochilum, amongst others that have as yet been determined. One catch alone harboured 298 individuals and an estimated nine species. 6.4 Discussion One of the first findings of preliminary trials was that the removal of all leaf litter from within a close proximity of the trap made the pitfall more successful. In the second trial, it appeared that traps placed on or near slopes were more successful, whereas a later trial suggested that traps going down a steep slope harboured a lesser yield. These differences are likely to be due to variation in wind direction or bait detection by beetles, and would require further investigation to determine the effect of gradients on trap effectiveness.

There appeared to be no major differences in the effectiveness of bait type (horse or cattle, both readily available from nearby agricultural land). However, bait freshness was important, and it is recommended that dung bait should be as fresh as possible when used. If agricultural dung freshness is questionable, then human dung may be used. The single trap that was baited using a dead frog yielded a species not seen in any of the other catches, perhaps indicating that this beetle was a carrion specific feeder. In two of the three trials performed within the secondary forest matrix (Ridge Trail), there were markedly less individual beetles and beetle species within the catch. Moreover, in the final trial it was noted that most of the traps located in grassland, which is found in this secondary matrix, attracted solely one species of beetle. Trap spacing created apparently little difference in catch yield. Trials conducted using salt water as a preservative were found to leave specimens smelling horrible, whereas solely using water and a tiny amount of detergent (to increase surface tension of the water and therefore prevent beetles from escaping) worked suitably in killing beetles without specimen quality deteriorating. Using no preservative, in an attempt to undertake live capture, did not reduce total catch numbers significantly. Trap exposure time remained constant for all trials in primary forest, but was reduced for those within the secondary matrix, in order to maximise trap efficiency during live capture. 30

6.5 Conclusion These preliminary trials have provided some insight into how best to undertake dung beetle surveys, whilst helping to finalise a pitfall trapping method. Dung bait must be as fresh as possible and, in accordance with recommendations by Larsen and Forsyth (2005), will be replaced every 48 hours. Traps will be checked every 24 hours in future, regardless of whether traps contain preservative or not, in order to maintain consistency throughout live beetle and specimen collection. It is proposed that a future dung beetle project will focus on the differences between the dung beetle communities in the primary rainforest and those in the secondary rainforest matrix. Grid transects will be established in six separate sites (three in primary forest, three in secondary matrix), each consisting of nine traps in a 100m2 area, each trap separated by 50m (Larsen and Forsyth, 2005). Primarily comparisons will be made between the primary forest and the secondary matrix, using a T-test. Within the secondary matrix, comparisons can be made between the varying microhabitats (e.g. grassland, riparian forest and ex-cacao plantation) using an Analysis of Variance test. Similar comparisons can be made between microhabitat in the primary rainforest present in the Yachana Reserve. The project also has scope to contain more ecologically focused study aspects. This may include examining bait preferences in the dung beetle communities, for example, various dung types, dung sizes, vertebrate carrion, invertebrate carrion, rotting fruit and fungus. There is also an opportunity to examine abundance and ranging, through mark and recapture methods.

7 Invertebrate Incidentals
Due to the varying interests of new staff members, more notice has been taken of the wider invertebrate communities present in the Yachana Reserve. During Phase 091, three species of Coleoptera (beetle), one species of Hemiptera (true bug), one species of Grylloptera (crickets and katydids) and two species of Araneae (spider) were added to the reserve species list through incidental sightings alone. This interest will undoubtedly continue and more species are sure to be added in the future as more specific identification resources are sought. There is also the opportunity to perform surveys on 31

occasional basis, for the interest of volunteers, such as the use of light traps for moths and other insects.

8 BTEC Advanced Certificate in Supervision of Biological Surveys
Volunteers joining for a five or ten week expedition, have the opportunity to complete a BTEC course in the Supervision of Biological Surveys, equivalent to an A-level qualification. The course consists of five units, ranging in content from Target Species Identification, Survey Techniques, to learning about Expedition Logistics, and Community Development. This course is a hands-on, applied course that builds on the training and knowledge that all volunteers receive during the initial training week. Over the course of the ten weeks eight volunteers were certified. During this expedition, volunteers chose an area of specialization, and conducted their assignments based on their interests. In this way, volunteers with special abilities were able to improve our data collection.

9 Community Development Projects
9.1 Colegio Técnico Yachana (Yachana Technical High School) A large component of the expedition consists of exchange with students from the Yachana High School. During this expedition four volunteers and one staff member attended the high school for a week. They took part in the high school’s practical sessions alongside the current students. The sessions in which they participated included animal husbandry, ecotourism, agronomy and environmental education. The volunteers also provided several English classes instead of the students’ regular English lessons, including drama workshops and environmental education. The week proved to be hugely enjoyable and beneficial to all involved. GVI will look to make this a permanent component of future phases. Two current students from the Yachana Technical High School also joined the expedition for three weeks. They participated in all aspects of the expedition and additionally took part in language exchange sessions with volunteers and staff.

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9.2 National Scholarship Program Graduates from the Yachana Technical High School are offered a place on the expedition as part of a National Scholarship Program. Each week, two or three students become integral members of the expedition during which time they are involved in all aspects of the expedition, including survey work, camp duty and satellite camps. Conversation sessions for language exchange are also arranged between the students and volunteers or staff members. During phase 091, GVI hosted three students throughout the expedition. The students are of great assistance during field work, sharing their knowledge about local uses for plants as well as helping with the scheduled work. They also shared their culture, teaching traditional basket-weaving, traditional achiote-painting, providing indigenous language (Quichua and Chachi) and cooking lessons (e.g. empanadas), teaching the uses of medicinal plants, and demonstrating how to build several animal traps.

