AP US History Side 1

Chapter 22 Questions

1. There were four main questions/problems that faced America after the Civil War. How would the South rebuild and recover from the destruction of war? Would newly freed blacks be able to successfully integrate themselves into society, now free of their chains? How could the Union reacquire the Southern states peacefully and without angering anyone? Who would direct the process of Reconstruction- the Southern states, the President, or Congress? 2. Even after the Emancipation, many former slaves did not enjoy freedom right away. As the book describes it, "the shackles of bondage were not struck off in a single mighty blow; long suffering blacks often had to wrench free of their chains link by link." This was because many slave owners had a difficult time giving away their "investments" without whom they would have trouble keeping their livelihood going. Some slaves couldn't accept that they were not owned by anyone anymore and refused to leave their masters and the lives they were used to. 3. Searching for long lost family, spouses and children was high on the newly freed blacks priority list after being released. Many freed slaves also married early on, both for personal reasons and a desire to make their children legal heirs to their property. The freed men looked for jobs and work so they could be successful and provide for their families. Joining churches also became very popular and the community of African-American Christians grew quickly. 4. The Freedman's Bureau was headed by Oliver O. Howard, a Union general who was sympathetic towards the blacks. The Bureau was intended to help the newly freed slaves adjust to life outside slavery by offering food, clothing, medical care and education. The Bureau taught an estimated 200,000 former slaves to read and write. 5. The establishment of education systems was one of the Bureau's greatest contributions. Helping the blacks get ahead in life and close the gap between them and white people was a big step in success. Former slaves were much more likely to become contributing members of society once they could read and write, not to mentions the part reading played in allowing these men to avoid the underhanded contracts being solicited by former slave owners. 6. The Bureau had minimal impact at times due to some corruption in the administration of the organization. Much of the land set aside for the blacks never made it into their hands, being taken by the men who were supposed to be helping. Also, some administrators helped blacks sign unjust labor contracts and expel them from towns. Sometimes the African-Americans were signed into a legal contract that virtually put them back in slavery. 7. Andrew Johnson was born into a very impoverished family, and was orphaned early. Although he never attended school, Johnson taught himself to read and his wife taught him writing and arithmetic. He entered politics in Tennessee and was very popular among poor white farmers who disliked the more wealthy planter class. He gained favor in the North by refusing to secede from the Union along with his state.

8. Johnson is described by the book as " a man who did not understand the North, was distrusted by the South" and as "a Democrat who had never been accepted by Republican, a President who had never been elected to office." As if that wasn't enough, the book goes on to say that he was "hotheaded, contentious and stubborn," "the wrong man in the wrong place at the wrong time." 9. Lincoln did not believe the Southern states ever legally seceded, so he was lenient in his terms to allow them to reenter the Union. He wanted 10 percent of voters to pledge allegiance to the Union. 10. Congress proposed the Wade-Davis Bill, which would require 50 percent of voter allegiance in order for a seceded state to be readmitted. They felt Lincolns plan was too lenient and didn't impose enough safeguards towards emancipation as the price of joining the Union again. 11. Lincoln pocket-vetoed the proposal, which revealed deep differences between Congress and the President. 12. The opposing view was that the seceded states had "committed suicide" and did not have the same rights as Union states. They felt that these Southern states could only be acquired as "conquered provinces." 13. The moderate view was that the states should rejoin the Union as quickly and easily as possible, no hard feelings. The radicals wanted the South punished by uprooting their social structure, punishing plantation owners and protection for the newly freed slaves of the South. 14. -agrees with Lincoln about seceded states -recognized the 10 percent governments -issued his own Reconstruction proclamation -ratified the 13th Amendment -sanctioned the Black Codes - destroyed the Freedman's Bureau 15. The Black Codes were "laws designed to regulate the affairs of emancipated blacks" and acted like new sets of chains. The Black Codes mocked freedom by blocking many of the rights that came with freedom, but in a legal way. The Black Codes caused many blacks to sign labor contracts and go into circles of debt that they could not escape, effectively making them slaves once again. Side 2. 1. Congressional Reconstruction was not easy to achieve because it required compromises and general getting along between the North and the South, which was not easy to create. For example, many of the Northern congressmen were very upset when they saw that there were Confederate leaders from the South present, with whom the North were not eager to embrace. The Northerners were alarmed at the strength the South would possess politically, due to the blacks counting as a full person now. The Northerners did not want the Southerners to have much say in the subject of Reconstruction because, after all, who had won the war? 2. The Republicans felt that the Confederates had caused the war by seceding, and that because they lost, they had forfeited their say in Congress, at least, for the time being. Also, many of the Congressmen from the South had been Confederate leaders and should have been tried for treason, not allowed to

vote on the countries direction. These men had been enemies in the United States largest and most deadly war, so it was highly unlikely they would forgive each other. 3. The Civil Rights Bill of 1866 allowed blacks the rights to citizenship and struck at the Black Codes. 4. Civil Rights Bill, it would later be revise into the 14th Amendment. 5. There was controversy between Congress and the President and Johnson was vetoing every new bill that came his way. In order for any new laws to be passed, there had to be a new President, someone who would work with Congress instead of just blocking their acts. 6. Johnson went on a "swing 'round the circle" in order to gain majority favor in his Reconstruction plan. He accused radicals in Congress of planning anti-black riots and murder in the South. He angered easily at hecklers in the crowds and lost much of the dignity of his office, alongside the charges of drunkenness that were brought up again. 7. Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner led the direction of Congressional Reconstruction. 8. Both moderate and radical parties agreed on the necessity to enfranchise black voters 9. It divided the South into 5 districts, each commanded by a Union general and policed by blue-clad soldiers, about twenty thousand of them. 10. They hoped to block any states attempt to change their state constitutions in order to re-enslave the blacks, but the only way to secure black suffrage was to put it into the federal Constitution. They incorporated the 15th Amendment to do just that. 11. Women were left out, and they were angry. 12. Black men began to rise up in their respective political parties, becoming delegates and eventually reaching higher roles. Some notable black Senators include Hiram Revels and Blanche K. Bruce, but there were also 14 black congressmen who were left unnamed. 13. Scalawags were Southerners who were accused of exaggeration and plundering Southern treasuries through their government influences. Carpetbaggers were Northerners who had moved to the South during Reconstruction and were thought, by Southerners, to be taking advantage of the disrepair to take power and wealth for themselves. 14. The Ku Klux Klan wanted to scare black voters and white men who supported the radical plans of Reconstruction. They were jealous of the success blacks had found in legislature and were afraid of the direction the country was headed, so they decided to scare off anyone who might vote for Northern policies. 15. The Force Acts of 1870 were designed to stop the reign of the Klan and stamped out much of the lash law given out by such racial-political groups. 16. Congress said Johnson had violated the Tenure of Office Act and that was there reason for impeachment.

17. The country avoided a bad precedent of tricking a president into cause for impeachment simply because he was not doing a good job, even if he had committed no actual crimes. Johnson had not earned impeachment and it would have been bad to begin a precedent of impeaching any president who did not get along with Congress. 18. Sewards Folly was a reference to William Sewards purchase of Alaska, which many countrymen thought was foolish and a mistake. They did not understand the wealth of natural resources and land that came with Alaska. 19. Reconstruction had many benefits towards blacks, but it may not have helped as much as radicals in the North had hoped. The plans pushed by Republicans slightly helped blacks, and basically extinguished their party from the South for almost 100 years.

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