9.3 TEFL at Puerto Rico Formal English classes were provided by volunteers and staff for one hour on Tuesdays and Thursdays, to school children of the neighbouring community of Puerto Rico. The relationship between GVI and Puerto Rico is continuing to grow and strengthen, and GVI is looking to provide environmental education programmes to the community in the future as part of the conservation work carried out here. Classes this phase focused on numbers, body parts, expressions, animal habitats, colours, geography and mathematics. As the nearest discrete community to the reserve, GVI’s relationship with the community is an important component of the expedition providing benefit to both its residents and GVI volunteers.

10 Future Expedition Aims
The biodiversity programme will be continued, opportunistically re-surveying sites, and expanding the survey areas within the reserve. The direction of the avian research program will refocus upon mist netting and a new project examining the avifauna associated with the road running through the reserve. Herpetological research will become more focused and will include the widespread use of pitfall traps throughout the reserve.

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The impact of GVI upon the natural landscape in which it inhabits will continue to be monitored through a variety of methods. A thorough examination of the dung beetle communities found in the reserve will commence, using grid transects. The BTEC course will continue to be offered and run for all interested volunteers. GVI will continue to co-ordinate with the Yachana Technical High School, continuing with various exchanges. TEFL at Puerto Rico will continue with a more defined focus for each age group and an overall aim enabling the students to compose full sentences.

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11 References
Allen, T., Ginkbeiner, S.L., and Johnson, D.H., 2004. Comparison of detection rates of breeding marsh birds in passive and playback surveys at Lacreek National Wildlife refuge, South Dakota. Waterbirds 27, 277-281. Andresen, E., 1999. Seed dispersal by monkeys and the fate of dispersed seeds in the Peruvian rain forest. Biotropica 31: 145-158. Buss D. F. & Borges E. L., 2008. ‘Application of Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP) for Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Brazil: Comparison between Sampling Techniques and Mesh Sizes.’ Neotropical Entomology 37 (3): 288-295. Contreras J., Roldán G., Arango A. & Álvarez L.F., 2008. ‘Evaluación de la calidad del agua de las microcuencas La Laucha, La Lejía y La Rastrojera, utilizando los macroinvertebrados como bioindicadores, Municipio de Durania, Departamento Norte de Santander, Colombia.’ Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. 32 (123): 171-193. Cota, L., Goulart, M., Moreno, P. & Callisto, M. ‘Rapid assessment of river water quality using an adapted BMWP index: a practical tool to evaluate ecosystem health’. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 28: 1-4. Daszak, P., Berger, L., Cunningham, A.A., Hyatt, A.D., Green, D.E., Speare. R., 1999. Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 5, 735-48. Estradsa, A., Coates-Estrada, R., Dadda, A.A. & Cammarano, P., 1998. Dung and carrion beetles in tropical rainforest fragments and agricultural habitats at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Journal of Tropical Ecology 14: 577-593. Feinsinger, P., 2001. Designing Field Studies for Biodiversity Conservation. Island Press, Washington. Gardner T.A., Fitzherbert E.B., Drewes R.C., Howell K.M., Caro T., 2007. Spatial and temporal patterns of abundance and diversity of an east African leaf litter amphibian fauna. Biotropica 39(1):105-113.

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Heyer W.R., Donnelly M.A., McDiarmid R.W., Hayek L.A.C., Foster M.S., 1994. Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity - Standard Methods for Amphibians. Karr, J.R., 1999. Defining and measuring river health. Freshwater Biology 41: 221-234. Kroodsma, D.E., 1984. Songs of the Alder Flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum) and Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) are innate. Auk 101, 13-24. Lacher, T., 2004. Tropical Ecology, Assessment, and Monitoring (TEAM) Initiative: Avian Monitoring Protocol version 3. Conservation International, Washington, DC. www.teaminitiative.org. Larsen, T.H., Forsyth, A., 2005. Trap spacing and transect design for dung beetle biodiversity studies. Biotropica 37: 322-325. Lyaruu H.V., Eliapenda S., Backeus I., 2000. Floristic, structural and seed bank diversity of a dry Afromontane forest at Mafai, central Tanzania. Biodiversity and Conservation 9(2): 241-263. Menendez-Guerrero P.A., Ron S.R. and Graham C.H., 2006. Predicting the Distribution and Spread of Pathogens to Amphibians. Amphibian Conservation 11:127-128. Mittal, I.C., 1993. Natural manuring and soil conditioning by dung beetles. Tropical Ecology 34: 150-159. Ridgely, R.S., Greenfield, P.J., 2001. The birds of Ecuador. Volume I. Status, Distribution, and Taxonomy. Cornell University Press, New York. Scarabaeinae Research Network - http://216.73.243.70/scarabnet/ Spector, S., Forsyth, A.B., 1998. Indicator taxa for biodiversity assessment in the vanishing tropics. Conservation Biology Series 1: 181-209. Sutherland, W.J., 1996. Ecological census techniques: a handbook. University press, Cambridge. Weldon, C., du Preez, L.H., Hyatt, A.D., Muller, R., Speare, R., 2004. Origin of the amphibian chytrid fungus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10 (Issue 12). 36

References used in the field to identify species: Bartlett, R.D., Bartlett, P., 2003. Reptiles and amphibians of the Amazon. An ecotourist’s guide. University Press of Florida, Gainsville. Bollino, M., Onore G., 2001. Butterflies & moths of Ecuador. Papilionidae. Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito. Carrera, C., Fierro, K., 2001. Manual de monitoreo los macroinvertebrados acuáticos. EcoCiencia, Quito. Carrillo, E., Aldás, S., Altamirano, M., Ayala, F., Cisneros, D. Endara, A., Márquez, C., Morales, M., Nogales, F, Salvador, P., Torres, M.L., Valencia, J., Villamarín, F., Yánez, M., Zárate, P., 2005. Lista roja de los reptiles del Ecuador. Novum Milenium, Quito. de la Torre, S., 2000. Primates of Amazonian Ecuador. SIMBIOE, Quito. DeVries, P.J., 1997. The butterflies of Costa Rica and their natural history. Volume II: Riodinidae. Princeton University Press, Princeton. Duellman, W.E., 1978. The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. The University of Kansas, Lawrence. Eisenberg, J.F., Redford, K.H., 1999. Mammals of the neotropics: The central neotropics. Volume 3 Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Emmons, L.H., Feer, F., 1997. Neotropical rainforest mammals. A field guide, second edition. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Moreno E., M., Silva del P., X., Estévez J., G., Marggraff, I., Marggraff, P., 1997. Mariposas del Ecuador. Occidental Exploration and Production Company, Quito. Neild, A.F.E., 1996. The butterflies of Venezuela. Meridain Publications. London. Ridgely, R.S., Greenfield, P.J., 2001. The birds of Ecuador. Volume I. Status, distribution and taxonomy. Christopher Helm, London. Ridgely, R.S., Greenfield, P.J., 2001. The birds of Ecuador. Volume II. A field guide. Christopher Helm, London. 37 Volume 10a. Familia:

Tirira S., D., 2001. Libro rojo de los mamíferos del Ecuador. SIMBIOE/EcoCiencia, Quito.

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Appendix A

Dung beetle preliminary research results

Location 10 20 5 1

Trap exposure time (hrs) Number of traps Trap spacing (m) Number of beetles caught Estimated number of species Notes Preservative salt water and detergent

Ficus

48

Bait type horse dung

Ficus 10 10 20 298 20 4 2+ 9

48

10 20 28 4+

The most successful traps were near or on slopes and had the least leaf litter around the trap. 14 collected from trap 40m. Dung appeared fresher during this session than following and previous session.

Ficus

48

Ficus

48

horse dung horse dung cattle dung

salt water and detergent salt water and detergent salt water and detergent

Dung very fresh

Bloop

48

cattle dung water and detergent 40 10 41

6

Cattle dung not as fresh as last time. Some dung attacked by ants. Fewer beetles found in traps going down main Bloop slope.

Bloop none none None 10 10 10

48

40 50 50

55 13 6

5 1 2

One trap containing frog carrion yielded new species, perhaps carrion specific feeder. Horse dung was fresher than previously used. Despite no preservative, catch still high and all beetles caught alive.

Ridge

24

Ridge

24

horse dung cattle dung cattle dung

Ridge

24

horse dung None

10

50

28

6

Five traps were placed in grassland while four in forest land along ridge trail. Higher abundance of beetles found along grassland traps however they were mainly the same 'small metallic green' species. More species variation along the forest traps.

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Appendix B – Species List
BIRDS
SCIENTIFIC NAME Tinamiformes Tinamidae Crypturellus bartletti Crypturellus cinereus Crypturellus soui Crypturellus undulatus Crypturellus variegatus Tinamus major Ciconiformes Ardeidae Ardea cocoi Bubulcus ibis Butorides striatus Egretta caerulea Egretta thula Tigrisoma lineatum Cathartidae Cathartes aura Cathartes melambrotus Coragyps atractus Sarcoramphus papa Falconiformes Accipitridae Buteo magnirostris Buteo polyosoma Elanoides forficatus Harpagus bidentatus Ictinia plumbea Leptodon cayanensis Leucopternis melanops Leucopternis albicollis Pandion haliaetus Falconidae Daptrius ater Falco rufigularis Ibycter americanus Herpetotheres cachinnans Micrastur gilvicollis Micrastur semitorquatus Milvago chimachima Galliformes Cracidae Nothocrax urumutum Ortalis guttata Penelope jacquacu Odontophoridae Odontophorus gujanensis Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Actitis macularia Tringa solitaria Recurvirostridae Hoploxypterus cayanus Gruiformes Rallidae Anurolimnatus castaneiceps Aramides cajanea Rails, Gallinules, and Coots Chestnut-headed Crake Gray-necked Wood-Rail Sandpipers, Snipes and Phalaropes Spotted Sandpiper Solitary Sandpiper Plovers and Lapwings Pied Plover Curassows, Guans, and Chachalacas Nocturnal Curassow Speckled Chachalaca Spix's Guan New World Quails Marbled Wood-Quail Kites, Eagles, Hawks, and Osprey Roadside Hawk Variable Hawk Swallow-tailed Kite Double-toothed Kite Plumbeous Kite Gray-headed Kite Black-faced Hawk White Hawk Osprey Caprimulgiformes Falcons and Caracaras Black Caracara Bat Falcon Red-throated Caracara Laughing Falcon Lined Forest-Falcon Collared Forest-Falcon Yellow-headed Caracara Caprimulgidae Nyctidromus albicollis Nyctiphrynus ocellatus Apodiformes Apodidae Chaetura cinereiventris Streptoprocne zonaris Trochilidae Amazilia franciae cyanocollis Amazilia fimbriata Anthracothorax nigricollis Campylopterus largipennis Campylopterus villaviscensio Eriocnemis vestitus Eutoxeres condamini Glaucis hirsuta Heliothryx aurita Phaethornis bourcieri Phaethornis hispidus Phaethornis malaris Thalurania furcata Swifts Grey-rumped Swift White-collared Swift Hummingbirds Andean Emerald Hummingbird Glittering-throated Emerald Black-throated Mango Gray-breasted Sabrewing Napo Sabrewing Glowing Puffleg Buff-tailed Sicklebill Rufous -breasted Hermit Black-eared Fairy Straight-billed Hermit White-bearded Hermit Great-billed Hermit Fork-tailed Woodnymph Nightjars and Nighthawks Pauraque Ocellated Poorwill Nyctibiidae Nyctibius aethereus Nyctibius grandis Nyctibius griseus Potoos Long-tailed Potoo Great Potoo Common Potoo Herons, Bitterns and Egrets Cocoi Heron Cattle Egret Striated Heron Little Blue Heron Snowy Egret Rufescent Tiger-Heron American Vultures Turkey Vulture Greater Yellow-headed Vulture Black Vulture King Vulture Cuculiformes Cuculidae Crotophaga ani Crotophaga major Piaya cayana Piaya melanogaster Opisthocomidae Opisthocomus hoazin Strigiformes Strigidae Glaucidium brasilianum Lophostrix cristata Otus choliba Otus watsonii Pulsatrix perspicillata Typical Owls Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl Crested owl Tropical Screech-Owl Tawny-bellied Screech-owl Spectacled owl Cuckoos and Anis Smooth-billed Ani Greater Ani Squirrel Cockoo Black-bellied Cuckoo Hoatzin Hoatzin Tinamous Bartlett's Tinamou Cinereous Tinamou Little Tinamou Undulated Tinamou Variegated Tinamou Great Tinamou Psittaciformes Psittacidae Amazona farinosa Amazona ochrocephala Ara severa Aratinga leucophthalmus Aratinga weddellii Pionites melanocephala Pionopsitta barrabandi Pionus menstruus Pionus chalcopterus Pyrrhura melanura Parrots and Macaws Mealy Amazon Yellow-crowned Amazon Chestnut-fronted Macaw White-eyed Parakeet Dusky-headed Parakeet Black-headed Parrot Orange-cheeked Parrot Blue-headed Parrot Bronze-winged Parrot Maroon-tailed Parakeet COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME Columbiformes Columbidae Claravis pretiosa Columba plumbea Geotrygon montana Leptotila rufaxilla Pigeons and Doves Blue Ground-Dove Plumbeous Pigeon Ruddy Quail-Dove Gray-fronted Dove COMMON NAME

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BIRDS continued
SCIENTIFIC NAME Trogoniformes Trogonidae Pharomachrus pavoninus Trogon melanurus Trogon viridis Trogon collaris Trogon rufus Trogon violaceus Trogon curucui Coraciiformes Alcedinidae Chloroceryle amazona Chloroceryle americana Chloroceryle inda Megaceryle torquata Momotidae Baryphthengus martii Electron platyrhynchum Momotus momota Tyrannidae Attila spadiceus Conopias cinchoneti Conopias parva Contopus virens Hemitriccus zosterops Legatus leucophaius Leptopogon amaurocephalus Lipaugus vociferans Megarynchus piangu Myiarchus tuberculifer Myiarchus ferox Myiobius barbatus Myiodynastes maculatus Myiodynastes luteiventris Mionectes oleagineus Myiozetetes granadensis Myiozetetes luteiventris Myiozetetes similis Ochthornis littoralis Pachyramphus marginatus Pitangus sulphuratus Rhynchocyclus olivaceus Rhytipterna simplex Terenotriccus erythrurus Tityra cayana Tityra inquisitor Tityra semifasciata Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum Tolmomyias poliocephalus Tolmomyias viridiceps Tyrannulus elatus Tyrannus savana Tyrannus tyrannus Tyrannus melancholicus Zimmerius gracilipes Cotingidae Ampelioides tschudii Cotinga cayana Cotinga maynana Gynnoderus foetidus Iodopleura isabellae Querula purpurata Pipridae Chiroxiphia pareola Chloropipo holochlora Dixiphia pipra Lepidothrix coronata Machaeropterus regulus Manacus manacus Pipra erythrocephala Tyranneutes stolzmanni Kingfishers Amazon Kingfisher Green Kingfisher Green and Rufous Kingfisher Ringed Kingfisher Motmots Rufous Motmot Broad-billed Motmot Blue-crowned Motmot Tyrant Flycatchers Bright-rumped Attila Lemon-browed Flycatcher Yellow-throated Flycatcher Eastern Wood-Pewee White-eyed Tody-tyrant Piratic Flycatcher Sepia-capped Flycatcher Screaming Piha Boat-billed Flycatcher Dusky-capped Flycatcher Short-crested Flycatcher Whiskered Flycatcher Streaked Flycatcher Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher Ochre-bellied Flycatcher Gray-capped Flycatcher Dusky-chested Flycatcher Social Flycatcher Drab Water-Tyrant Black-capped Becard Great Kiskadee Olivaceous Flatbill Grayish Mouner Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher Black-tailed Tityra Black-crowned Tityra Masked Tityra Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher Gray-crowned Flatbill Olive-faced Flatbill Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet Fork-tailed Flycatcher Eastern Kingbird Tropical Kingbird Slender-footed Tyrannulet Cotinga Scaled Fruiteater Spangled Cotinga Plum-throated Cotinga Bare-necked Fruitcrow White-browed Purpletuft Purple throated Fruitcrow Manakins Blue-backed Manakin Green Manakin White-crowned Manakin Blue-crowned Manakin Striped Manakin White-bearded Manakin Golden-headed Manakin Dwarf Tyrant Manakin Trogons and Quetzals Pavonine Quetzal Black-tailed Trogon Amazonian White-tailed Trogon Collared Trogon Black-throated Trogon Amazonian Violaceous Trogon Blue-crowned Trogon Vireonidae Vireo olivaceus Turdidae Catharus ustulatus Turdus albicollis Turdus lawrencii Hirundinidae Atticora fasciata Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Tachycineta albiventer Troglodytidae Campylorhynchus turdinus Donacobius atricapillus Henicorhina leucosticta Microcerculus marginatus Thryothorus coraya Polioptilidae Microbates cinereiventris Parulidae Basileuterus fulvicauda Dendroica fusca Dendroica striata Piciformes Galibulidae Jacamerops aureus Bucconidae Chelidoptera tenebrosa Bucco macrodactylus Malacoptila fusca Monasa flavirostris Monasa morphoeus Monasa nigrifrons Notharchus macrorynchos Capitonidae Capita aurovirens Capita auratus Eubucco bourcierii Ramphastidae Pteroglossus azara Pteroglossus castanotis Pteroglossus inscriptus Pteroglossus pluricinctus Ramphastos vitellinus Ramphastos tucanus Selenidera reinwardtii Picidae Campephilus melanoleucos Picidae cont. Campephilus rubricollis Celeus elegans Celeus flavus Celeus grammicus Chrysoptilus punctigula Dryocopus lineatus Melanerpes cruentatus Picumnus lafresnayi Veniliornis fumigatus Veniliornis passerinus Passeriformes Furnariidae Automolus rubiginosus Philydor pyrrhodes Sclerurus caudacutus Ovenbirds Ruddy Foliage-gleaner Cinammon-rumped Foliage-gleaner Black-tailed Leaftosser Jacamars Great Jacamar Puffbirds Swallow-winged Puffbird Chestnut-capped Puffbird White-chested Puffbird Yellow-billed Nunbird White-fronted Nunbird Black-fronted Nunbird White-necked Puffbird New World Barbets Scarlet-crowned Barbet Gilded Barbet Lemon-throated Barbet Toucans Ivory-billed Aracari Chestnut-eared Aracari Lettered Aracari Many-banded Aracari Channel-billed Toucan White-throated Toucan Golden-collared Toucanet Woodpeckers and Piculets Crimson-crested Woodpecker Woodpeckers and Piculets Red-necked Woodpecker Chestnut Woodpecker Cream-coloured Woodpecker Scale-breasted Woodpecker Spot-breasted Woodpecker Lineated Woodpecker Yellow-tufted Woodpecker Lafresnaye's piculet Smoky-brown Woodpecker Little Woodpecker Vireos, Peppershrikes, and Shrike Vireos Red-eyed Vireo Thrushes Swainson's Thrush White-necked Thrush Lawrence's Thrush Swallows and Martins White-banded Swallow Southern rough-winged swallow White-winged Swallow Wrens Thrush-like Wren Black-capped Donacobius White-breasted Wood-wren Southern Nightingale-Wren Coraya Wren Gnatcatchers and Gnatwrens Tawny-faced Gnatwren New World Warblers Buff-rumped Warbler Blackburnian Warbler Blackpoll Warbler COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME Corvidae Cyanocorax violaceus COMMON NAME Crows, Jays, and Magpies Violaceous Jay

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BIRDS continued
SCIENTIFIC NAME Dendrocolaptidae Dendrexetastes rufigula Dendrocincla fuliginosa Glyphorynchus spirurus Lepidocolaptes albolineatus Xiphorhynchus ocellatus Xiphorhynchus guttatus Xiphorhynchus picus Thamnophilidae Cercomacra cinerascens Chamaeza nobilis Dichrozona cincta Frederickena unduligera Formicarius analis Hersilochmus dugandi Hylophlax naevia Hylophylax poecilinota Hypocnemis cantator Hypocnemis hypoxantha Myrmeciza hyperythra Myrmeciza immaculata Myrmeciza melanoceps Myrmotherula axillaris Myrmotherula hauxwelli Myrmotherula longipennis Myrmotherula ornata Myrmotherula obscura Myrmornis torquata Myrmothera campanisona Phlegopsis erythroptera Phlegopsis nigromaculata Pithys albifrons Thamnomanes ardesiacus Thamnophilus murinus Thamnophilus schistaceus Schistocichla leucostigma COMMON NAME Woodcreepers Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper Plain Brown Woodcreeper Wedge-billed Woodcreeper Lineated Woodcreeper Ocellated Woodcreeper Buff-throated Woodcreeper Straight-billed Woodcreeper Typical Antbirds Gray Antbird Striated Antthrush Banded Antbird Undulated Antshrike Black-faced Antthrush Dugand's Antwren Spot-backed Antbird Scale-backed Antbird Warbling Antbird Yellow-browed Antbird Plumbeous Antbird Sooty Antbird White-shouldered Antbird White-flanked Antwren Plain-throated Antwren Long-winged Antwren Ornate Antwren Short-billed Antwren Wing-banded Antbird Thrush-like Antpitta Reddish-winged Bare-eye Black-spotted Bare-eye White Plumbed Antbird Dusky-throated Antshrike Mouse-colored Antshrike Plain-winged Antshrike Spot-winged Antbird

SCIENTIFIC NAME Icteridae Cacicus cela Cacicus solitarius Clypicterus oseryi Icterus chrysocephalus Icterus croconotus Molothrus oryzivorous Psarocolius angustifrons Psarocolius decumanas Psarocolius viridis

COMMON NAME American Orioles and Blackbirds Yellow-rumped Cacique Solitary Cacique Casqued Oropendola Moriche Oriole Orange-backed Troupial Giant Cowbird Russet-backed Oropendola Crested Oropendola Green Oropendola

MAMMALS
SCIENTIFIC NAME Marsupialia Didelphidae Chironectes minimus Didelphis marsupialis Marmosa lepida Micoureus demerarae Philander sp. Xenarthra Megalonychidae Subfamily Choloepinae Choloepus diadactylus Dasypodidae Cabassous unicinctus Dasypus novemcinctus Chiroptera Carollinae Carollia brevicauda Carollia castanea Carollia perspicullatus Rhinophylla pumilio Desmodontinae Short-tailed fruit bat Little fruit bat Vampire bats Common vampire bat Sac-winged/Sheath-tailed Bats White-lined bat Long tongued bats Long tongued bat Spear-nosed long-tongued bat Neotropical Fruit bats Large fruit-eating bat Large fruit bat Large fruit bat Large fruit bat Big-eyed bat Hairy-legged bat Yellow shouldered fruit bat Tent-making bat Great Stripe-faced bat Spear-nosed Bats Long-legged bat Hairy-nosed bat Spear-nosed bat Vespertilionid Bats Little brown bat Monkeys Black-mantle tamarind Short-tailed Fruit bats Two-toes sloths Southern two-toed sloth Armadillos Southern naked-tailed armadillo Nine-banded armadillo Opossums Water opossum Common opossum Little rufous mouse opossum Long-furred woolly mouse opossum Four-eyed opossum COMMON NAME

Thraupidae Chlorophanes spiza Cissopis leveriana Creugops verticalis Cyanerpes caeruleus Dacnis flaviventer Euphonia laniirostris Euphonia rufiventris Euponia xanthogaster Euphonia chrysopasta Habia rubica Hemithraupis flavicollis Piranaga olivacea Piranaga rubra Ramphocelus carbo Ramphocelus nigrogularis Tachyphonus cristatus Tachyphonus surinamus Tangara callophrys Tangara chilensis Tangara mexicana Tangara schrankii Tangara xanthogastra Tersina viridis Thraupis episcopus Thraupis palmarum Cardinalidae Cyanocompsa cyanoides Saltator grossus Saltator maximus Emberizidae Ammodramus aurifrons Oryzoborus angloensis Fringillidae Carduelis psaltria

Tanagers, Honeycreepers, Bananaquit, and Plushcap Green Honeycreeper Magpie Tanager Rufous-crested Tanager Purple Honeycreeper Yellow-bellied Dacnis Thick-billed Euphonia Rufous-bellied Euphonia Orange-bellied Euphonia White-lored Euphonia Red-crowned Ant-Tanager Yellow-backed Tanager Scarlet Tanager Summer Tanager Silver-beaked Tanager Masked Crimson Tanager Flame-crested Tanager Fulvous-crested Tanager Opal-crowned Tanager Paradise Tanager Turquoise Tanager Green-and-gold Tanager Yellow-bellied Tanager Swallow Tanager Blue-gray Tanager Palm Tanager Saltators, Grosbeaks, and Cardinals Blue-black Grosbeak Slate-colored Grosbeak Buff-throated Saltator

Desmodus rotundus Emballonuridae Saccopteryx bilineata Glossophaginae Glossophaga soricina Lonchophylla robusta Stenodermatidae Artibeus jamaicensis Artibeus lituratus Artibeus obscurus Artibeus planirostus Chiroderma villosum Sturrnia lilium Sturnria oporaphilum Uroderma pilobatum Vampyrodes caraccioli Phyllostominae Macrophyllum macrophyllum Mimon crenulatum Phyllostomus hastatus Vespertilionidae Myotis nigricans Primates Callitrichidae Saguinus nigricollis Cebidae

Emberizine Finches Yellow-browed Sparrow Lesser Seed-Finch Cardueline Finches Lesser Goldfinch

Allouatta seniculus Aotus sp. Cebus albifrons Carnivora Procyonidae Nasua nasua Potos flavus

Red howler monkey Night monkey White-fronted capuchin Carnivores Raccoon South american coati Kinkajou

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MAMMALS continued
SCIENTIFIC NAME Mustelidae Eira Barbara Lontra longicaudis Felidae Herpailurus yaguarundi Leopardus pardalis Puma concolor Artidactyla Mazama Americana Tayassu tajacu Rodentia Echimyidae Dactylomys dactylinus Nectomys squamipes Proechimys semispinosus Sciuridae Sciurus sp. Sciurillus pusillus Amazon bamboo rat Water rat Spiny rat Squirrels Amazon red squirrel Neotropical pygmy squirrel COMMON NAME Weasel Tayra Neotropical otter Cat Jaguarundi Ocelot Puma Peccaries and Deer Red brocket deer Collared peccary Rodents

SCIENTIFIC NAME Drepanoides anomalus Drymouluber dichrous Helicops angulatus Helicops leopardinus Imantodes cenchoa Imantodes lentiferus Leptodeira annulata annulata Leptophis cupreus Liophis miliaris chrysostomus Liophis reginae Oxyrhopus formosus Oxyrhopus melanogenys Oxyrhopus petola digitalus Pseustes poecilonotus polylepis Pseustes sulphureus Sphlophus compressus Spilotes pullatus Tantilla melanocephala melanocephala Xenedon rabdocephalus Xenedon severos Xenoxybelis argenteus Viperidae

COMMON NAME Amazon Egg-eating snake Common glossy racer Banded south american water snake Spotted water snake Common blunt-headed tree snake Amazon blunt-headed tree snake Common cat-eyed snake Brown parrot snake White-lipped swamp snake Common swamp snake Yellow-headed calico snake Black-headed calico snake Banded calico snake Common bird snake Giant bird snake Red-vine snake Tiger rat snake Black-headed snake Common false viper Giant false viper Green-striped vine snake Vipers Speckeled forest pit viper Fer-de-lance Amazon Bushmaster Boas Common boa constrictor Amazon tree boa Peruvian rainbow boa

Large Cavylike Rodents Agouti paca Coendou bicolour Dasyprocta fuliginosa Hydrochaeirs hydrochaeirs Myoprocta pratti Paca Bi-color spined porcupine Black agouti Capybara Green acouchy

Bothriopsis taeniata Bothrops atrox Lachesis muta muta Boidae Boa constrictor imperator Corallus enydris enydris Epicrates cenchria gaigei Elapidae Micurus hemprichii ortonii Micrurus langsdorfii Micrurus lemniscatus Micrurus spixii spixxi Micurus surinamensis surinamensis Crocodilians

REPTILES
SCIENTIFIC NAME Lizards Gekkonidae Gonatodes concinnatus Gonatodes humeralis Pseudogonatodes guianensis Gymnophthalmidae Alopoglossus striventris Arthrosaura reticulata reticulata Cercosaura ocellata Leposoma parietale Neusticurus ecpleopus Prionodactylus argulus Prionodactylus oshaughnessyi Iguanas Hoplocercidae Enyalioides laticeps Polychrotidae Anolis fuscoauratus Anolis nitens scypheus Anolis ortonii Anolis punctata Anolis trachyderma Tropiduridae Tropidurus (Plica) plica Tropidurus (plica) umbra ochrocollaris Teiidae Kentropyx pelviceps Tupinambis teguixin Colubridae Atractus elaps Atractus major Atractus occiptoalbus Chironius fuscus Chironius scurruls Clelia clelia clelia Dendriphidion dendrophis Dipsas catesbyi Dipsas indica Forest whiptail Golden tegu Snakes Earth snake sp3 Earth snake Earth snake sp2 Olive whipsnake Rusty whipsnake Musarana Tawny forest racer Ornate snail-eating snake Big-headed snail-eating snake Collared tree runner Olive Tree Runner Slender anole Yellow-tongued forest anole Amazon bark anole Amazon green anole Common forest anole Amazon forest dragon Common forest lizard Common streamside lizard Elegant-eyed Lizard White-striped eyed lizard Black-bellied forest lizard Reticulated creek lizard Collared forest gecko Bridled forest gecko Amazon pygmy gecko COMMON NAME

Orange-ringed coral snake Langsdorffs coral snake Eastern ribbon coral snake Central amazon coral snake Aquatic coral snake

Alligatoridae Paleosuchus trigonatus Smooth-fronted caiman

AMPHIBIANS
Caecilians Typhlonectidae Caecilia aff. tentaculata Plethodontidae Bolitoglossa peruviana Bufonidae Rhinella marina Rhinella complex margaritifer Rhinella dapsilis Dendrophryniscus Dendrophryniscus minutus Centrolenidae Centrolene sp. Cochranella anetarsia Cochranella midas Cochranella resplendens Dendrobatidae Ameerega bilinguis Ameerega ingeri Ameerega insperatus Ameerega zaparo Colostethus bocagei Colostethus marchesianus Dendrobates duellmani Ucayali Rocket Frog Duellmans Poison Frog Sanguine Poison Frog Ruby Poison Frog Lungless Salamanders Dwarf climbing salamander Toads Cane Toad Crested Forest Toad Sharp-nosed Toad Leaf Toads Orange bellied leaf toad Glass Frogs undescribed Glass Frog Glass Frog Glass Frog Glass Frog Poison Frogs

43

AMPHIBIANS continued
SCIENTIFIC NAME Hylidae Cruziohyla craspedopus cf. Sphaenorhychus carneus Dendropsophus bifurcus Dendropsophus marmorata Dendropsophus rhodopeplus Dendropsophus triangulium Hemiphractus aff. Scutatus Hyla lanciformis Hylomantis buckleyi Hylomantis hulli Hypsiboas boans Hypsiboas calcarata Hypsiboas geographica Hypsiboas punctatus Osteocephalus cabrerai complex Osteocephalus cf. deridens Osteocephalus leprieurii Osteocephalus planiceps Trachycephalus resinifictrix Phyllomedusa tarsius Phyllomedusa tomopterna Phyllomedusa vaillanti Scinax garbei Scinax rubra Trachycephalus venulosus Microhylidae Chiasmocleis bassleri Leptodactylidae Edalorhina perezi Prystimantis acuminatus Prystimantis aff peruvianus Prystimantis altamazonicus Prystimantis conspicillatus Prystimantis lanthanites Prystimantis malkini Prystimantis martiae Prystimantis ockendeni complex Prystimantis sulcatus Prystimantis variabilis Hypnodactylus nigrovittatus Strabomantis sulcatus Engystomops petersi Leptodactylus andreae Leptodactylus knudseni Leptodactylus mystaceus Leptodactylus rhodomystax Leptodactylus wagneri Lithodytes lineatus Oreobates quixensis Vanzolinius discodactylus Ranidae Rana palmipes Moustached Jungle Frog Wagneris Jungle Frog Painted Antnest Frog Common big headed Rain Frog Dark-blotched Whistling Frog True Frogs Neotropical Green Frog Common bromeliad Tree Frog Flat-headed bromeliad Tree Frog Amazonian Milk Tree Frog Warty Monkey Frog Barred Monkey Frog White-lined monkey Tree Frog Fringe lipped Tree Frog Two-striped Tree Frog Common milk Tree Frog Sheep Frogs Bassler's Sheep Frog Rain Frogs Eyelashed Forest Frog Green Rain Frog Peruvian Rain Frog Amazonian Rain Frog Chirping Robber Frog Striped-throated Rain Frog Malkini's Rain Frog Marti's rainfrog Carabaya Rain Frog Broad-headed Rain Frog Variable Rain Frog Black-banded Robber Frog Broad-headed Rain Frog Painted Forest Toadlet Cocha Chirping Frog Rose-sided Jungle Frog Gladiator Tree Frog Convict Tree Frog Map Tree Frog Common Polkadot Tree Frog Forest bromeliad Tree Frog Coleoptera Euchroma gigantea Homoeotelus d'orbignyi Giant Ceiba Borer Pleasing Fungus Beetle Araneae Nephila clavipes Ancylometes terrenus Golden Silk Spider Giant Fishing Spider COMMON NAME Tree Frogs Amazon Leaf Frog Pygmy hatchet-faced Tree Frog Upper Amazon Tree Frog Neotropical Marbled Tree Frog Red Striped Tree Frog Variable Clown Tree Frog Casque-headed Tree Frog Rocket Tree Frog Grylloptera Panacanthus cuspidatus Spiny Devil Katydid Hemiptera Dysodius lunatus Lunate Flatbug

INVERTEBRATES
SCIENTIFIC NAME Moths Thysania Agrippina Urania leilus Rothschildia sp. White Witch Green Urania Window-winged Saturnian COMMON NAME

44

BUTTERFLIES
SCIENTIFIC NAME Nymphalinae Anartia amathae Anartia jatrophae Baeotus deucalion Bia actorion Biblis hyperia Callicore cynosura Callizona acesta Catonephele acontius Catonephele esite Catonephele numilia Colobura dirce Consul fabius Diaethria clymena Dynamine aerata Dynamine arthemisia Dynamine athemon Dynamine gisella Eresia pelonia Eunica alpais Eunica amelio Eunica volumna Hamadryas albicornus Hamadryas arinome Hamadryas chloe Hamadryas feronia Hamadryas laodamia Historis odius Historis acheronta Hypna clytemnestra Marpesia berania Marpesia petreus Metamorpha elisa Metamorpha sulpitia Nessaea batesii Nessaea hewitsoni Nica flavilla Panacea prola Paulogramma peristera Phyciodes plagiata Phrrhogyra amphiro Pyrrhogyra crameri Pyrrhogyra cuparina Pyrrhogyra otolais Siproeta stelenes Smyrna blomfildia Temenis laothoe Tigridia acesta Heliconinae Dryas iulia Pieridae Appias Drusilla Dismorphia pinthous Eurema cf xanthochlora Peirhybris lorena Phoebis rurina Eueides Eunice Heliconius erato Heliconius melponmene Heliconius numata Heliconius sara Heliconius xanthocles Laparus doris Brassolinae Caligo eurilochus Caligo idomeneus idomeneides Caligo illioneus Caligo placidiamus Catoblepia generosa Catoblepia sorannus Catoblepia Xanthus Opsiphanes invirae Philaethria dido Lycaenidae Celmia celmus Janthecla sista Thecla aetolius Thecla mavors Limenitidinae Doxocopa agathina Doxocopa griseldis Doxocopa laurentia Doxocopa linda Satyrinae Chloreuptychia herseis Cithaerias aurora Cithaerias menander Cithaerias pireta Euptychia binoculata Euptychia ocypete Haetera macleania Haetera piera Hermeuptychia hermes Magneuptychia libye Magneuptychia ocnus Pareuptychia ocirrhoe Pierella astyoche Pierella hortona Pierella lamia Pierella lena Pierella lucia Taygetis mermeria Charaxinae Agrias claudina Archaeoprepona amphimachus Archaeoprepona demophon Archaeoprepona demophon muson Archaeoprepona licomedes Memphis arachne Memphis oenomaus Memphis philomena Prepona eugenes Prepona dexamenus Prepona laertes Prepona pheridamas Zaretis isidora Zaretis itys Limenitidiae Adelpha amazona Adelpha cocala Adelpha cytherea Adelpha erotia Adelpha iphicleola Adelpha iphiclus Adelpha lerna Adelpha melona Adelpha mesentina Adelpha messana Adelpha naxia Adelpha panaema Adelpha phrolseola Adelpha thoasa Adelpha viola Adelpha ximena Papilionidae Battus belus varus Battus polydamas Papilio androgeus Papilio thoas cyniras Parides aeneas bolivar Parides Lysander Parides pizarro Parides sesostris Acraeinae Actinote sp. SCIENTIFIC NAME Morphinae Morpho Achilles Morpho deidamia Morpho helenor Morpho Menelaus Morpho peleides Morpho polycarmes SCIENTIFIC NAME Ithomiinae Aeria eurimidea Ceratinia tutia Eueides isabella Eueides lampeto Eueides lybia Hyposcada anchiala Hyposcada illinissa Hypothyris anastasia Hypothyris fluonia Ithomia amarilla Ithomia salapia Mechanitis lysimnia Mechanitis mazaeus Mechanitis messenoides Methona confusa psamathe Methone cecilia Oleria Gunilla Oleria ilerdina Oleria tigilla Tithorea harmonia SCIENTIFIC NAME Riodinidae Amarynthis meneria Ancyluris endaemon Ancyluris aulestes Ancyluris etias Anteros renaldus Calospila cilissa Calospila partholon Calospila emylius Calydna venusta Emesis fatinella Emesis lucinda Emesis ocypore Eurybia dardus Eurybia halimede Eurybia unxia Hyphilaria parthenis Isapis agyrtus Ithomiola floralis Lasaia agesilaus narses Lasaia pseudomeris Leucochimona vestalis Livendula amaris Livendula violacea Lyropteryx appolonia Mesophthalma idotea Mesosemia loruhama Mesosemia latizonata Napaea heteroea Nymphidium mantus Nyphidium nr minuta Nymphidium lysimon Nymphidium balbinus Nymphidium caricae Nymphidium chione Pandemos pasiphae Perophtalma lasus Pirasica tyriotes Rhetus arcius Rhetus periander Sarota chrysus Sarota spicata Setabis gelasine Stalachtis phaedusa Synargis orestessa

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Appendix C

Yachana Reserve, Napo

Columbia

Laguna

Stream 1

Caimencocha
Laguna

Frontier

Green Inferno

Stream 1 Bloop
PC17 Bloop Swamp

Inca Cascada Stream 1

Road

Cascada Stream

Stream 1

Ficus

Agua Santa

Ridge and Road

N
Rio Napo

- Ridge trail

Access Routes

Ridge

GVI Base Camp

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